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CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




3 1924 09r890 685 



THE 



CENTURY DICTIONARY 



AND 



CYCLOPEDIA 



A WORK OF UNIVERSAL REFERENCE 
IN ALL DEPARTMENTS OF KNOWLEDGE 
WITH A NEW ATLAS OF THE WORLD 



VOLUME XI 




PUBLISHED BY 

%\ft Cetiturg Co. 

NEW YORK 



on^c>?3d 



Copyright, 
1889, 1890, 1891, 1894, ]895, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1909, 

By The Century Go. 



All Eights Reserved. 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE ON THE COMPLETED WORK 

The publication of the Atlas,wh)ch is incorporated in the present edition, completed the plan'of The Century 
Dictionary and Cyclopedia. As the Cyclopedia of Names grew out of the Dictionary and supplementetl 
it on its encyclopedic side, so the Atlas grew out of the Cyclopedia, and, serves as an extension of its 
geographical material. Each of these works deals with a different part of the great field of words,— 
common words and names,— while the three, in their unity, constitute a work of reference which prac- 
tically covers the whole of that field. The two new volumes now issued make the material of the Dic- 
tionary and Cyclopedia complete. The total number of words and names defined or otherwise described 
in the completed work is ovpr 500,000. 

The special features of each of these several parts of the book are described in the Prefaces which will 
be found in the fiFst, ninth, tenth, and eleventh volumes. It need only be said that the definitions of the 
common words of the language are for the most part stated encyclopedically, with a vast amount of 
technical, historical, and practical information in addition to a wealth of purely philological material ; that 
the same encyclopedic method is applied to proper names— names of persons, places,' characters in fiction, 
books— ib short, of everything to which a name is given ; and that in the Atlas geographical names, and 
much besides, are exhibited with a completeness and serviceableness seldom equaled. Of the Century Dic- 
tionary and Cyclopedia as a whole, therefore, it may be said that it is in its own field the most com- 
plete presentation of human knowledge— scientific, historical, and practical— that exists. 

iMoreover, the method of distributing this encyclopedic material under a large number of headings, 
v/hich has been followed throughout, makes each item of this great store of information far more acces- 
sible than in works in which a different system is adopted. 

The first edition of The Century Dictionary was completed in 1891, that of the Century Cyclopedia of 
Names in 1894, that of the Atlas in 1897, and that of the two new volumes in 1909. Each of the works 
published at the earlier dates has been subjected to repeated careful revisions, and the results of this scrutiny 
are comprised in this edition. 



THE 

CENTURY DICTIONARY 

SUPPLEMENT 



PREPARED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF 

BENJAMIN E. SMITH, A.M., L.H.D. 

MANAGING EDITOR OF THE CENTURY DICTIONARY 

AND EDITOR OF THE CENTURY CYCLOPEDIA 

OF NAMES AND THE CENTURY ATLAS 




PUBLISHED BY 

Ci)e Century Co* 

NEW YORK 



Copyright, 1909, by The Century Co. 
All Rights Reserved. 



LIST OF COLLABORATORS: 

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF, 
BENJAMIN E. SMITH, A.M., L.H.D. 



CLEVELAND ABBE, A.M., LL.D. 

Professor of Meteorology, United States 
Weather Bureau. 

Meteorology. 
LIBERTY HYDE BAILEY, M.S., LL.D. 

Director of the I^ew York State College 
of Agriculture, Cornell University. 

Horticulture. 
ADOLPH FRANCIS BANDELIER. 

Lecturer on American Archaeology in 
Columbia University. 

South American Ethnology and 
Archceology. 

EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, A.M., Ph.D. 

Director of the Museum of the Pennsylvania 
Museum and School of Industrial Art. 

Ceramics; Glass-making. 



CHARLES BARNARD. 
Tools and Appliances. 

SAMUEL A. BINION, M.D. 
Hebrew Terms. 

FRANZ BOAS, Ph.D: 

Professor of Anthropology in 
Columbia University. 

Anthropology; Ethnology; North 
American Archcsology. 

BERTRAM BORDEN BOLTWOOD, 

Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Physics in 
Yale University. 

Radioactive Substances. 

IRA H. BRAINERD. 
Legal Terms, L — Z. 

WILLIAM KEITH BROOKS, 

Ph.D., LL.D.* 

Professor of Zoology in Johns Hopkins 
University. 

General Biology. 
WALTER CAMP, M.A. 

Member of the Yale University Council. 
Athletics; Foot-ball, and other Out- 
of-door Games {except Golf and 
Cricket) . 

THOMAS JOSEPH CAMPBELL, S.J. 

Lately President of St. John's College. 

Roman Catholic Terms. 
JOHN BATES CLARK, Ph.D., LL.D. 

• Professor of Political Economy in 

Columbia University. 

Political Economy. 
* Deceased. 



EDITORIAL CONTRIBUTORS, 
JOHN MASON CLARKE, Ph.D., LL.D. 

New York State Geologist and Paleon- 
tologist; Director of the State Museum 
and of the Science Division of the De- 
partment of Education of the State of 
New York. 

Paleontology; Stratigraphy. 



FREDERICK VERNON COVILLE, A.B. 

Curator of the United States National 
Herbarium. 

Systematic and Economic Botany. 



STEWART CULIN, 
Numismatics. 



EDWARD SALISBURY DANA, 

A.M., Ph.D. 

Professor of Physics and Curator of 
Mineralogy in Yale University. 

Mineralogy. 



WILLIAM MORRIS DAVIS, 

M.E., ScD., Ph.D, 
Professor of Geology in Harvard 
University. 

Physiography; Glaciology. 



THEODORE LOW DE VINNE, A.M. 
Printing; Printing Machinery. 

CHARLES WRIGHT DODGE, M.S. 

Professor of Biology in the University of 
Rochester. 

Invertebrate Zoology. 



CHARLES AVERY DOREMUS, 

A.M., M.D., Ph.D. 

Lately Acting Professor of Chemistry in 
the College of the City of New York. 

Photography; Chemical Apparatus. 



GUSTAV JOSEPH FIEBEGER, 

Colonel, United States Army. 
Professor of Engineering and the Art 
of War in the United States Military 
Academy. 

Military Engineering and the Art of 
War. 



ROBERT FREDERICK FOSTER. 
Card Games. 



RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D.* 

Keeper of Printed Books of the 
British Museum. 

Astrology. 



FRANKLIN HENRY GIDDINGS, 

Ph.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Sociology in Columbia 
University. 

Sociology. 



WILLIAM HALLOCK, Ph.D. 

Professor of Physics in Columbia 
University. 

Color Photography. 



GEORGE BRUCE HALSTED, Ph.D. 

Professor of Mathematics in the 
Colorado State Normal School. 

Mathematics. 



FRANK E. HOBBS, 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Ordnance Department, 
United States Army. 
Commanding Officer of the Rock Island 
Arsenal. 

Ordnance; Military Arms; Explo- 
sives. 



LELAND OSSIAN HOWARD, 

M.S., Ph.D. 

Chief Entomologist of ths United States 
Department of Agriculture; Honorary 
Curator of the. United States National 
Museum; Consulting Entomologist of 
the United States Public Health and 
Marine Hospital Service. 

Entomology. 



HENRY MARION HOWE, A.M., LL.D. 

Professor of Metallurgy in Columbia 
University. 

Metallurgy. 



CHARLES W. HULST, A.M. 
Legal Terms, A — L. 

FREDERICK REMSEN HUTTON, 

E.M., Ph.D., ScD. 
Emeritus Professor of Mechanical En- 
gineering in Columbia University, and 
lately President of the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers. 

Mechanical Engineering; Machines; 
General Technology. 

JOSEPH PAXON IDDINGS, ScD. 

Geologist in the United States Geological 
Survey. 

Petrology. 

DAVID STARR JORDAN, Ph.D., LL.D. 

President of Leland Stanford Junior 
University. 

Ichthyology. 

JAMES FURMAN KEMP, E.M., ScD. 
Professor of Geology in Columbia 
1^ University. 

Geology. 

HENRY GRATTAN KITTREDGE.* 
Textiles; Textile Materials, Processes, 
and Machinery. 

GEORGE WILLIAM KNOX, D.D.,LL.D. 

Professor of Philosophy and the His- 
tory of Religion in Union Theolog- 
ical Seminary. 

Theology; Ecclesiastical History. 



VI 



LIST OF COLLABORATORS 



GEORGE FREDERICK KUNZ, 

Ph.D., ScD. 

Special Agent in Charge of Precious 
Stones, United States Geological Sur- 
vey and Twelfth United States 
Census. 

Gems; Jewelry. 

OLIN HENRY LANDRETH, 

A.M., C.E., ScD. 

Professor of Engineering in 
Union University. 

Civil Engineering. 

JOHN A. LESTER, Ph.D. 
Cricket. 

FREDERICK L. LEWTON, A.B. 

Assistant Botanist, United States 
Department of Agriculture. 

Economic Botany. 

JOSEPH H. LINNARD. 

Naval Constructor, United States Navy. 
Naval Construction. 

FREDERIC AUGUSTUS LUCAS, D.Sc. 
Curator-in-Chief of the Museums of the 
Brooklyn Institute. 

Vertebrate Zoology; Comparative 
Anatomy; Osteology. 

R. E. B. McKENNEY, Ph.D. 
Plant Physiology. 

JOHN WILLIAM MALLET, 

Ph.D., LL.D. 
Professor of Chemistry in the University- 
of Virginia. 

Inorganic Chemistry; Industrial 
Chemistry. 

WILLIAM RALPH MAXON, A.B. 

Assistant Curator of Botany, United 
States National Museum. 

Cryptogamic Botany. 
JOHN ROBBINS MOHLER, V.M.D. 

Chief of the Pathological Division of the 
United States Bureau of Animal In- 
dustry. 

Animal Pathology. 
GEORGE THOMAS MOORE, Ph.D. 

Physiologist and Algologist, United States 
Bureau of Plant Industry. 

Algology. 

EDWARD WILLIAMS MORLEY, 

Ph.D., LL.D. 
Emeritus Professor of Chemistry in 
Western Reserve University. 

Physical Chemistry; Weights and 
Measures. 

HENRY SMITH MUNROE, Ph.D., ScD. 

Professor of Mining in Columbia 
University. 

Mining. 

FREDERICK HAYNES NEWELL, B.S. 
Director of the United States 
Reclamation Service. 

Irrigation. 
* Deceased. 



EDWARD I,EAMINGTON NICHOLS, 

Ph.D., LL.D. 
Professor of Physics, Cornell 
University. 

Physics (with Electricity, in part); 
Physical Units; Physical Appa- 
ratus. 

WILLIAM ALBERT NOYES, 

A.M., Ph.D. 

Professor of Chemistry in the University 
of Illinois; Editor of the Journal of the 
American Chemical Society. 

Organic Chemistry. 
LOUIS ATWELL OLNEY, A.C., M.S. 

Professor of Chemistry' and head of the 
Department of Textile Chemistry and 
Dyeing in the Lowell Textile School. 

Dyes and Dyeing. 
HOWARD PATTERSON. 

Formerly of the United States Navy, 
President of the New York Nautical 
College. 

Nautical Terms. 

CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE, 

A.M., ScB. 

Logic; Metaphysic. 
GIFFORD PINCHOT, A.M. 

Chief of the Forest Service in the United 
States Department of Agriculture. 

Forestry; Lumbering. 



WALDO SELDEN PRATT, A.M., 

Mus.D. 

Professor of Music and Hymnology in 
Hartford Theological Seminary. 

Music; Musical Instruments. 

CHARLES BINGHAM REYNOLDS, 

A.M. 
Lately Editor of "Forest and Stream." 
jField Sports. 



GEORGE WILLIS RITCHEY, A.M. 

Astronomer and Superintendent of In- 
strument Construction of the Solar 
Observatory of the Carnegie Insti- 
tution. 

Astronomical Instruments. 



ABBOTT LAWRENCE ROTCH. 

S.B.; A.M. 

Professor of Meteorology in Harvard 
University. 
Aeronautics. 

WILLIAM EDWIN SAFFORD, 

Assistant Botanist, United States Bureau 
of Plant Industry. 

Tropical Botany. 

CHARLES PAYSON GURLEY SCOTT, 
Ph.D., LittD. 
Etymologist of the Century Dictionary. 
Etymologies. 

CORNELIUS LOTT SHEAR, Ph.D. 

Pathologist of the United States 
Bureau of Plant Industry. 

Vegetable Pathology; Mycology. 



CHARLES EDMUND SIMON, M.D. 

Professor of Clinical Pathology in 
Baltimore Medical College. 

Physiological Chemistry; Immunity; 

Serumtherapy. 

EDWARD R. SMITH, A.M. 

Librarian of the Avery Architectural 
Library, Columbia University. 

Painting;' Sculptute ; Engraving; 

Decoration. 

EDWIN CHAPIN ST ARKS. 

Assistant Professor of Zoology in Leland 
Stanford Junior University. 

Assistant in Ichthyology. 

THOMAS LATHROP STEDMAN, 

A.M., M.D. 

Editor of the "Medical Record." 
Medicine; Surgery; Human Anatomy. 

EDWARD STRIEBY STEELE. 

United States National Herbarium. 
Agricultural Botany; Agriculture. 

CHARLES PROTEUS STEINMETZ, 

A.M., Ph.D. 

Electrician of the General Electric Com- 
pany and Professor of Electrical En- 
gineering in Union University. 

Electricity (in part). 

CHARLES WARDELL STILES, 

Ph.D., D.Sc. 

Zoologist of the United States Public 
Health and Marine Hospital Service, 
and Lecturer -on Medical Zoology in 
Johns Hopkins University. 

Medical Zoology. 

RUSSELL STURGIS, A.M., Ph.D.* 
Architecture. 



EDWARD BRADFORD TICHENER, 
Ph.D., D.Sc, LL.D. 
Professor of Psychology in Cornell 
University. 
P.':ychology. 

WALTER J. TRAVIS, 
Golf. 

LESTER FRANK WARD, A.M., LL.D. 
Geologist, United States Geological Survey; 
Honorary Curator of Fossil Plants, 
United States National Museum. 

General Editor of the Botanical 
Terms. 

WILLIAM MORTON WHEELER, 

Ph.D. 

Professor of Economic Entomology in 
Harvard University. 

Cytology; Embryology. 

WILLIAM FRANKLIN WIGHT, A.M. 

Assistant Botanist. United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

Systematic Botany. 

CHARLES AUGUSTUS YOUNG, 

Ph.D., LL.D.* 

Professor of Astronomy in Princeton 
University. 

Astronomy. 



PREFATORY NOTE. 




I HE CENTORT DrOTTONAEY (1889-91) was mucli the largest collection of the words of 
the English language that had been published. In it the number of words and ' phrases ' 
at that time defined in general dictionaries of English was increased by upward of one 
hundred and twenty thousand. This additional collection included not a few words 
which had appeared in special glossaries and technical dictionaries, but much the greater 
part of it was obtained by a systematic search through English literature, especially the literature of 
science and the arts. The labor and cost of effecting this very notable enlargement of the recorded 
English vocabulary have amply been justified by its utility to the many thousands of users of the book 
during the past twenty years. 

The compilers of the Century were, however, aware that a dictionary record, whatever might be 
its degree of completeness at the date of publication, would in the future need to be enlarged on account 
of the continuous and rapid increase of the vocabulary of English, both common and technical. It was, 
in particular, very obvious that in many branches of science and technology the coinage of new terms 
and the development of new meanings would proceed — as they have in fact done — at a greatly accelerated 
pace. Accordingly, the work of collection was not ended by the publication of the dictionary, but has 
been continued ever since. 

The result of this labor is presented in these two volumes, which supplement the original work. 
They contain additional words, senses, and defined 'phrases' representing the increase in scientific 
and technological terminology, as well as in the ' common ' vocabulary, during the past twenty-five years, 
and possessing a high degree of technical importance and general interest. During this period — a period 
probably more productive of neologisms than any other of the same length in the history of the lan- 
guage — not only have many special sciences, or branches of sciences, been created, and remarkable exten- 
sions of the older sciences been effected, but the practical arts also (with commerce, exploration, and the 
like) have found innumerable new applications, methods, and objects ; and with all of these advances 
have come new vocabularies, often of great extent, or new uses of old terms, which the dictionary must 
record. It is necessary to mention only such topics as radioactivity, aeronautics, immunity and se- 
rumtherapy, experimental psychology, the recent studies in heredity and organic development, the 
advances in cytology and embryology, and the progress in telegraphy and electrical technology in 
o-eneral in order to indicate the extent and importance of these accretions. Much the s^me is true of 
the increase in the vocabularies of scientific and practical agriculture, of physiological chemistry, of 
medicine and of many other subjects, scientific or practical. It should also be noted that a very con- 
siderable number of foreign (Spanish, French, etc.) words (names of plants, fabrics, materials, imple- 
ments institutions, and so on), especially terais in use in Hawaii, the Philippines, Porto Eico, and Spanish 
America generally, have of late acquired a quasi-English value (or, at least, interest) which the dictionary 
must recognize. In addition to this superabundant new growth there have also been included many- 
words and senses of earlier origin, and also extensions of many encyclopedic articles and definitions. The 
total number of words, senses, and 'phrases' thus collected and here defined is about one hundred thousand 

g^j^ addition comparable to that made by the original edition of the dictionary. It should be added, 

however that the words and forms included, great as their number is, are still a selection, made under the 



vm PREFATORY NOTE 

general rules stated in the preface to the original edition (Vol. 1.), to which for this and other prefatory- 
matter the reader is referred. Many chemical and mineralogical terms, for example, have been added, 
but, of course, not aU ; important New Latin names in zoology and botany have been admitted, but (rela- 
tively) only a few ; the obvious derivatives (which — actual and possible — are many thousands in number) 
from names of families, orders, etc., in zoology and botany are, with a few exceptions, not given ; and 
provincialisms (except Americanisms and Australianisms) and obsolete words and expressions have, as a 
rule, been excluded. 

As regards method of treatment and typographical style, it is enough to say that in these matters 
the plan of the main work has been closely followed. The various definitions and articles are designed 
to fit into the text of the earlier volumes without diversity of form, interruption of continuity, or repe- 
tition of matter. In accordance with this plan the fact that a given word in the supplementa,ry vocabu- 
lary is additional or ' new ' is indicated simply by the fact that it is followed by the respelling for 
pronunciation and, generally, by an etymological note ; in the case of an additional sense ov phrase, on the 
other hand, the title- word is not followed by the pronunciation and derivation ; and the same is true of 
mere additions to articles in the main text. Cross-references to material in the supplementary volumes 
are distinguished by a star (*) placed before the word under which the material will be found. Refer- 
ences not so distinguished are to the original volumes. 

The various definitions and articles have been written by the contributors whose names are given in 
the list of collaborators and in the second paragraph below. Of the etymologies it should be said that 
in only a few cases has more than a brief explanatory statement been necessary, since most of the words 
are scientific coinages or other terms of simple and often obvious formation, or are foreign words (intro- 
duced into English in some special sense) of which, as a ride, in accordance with the custom of the diction- 
ary, only the proximate source (as French or Italian or Spanish, etc.) is indicated. 

During the progress of the work upon these volumes, but after the completion of their portions of it, 
several of the contributors have been removed by death. Dr. Richard Garnett, keeper of printed books 
of the British Museum, an early friend of the dictionary, died on April 12, 1906. On January 6, 1907, the 
eminent astronomer Professor Charles A. Young, also a kind and helpful friend of the Century from its 
earliest days, passed away. The death of Professor William K. Brooks, of the Johns Hopkins University, 
long distinguished for his services to biology, followed on November 12, 1908. On February 11, 1909, came 
the announcement of the death of Mr. Russell Sturgis, a learned student of architecture and connoisseur 
of art, one of the earliest and most important contributors to the dictionary. Mr. Henry G. Kittredge, an 
authority upon the textile industries, died on June 5, 1909. They were men eminent for scientific and 
scholarly attainments and all that makes for nobility of character. 

It remains only to thank the very numerous helpers who have contributed special items of informa- 
tion or material, or have aided in the work of the editorial office or the press. Without the assistance of 
all, such completeness and accuracy as may have been attained would have been impossible. Special 
mention should be made of the assistance of Professor John Dewey, of Columbia University, in the defining 
of pragmatism and related terms ; of the Bureau of Forestry and the Society of\, American Foresters, in 
granting through Mr. Gifford Pinchot the use of the manuscript of their glossary of terms in f orestiy and 
lumbering ; of Dr. Robert Lilley, in contributing many definitions of Oriental (especially Chinese and 
Japanese) and other terms, and in aiding editorially in putting a part of the first volume through the 
press ; of Mr. David White, of the United States Geological Survey, and Dr. Herbert J. Webber, of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, in defining various botanical terms; of Professor J. Bishop 
Tingle, of McMaster University, and Dr. Campbell E. Waters, of the United States Bureau of Standards, 
in assisting in the work on organic chemistry ; of Dr. Whitman Cross, of the United States Geological 
Survey, in writing certain of the earlier definitions in petrography ; of Professor Pierre A. Fish, of Cornell 
University, in defining various neurological terms ; of Dr. Frank H. Chittenden, of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, in giving valued aid in the work on the entomological terms and illustrations ; 
of Professor Harold Jacoby, of Columbia University ; of Mr. H. C. Cassell, in contributing the definitions 



PEEFATOEY NOTE 



IX 



relating to chess ; of the late Mr. W. N. Fitzgerald, editor of " The Hub," in defining a large number of 
terms relating to vehicles and harness ; of Mr. Benjamin Garno, in supplying definitions in billiards ; of 
Mr. Charles De Kay, in defining terms in fencing ; of Professor Edmund K. Alden, of the Packer Institute, 
in the definition of terms in general and political history ; of Mr. Herbert H. Smith, in contributing, with 
definitions, a number of West Indian words ; of Mr. E. C. Hinckley, in supplying the definitions of terms 
relating to tanning and leather-making ; of Professor J. 0. Schlotterbeck, of the University of Michigan, 
in defining a number of pharmaceutical terms ; of Miss Edith M. G-reer, of Pratt Institute, in defining 
terms in cooking ; of Mrs. C. A. M. Hall of the Drexel Institute, in furnishing information with regard to 
needlework and embroidery ; of Mr. James Means and Mr. Augustus Post, in furnishing valuable material 
relating to aeronautics; of Mr. Philip S. Smith, in the subject of physiography; of Miss Katharine B. 
Wood, in collecting much valuable material relating to common words ; and of Miss Margaret Jackson 
and Miss Florence Gilmour, in most efficiently aiding in the work of the editorial office. 

In the selection and criticism of the illustrations, which are about one thousand nine hundred in 
number, aid has been given by nearly all of the collaborators and also by many others. For the use of 
valuable material especial acknowledgment is due to Macmillan and Company, who have granted the use 
of cuts from their English edition of von Zittei's " Palaeontology " ; to the Metropolitan Museum of Art ; 
to the American Museum of Natural History ; to the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory ; to the New York 
Institute for the Blind; to the Westinghouse Company; to the Forest Service, Washington; to the 
British School at Athens ; to the British Museum ; and to the Journal of Hellenic Studies. 

To the second volume has been added a supplement to the Cyclopedia of Names (Vol. IX. of the 
Dictionary and Cyclopedia) of ninety-two pages, comprising a large number of new articles and also of 
additions to the articles contained in the various editions of that work. 

BENJAMIN E. SMITH. 
November 1, 1909. 



ABBREVIATIONS 
USED IN THE ETYMOLOGIES A>ID DEFINITIONS. 



»., adj adjective. 

abbr abbreTiation^ 

abL ablative. 

aoc accusative. 

accom accommodated,accom- 

modation. 

act. active. 

adv adverb. 

AF Anglo-Frencli. 

agri. agricnlture. 

AL. Anglo-Latin. 

alg. algebra. 

Amer American. 

anat. anatomy. 

anc ancient. 

antiq antiquity. 

aor. aorist. 

appar apparently. 

At. Arabic. 

arch. architecture. 

archseol archaeology. 

arith. arithmetic. 

art article. 

AS Anglo Saxon. 

astroL astrology. 

astron astronomy. 

attrib. attributive. 

ang augmentative. 

Bav Bavarian. 

Beng. BengalL 

bioL biology. 

Bobem. Bohemian. 

bot. botany. 

Braz^ Brazilian. 

Bret. .. -. Breton. 

bryoL bryo)e<nr. 

Bolg. Bulgarian. 

carp cyrpentry. 

Cat. Catalan. 

Cath. Catholic. 

cans causative. 

ceram ceramics. 

cf. L. confer, compare. 

ch church. 

ChaL Chaldee. 

chem chemical, chemistry. 

Chiu Chinese. 

chron chronology. 

colloq colloquial,colloquially. 

com commerce, commer- 
cial. 

comp. composition, com- 
pound. 

compar. comparative. 

conch. conchology. 

con] conjunction. 

contr. - . .contracted, contraC' 

tion. 

Corn Cornish. 

craniol craniology. 

craniom craniometry. 

crystaL crystallography. 

D. Dutch. 

Dan Danish. 

dat dative. 

def definite, definition. 

deriv. .derivative, derivation. 

dial dialect dialectal. 

difif. different 

dim diminutive. 

distrib distributive. 

dram dramatic. 

dynam dynamics. 

E. East 

E Bnglish(usuaHym«a»- 

ii^modem English). 

eccl., eccles. ecclesiastical. 

econ economy. 

e. g. L. exempli gratia, for 

example. 

Egypt Egyptian. 

E. Ind. East Indian. 

elect electricity. 

embryoL embryology. 

Eng. English. 



engin engineering. 

entom entomology. 

Epis. Episcopal. 

equiv. equivalent 

esp especially. 

Eth Ethiopic. 

ethnog. ethnography. 

ethnol ethnology. 

etym etymology. 

Eur. European. 

eyclam exclamation. 

1, fern. feminine. 

¥. French (usuaUy mean- 

ing ihodem French). 

Flem Flemish. 

fort fortification. 

freq. frequentative. 

Fries. Friesic. 

fut future. 

G. German(u«uiZ2i/ni£a7i- 

ing New High Ger- 
man). 

Gael Gaelic. 

galv. galvanism. 

gen genitive. 

geog geography. 

geoL geology. 

geom geometry. 

Goth Gothic (Mcesogothic). 

Gr. Greek. 

gram grammar. 

gun gunneiy. 

Heb Hebrew. 

her. heraldry. 

heipet herpetology. 

Hind Hindustani. 

hist history. 

horol horology. 

hort horticulture. 

Hung Hungarian. 

hydraul hydraulics. 

hydros hydrostatics. 

Ic^l Icelandic (lUuoZZy 

meaning Old Ice- 
landic, o£A£nff^secaZ^ 
ed Old Norse). 

ichth ichthyology. 

i. c L. id est, that is. 

impers impersonal 

impf. imperfect 

impv. imperative. 

improp improperly. 

Ind Indian. 

ind indicative. 

Indo-Eur. Indo-European. 

indef indefinite. 

inf infinitive. 

instr. InstrumentaL 

inter j interjection. 

intr.,intranB. ..intransitive. 

Ir Irish. 

irreg. irregular, irregularly. 

It Italian. 

Jap. Japanese. 

L. Latin (u»uaUy mear^ 

ing classical Latin). 

Lett Lettish. 

LG. Low German. 

lichenoL llchenology. 

lit literal, literally. 

lit literature. 

Lith Lithuanian. 

lithog. lithography. 

lithol lithology. 

LL Late Latin. 

m., masc masculine. 

M Middle. 

mach machinery. 

mammal mammalogy. 

manuf. manufacturing. 

math mathematics. 

MD. Middle Dutch. 

ME. Middle English (oOer- 

wile called Old Eng- 
lish). 



mech. mechanics, mechani- 

caL 

med. medicine. 

mensur. mensuration. 

metal metallurgy. 

metaph metaphysics. 

meteor meteorology. 

Mex. Mexican. 

MGr. Middle Greek, medie- 
val Greek. 

MHG Middle High German. 

milit military. 

mineraL mineralogy. 

ML Middle Latin, medie- 
val Latin. 

ML6 Middle Low German. 

mod modem- 

mycoL mycology. 

myth. mythology. 

u noun. 

n., neut neuter. 

N New. 

N. North. 

N. Amer. North America. 

nat natural. 

naut nauticaL 

nav '. navigation. 

NGr. New Greek, modem 

Gre^ 

NHG New High German 

{uxuaUy simply G., 
German). 

NL. New Latin, modem 

Latin. 

nom nominative. 

Norm Norman. 

north northern. 

Norw. Norwegian. 

numis numismatics. 

O. Old. 

obs obsolete. 

obstet obstetrics. 

OBulg. Old Bulgarian Xother- 

wiee called Church 
Slavonic, Old Slavic, 
Old Slavonic). 

OCat .Old Catalan. 

OD. Old Dutch. 

ODan. Old Danish. 

odontog odontography. 

odontol odontology. 

OF. Old French. 

OFlem Old Flemish. 

OGaeL Old Gaelic 

OHG. Old High German. 

Olr. Old Irish. 

Olt Old Italian. 

OL. Old Latin. 

OLG Old Low German. 

ONorth. Old Northumbrian. 

OFmss. Old Prussian. 

orig original, originally. 

omith ornithology. 

OS. Old Saxon. 

OSp Old Spanish. 

osteol osteology. 

OSw Old Swedish. 

OTeut Old Teutonic. 

p. a. participial adjective. 

paleon paleontology. 

part participle. 

pass. passive. 

pathol pathology. 

perf. perfect. 

Pers. Persian. 

pers person. 

perap perspective. 

Peruv Peruvian. 

petrog. petrography. 

Fg Portuguese. 

phar pharmacy. 

Phen. Pbenlcian. 

philol philology. 

philos. philosophy. 

phonog phonography. 



photog photography. 

phren phrenology. 

phys physical. 

physiol physiology. 

pL.plur. plural. 

poet poetical. 

polit politicaL 

Pol Polish. 

poss possessive. 

pp. past participle. 

ppr. present participle. 

Pr Proveni;al (.umaUy 

meaning Old Pro- 

vental). 

pref. prefix. 

prep. preposition. 

pres present 

pret preterit 

priv. privative. 

prob probably, probable. 

pron pronoun. 

pron pronounced, pronim- 

ciation. 

prop properly. 

pros. prosody. 

Prot Protestant. 

prov. provinciaL 

psychol psychology. 

q. V L. quod (or pi. qag^ 

vide, which see. 

refl reflexive. 

reg -.regular, regularly. 

repr. representing. 

rhet rhetoric. 

Rom Boman. 

Bom. Bomanic, Bomance 

(languages)! 

Buss. Bnssian. 

S South. 

S. Amer South American. 

BC L. acUieel, understand, 

supply. 

Sc Scotch. 

Scand. Scandinavian. 

Scrip. Scripture. 

sculp. sculpture. 

"Serv. Servian. 

sing. singular. 

Skt Sanskrit 

Slav Slavic, S],ivonic. 

Sp. Spanish. 

suhj subjunctive. 

superl superlative. 

snrg surgery. 

surv surveying. 

Sw. Swedish. 

syn synonymy. 

Syr. Syriac. 

technol technology. 

teleg. telegraphy. 

teratol teratology. 

term termination. 

Tent Teutonic. 

theat theatrical. 

theol theology. 

therap therapeutics. 

toxicol toxicology. 

tr., trans. transitive. 

trigon trigonometry. 

Turk Turkish. 

typog. typography. 

ult ultimate, ultimately. 

V. verb. 

var. variant. 

vet veterinary. 

V. i intransitive verb. 

V. t transitive verb. 

W. ..., Welsh. 

Wall Walloon. 

Wallach Wallachian. 

W. Ind West Indian. 

zoogeog. zoogeography. 

zool zoology. 

zoOt zootomy. 



KEY TO PRONUNCIATION. 



a as in fat, man, pang, 

a as in fate, mane, dale, 

a as in far, father, guard. 

4 as iu fall, talk, naught, 

a as in ask, fast, ant. 

a as in fare, hair, bear. 

e as in met, pen, bless, 

e as in mete, meet, meat. 

6 as in her, fern, heard. 

i as in pin, it, luscuit. 

i as in pine, fight, file. 

o as in not, on, frog. 

6 as in note, poke, floor. 

8 as in move, spoon, room. 

6 as in nor, song, off. 



as in tub, son, blood. 
as in mute, acute, few (also new, 
tube, duty : see Preface, pp. ix, x) 
as in pull, book, could. 
German ii, French u. 



oi as in oil, joint, boy. 

ou as in pound, proud, now. 

A single dot under a vowel in an unaccented 
syllable indicates its abbreviation and lighten- 
ing, without absolute loss of its distinctive qual- 
ity. See Preface, p. xi. Thus : 

a as in prelate, courage, captain. 

e as in ablegate, episcopal. 

as in abrogate, eulogy, democrat. 

i. as in singular, education. 

A double dot under a vowel in an unaccented 
syllable indicates that, even in the mouths of 
the best speakers, its sound is variable to, and 
in ordinary utterance actually becomes, the 
short K-sound (of but, pun, etc.). See Preface, 
p. xi. Thus: 

a as in errant, republican, 

e as in prudent, difference, 

i as in charity, density. 

o as in valor, actor, idiot. 



a as in Persia, peninsula. 

e as in the book. 

u as in nature, feature. 

A mark (w) under the consonants *, d, s, e in- 
dicates that they in like manner are variable to 
ch, j, sit, zh. Thus : 

J as in nature, adventure. 

d as in arduous, education, 

g as iu pressure. 

z as in seizure. 

th as in thin. 

TH as in then. 

ch as in German ach, Scotch loch. 

n French nasalizing n, as in ton, en. 

ly (in French words) French liquid (mouill6) 1. 

' denotes a primary, " a secondary accent. (A 

secondary accent is not marked if at its regular 

interval of two syllables from the primary, or 

from another secondary.) 



SIGNS. 



< reaA. from; i. e., derived from. 

> read whence; i. e., from which is derived^ 

+ read and; i. e., compounded with, or with suflix. 

= read eognate with; i. e., etymologically parallel with. 



•/ read root. 

* read theoretical or alleged; i. e., theoretically assumed,- 

or asserted but unverified, form. 
t read obsolete. 

* references so marked are to the supplementary volumes. 



SPECIAL EXPLANATIONS. 



A superior figure placed after a title-word in- 
dicates . that the word so marked is distinct 
etymologically from other words, following or 
preceding it, spelled in the same manner and 
marked with different nranbers. Thus : 

back^ (bak), n. The posterior part, etc. 

back^ (bak), a. Lying or being behind, etc. 

back^ (bak), V. To furnish with a back, etc. 
back^ (bak), adv. Behind, etc. 

backet (bak), ». The earlier form of bat^. 

back^ (bak), n. A large flst-bottomed boat, 
etc. 

Various abbreviations have been used in the 
credits to the quotations, as " No." for number, 
"st." for stanza, "p." tor page, "1." for line, 
IF for paragraph, " fol." tov folio. The method 
used in indicating the subdivisions of books 
will be understood by reference to the follow- 
ing plan : 

Section only J 5. 

Chapter only xiv. 

Canto only xiv. 

Book only iii. 



Book and chapter 

Part and chapter 

Book and line 

Book and page ^ iii. 10. 

Act and scene 

Chapter and verse 

No. and page 

Volume and page II. 34. 

Volume and chapter IV. iv. 

Part, book, and chapter II. iv. 12. 

Part, canto, and stanza II. iv. 12. 

Chapter and section or 1 vii. J or H 3. 

Volume, part, and section or IT . .1. i. § or II 6. 
Book, chapter, and section or IT. .1. i, § or H 6. 

Different grammatical phases of the same 
word are grouped under one head, and distin- 
guished by the Roman numerals I., II., III., 
etc. This applies to transitive and intransi- 
tive uses of the same verb, to adjectives used 
also as nouns, to nouns used also as adjectives, 
to adverbs used also as prepositions or con- 
junctions, etc. 

The capitalizing and italicizing of certain or 
all of the words in a synonym-list indicates 
that the words so distinguished are discrimi- 



nated in the text immediately following, or 
under the title referred to. 

The figures by which the synonym-lists are 
sometimes divided indicate the senses or defi- 
nitions with which they are connected. 

The title-words begin with a. small (lower- 
case) letter, or with a capital, according to 
usage. When usage differs, in this matter, 
with the different senses of a word, the abbre- 
viations [cap.] for "capital" and [l. c] for 
" lower-case " are used to indicate this varia- 
tion. 

The difference observed in regard to the 
capitalizing of the second element in zoologi- 
cal and botanical terms is in accordance with 
the existing usage in the two sciences. Thus, 
in zoology, in a scientific name consisting of 
two words the second of which is derived from 
a proper name, only the first would be capi- 
talized. But a name of similar derivation in 
botany would have the second element also 
capitalized. 

The names of zoological andbotanical classes, 
orders, families, genera, etc., have been uni- 
formly italicized, in accordance with the pres- 
ent usage of scientific writers. 



THE 
CENTURY DICTIONARY 

SUPPLEMENT 




, 2 (a). In mime, the A 
next above middle G has 
(atPreneh pitoh) 435 vibra- 
tions per second. In medie- 
val music, the final of the 
^olian and hyposolian 
modes. ((?) In chem., the 
symbol for argon. — 3. Also 
an abbreviation of ampere 
and of *A-level(Yrh.ioh see). 
AA.,AA. [Prop. Sa, which stands for ana, 
Gr. dwd, used in sense of 'throughout,' that is, 
' of each one.'] In recipes, an abbreviation 
equivalent, when used after the names of sev- 
^eral ingredients, to ' of each one take.' 
A, §.(&). A Swedish letter representing an 
original long a (a), now sounded as English 
long open o mform or a in fall. 
a-a (S'a), n. [Hawaiian.] A form of cooled 
lava-stream of which the surface consists of 
jagged and irregtilar blocks. The Mocks represent 
the chilled and solidified crust of a molten mass, and were 
formed- during a pause. When the onward movement 
was resumed the frozen cakes were piled one upon an- 
other. Contrasted with pahoehoe, which refers to smooth 
or fluted surfaces. Both words are of Hawaiian origin, 
but are occasionally used in Euf^lish writings on volca- 
noes. C K Dutton, Ann. E-ep. Dire'jtor U. S. Geol. Sur- 
vey 188*, p. 95. 
Aachenian (a-ke'ni-an), a. and n. [G. Aachen 
(F. Aix-la-Chapelle) '\- -ian.'\ In stratigraphy, 
noting formations underlying the Chalk in Bel- 
gium : no w known as *Bermssartian (which see ) . 
A. A. G. An abbreviation of Assistant A^utant- 

Oeneral. 
aal, n. See *aU. 

Aaleuian (a-le'nl-an), a. and n. [G. Aalen in 
Wurtemberg.] In stratigraphy, noting Eu- 
ropean subdivision of the Lower 061ite beds of 
the Jurassic. 
aalii (a"a-le'e), n. [Hawaiian ; <. aa (,= Maori 
oka, etc.), roots, -t- lii (= Maori riM), small.] 
In Hawaii, a small tree, Dodonssa visoosa, 12 to 
25 feet high, it is one of the commonest trees of that 
region and is found on all the islands. It also occurs in 
tropical America, Kew Zealand, and Australia, and on 
probably all of the volcanic island groups of Polynesia. 
It is valued for its hard-gi'ain ed, dark wood. Called apiri 
in Tahiti. 

aannerodite, n. See *annerodite. 

aback^, adv. A11 aback (naht), said of sails when 
they are all flattened against the masts by the wind act- 
ing on them from in front.— All aback forward (noMt.), 
said of the square sails on the foremast when the wind 
coming from ahead has laid the sails against the mast. — 
Flat aback {naut.), said of sails when the wind is nearly 
at a right angle to them, so that they are neither bellied 
forward nor pressed against the mast, but just fluttering 
or lifting. 

Abacola (a-bak'g-la), n. [NL. : origin not ob- 
vious.] The typical genus of the family .46a- 
colidse. Edwards, 1891. 

Abacolidae (ab-a-kol'i-de), n.pl. [NL., < Abac- 
ola + -idsB.'] A family of parasitic copepod 
crustaceans found in holothurians. They have 
simple mouth-parts adapted for piercing, and S-jointed 
antenna;. The typical genus is AbUcola. 

abadejo (a-ba-da'ho), n. [Sp., a codfish, poor- 
jack, = Pg. abadejo, badejo : origin uncertain.] 
A Cuban name for the scamp Myeteropercafal- 
cata, a large species of grouper. 

abandond, p-a. A simplified spelling of aban- 
doned. 

abarticular (ab-ar-tik'u-lar), a. [ab- + articu- 
lar.'] Not affecting the joints ; not articular. 
— Abarticular gout. See *g<mt i. 
S— 1 



(a-ba'si-a), n. '[NL., < Gr. *a3aaia (cf. 
a/JoTOf, iiot trodden), < a- priv. + flaaig, step- 
ping: see basis.] In med., inability to walk, 
through defect of muscular action, not neces- 
sarily paralysis or inooBrdination. 
abasic (a-ba'sik), a. [abasia + -jc] Of, per- 
taining to, or affected with abasia. 
abask(a-bask'), a(j!«. [ < a3 -t- 6a«fc, ».] Bask- 
ing ; bathed in sunlight or genial warmth. J. 
M. Neale. 

abastardt (a-bas'tard), v.t. [OF. dbastardir, to 
stigmatize as bastard or degenerate.] To bas- 
tardize; render spurious or corrupt; debase. 
Donne, Pseudo-Martyr, p. 226. N. E. D. 
abatou (ab'a-ton), ».; pi. abata (-ta). [NL., 
< Gr. d|3aTovj" prop. neut. of aparog, not to be 
trodden, < a- priv. + /3aT<if < ^aivetv, go, walk, 

step.] A place 
sacred from 
common entry; 
a shrine. Same 
as adytum. 
abat-£on(a-ba'- 
soh), n. [F.,< 
abattre, throw 
down (see 
abate), + son, 
sound.] A de- 
vice for throw- 
ing downward 
sound, as that 
of a bell. 

Abattoir scales, 

scales adapted to 
the rapid weigh- 
ing of dressed 
meat in markets, 
abattoirs, and 
Abattoir Scales. cold-storage ware- 

houses. Themeat, 
suspended from hooks attached to a trolley traveling on a 
telpherage system or overhead ti'ack, is run upon a short 
section of track wliich forms the weighing-platform of the 
scales. The lev- 
er system may 
be above the 
track, with the 
weighing -sec- 
tion suspended 
from the lev- 
ers, and the 
weighing-beam 
may be below 
ataconvenient 
distance from 
the floor. A 
single trolley 
with its load 
may be 

weighed, or as many as the weighing-section of track 
will hold may be weighed together. Another form of 
scale employs a trolley for weighing materials in transit, 
with a scale-beam attached directly to the trolley and 
traveling with it. This is called a trolley-scale. 
abaxile, a. 2. In bot., turned away from the 
axis : said of lateral organs. 
abbadia (a-ba-de'a), n. [It. : see abbacy.] An 
abbey or, in Italian architecture, more often an 
abbey church. Also badia. 
abbasi, n. 3. A current, subsidiary coin of 
Afghanistan, equivalent to 2 sanars or 10i% 
cents. 

Abbe-Fizeau dilatometer. See *dilatometer. 
Abbe's focimeter, marine nephoscope. See 

*focimeter, *ne^hoscope. 
Abbreviated numbers. See *number. 

abbreviation, n., 4. other marks of abbreviation 
are : (1) One indicating that a rest is to extend for several 



measures, and consisting either of a general character in 
the staff with a figure above, or simply of a figure in the 
staff denoting the intended number of measures, thus : 



=10= 



--=^1= 



(2) Various horizontal dashes, lines, rows of dots, etc. In- 
dicating that the force of some preceding character is to 
continue as far as the dashes, lines, or dots extend, thus : 






Trolley-scale. 



abciss (ab'sis), n. Same as *complem^nt, 8. 

abcoillomb (ab'ko-lom"), n. [o6(sotete) + cou- 
lomb.] A name proposed for the c. g. s. elec- 
tromagnetic unit of electrical quantity ; 10 cou- 
lombs. Also abscoulomb. 

Abdominal brain, the solar plexus (which see, under 
plexus). — Abdominal ganglion, the semilunar ganglion 
(which see, under ganglioS).— A\>Aom3jaal geataUon, 
gestation occuiTing outside of the uterus. — Abdominal 
mat, a padded framework, with a stretcher for the feet, 
used in gymnasiums for exercising the abdominal mus- 
cles. — Abdominal phthisis, tuberculosis of the perito- 
neum, mesenteric glands, or mucous coat of the intestine. 
— Abdominal pregnancy. Same as *abdommal getta- 
tion.— Abdominal Stalk, in emiryoL^tTae tube of meso- 
blast which envelops the stem of the allantois in the 
young human and mammalian embryo. — Abdominal 
sweetbread, the pancreas. See swee&iread. 

abdominalian (ab-dom-i-na'li-an), a. [Abdom- 
inales + -ia».] Pertaining to or having the 
characteristics of the Abdominales. 

abdominothoracic (ab-dom"i-n6-tho-Tas'ik), a. 
Relating to both the abdomen and the thorax. 

abdominovesical (ab-dom'''i-no-veB'i-kal), a. 
Eelating to the abdominal wall and to the 

urinary bladder Abdominovesical pouch, the 

concave surface of the peritoneum where it is deflected 
from the anterior abdominal wall to the distended blad- 
der. 

Abducens muscle, the external rectus muscle of the 
eyeball.— 'Abducens nucleus, the center in the me- 
dulla oblongata from which the abducens nerve seems to 
take its origin. 

abduction, n. 3. In the logical system of C. 
S. Peirce, reasoning from consequent to ante- 
cedent ; the acceptance on probation (or more 
absolutely) of a hypothesis to explain observed 
facts ; the deriving of a suggestion from obser- 
vation Formal abduction, a logical process which 

has the form of abduction but does not involve any posi- 
tive assertion, and is not, therefore, like positive abduc- 
tion, subject to error. Such is the process of adopting a 
new word and that of forming an abstraction. 

Abelicea (ab-e-lis'e-a).». [NL. (Eafinesque, 
1836), < Gr. offeAkEO!,' tfie name of the Cretan 
si)ecies.] A genus of dicotyledonous plants of 
the family XJlmacex. See Zelkova. 

Abe Lincoln bug. See *bug^. 

aberglaube (a'ber-glou"be), n. [G. aberglaube, 
for *oberglaube, aberglaube, D. overgeloof, 
' over-belief.' The first element simulates aber, 
but.] Belief beyond what is justified by ex- 
perience and knowledge. See the extract. 

Our word ' superstition ' had by its derivation this 
same meaning, but it has come to be used in a merely 
bad sense, and to mean a childish and craven religiosity. 
With the German word it is not so ; therefore Goethe can 
say with propriety and truth : 'Aherglwube is the poetry 
of life.' . . . Extra-belief, that which we hope, augur, 
imagine, is the poetry of life. 

M. Arnold, Lit. and Dogma, p. 87. 

Aberrant duct of the liver, a bile-duct unconnected 
with the other portions of the biliary apparatus. 



aberrate 

aberrate, v.i. 2. In optics, to reifraot, as a lens, 
in such a manner that rays varying in wave- 
length or passing through different zones will 
have different foci. See aberration, i. Dolland. 
[Bare.] 

Aberration constant. See constant of aberration, under 
constant— haieial aberration, in the theory of lensea, 
the product of the spherical aberration and the relative 
aperture of the lens ; the radius of the circle formed 
by rays passing through the edge of a lens and falling 

upon a screen placed at the focal point Lateral 

spherical aberration. Same as circle of aberration.— 
Longitudinal aberration, in the theory of lenses, the 
distance between the points in which rays passing 
through the central zone and the edges of the lens, re- 
spectively, cut the axis ; spherical aberration.— Nega- 
uve spherical aberration, in optics, spherical abeiTa- 
tion in a divergent lens, where the focal length of the 
outer zones is greater than that of the center of the lens. 
—Positive -spherical aberration, in optics, spherical 
aberration of a convergent lens, where the focal length 
of the outer zones is less than that of the center of the 
lens. 

Aberrational ellipse. See *elUpse. 

aberrometer (ab-e-rom'e-tfer), n. [Irreg. < L. 
aberrare, aberrate, + Gr. pin-pov, measure.] 
An instrument for measuring deviations or er- 
rors in delicate experiments or observations. 
G. E. Davis, Praot. Microscopy, p. 183. 

abevacuation, n. 2. Evacuation through an 
abnormal channel. 

abfarad (ab'far'ad), n. lab{solute) + farad.'] 
A name proposed for the c. g. s. unit of elec- 
trical capacity; 1 X 10~' farads or 1 X 10 "is 
microfarads. 

abhenry (ab'hen"ri3, n. [ab{solute) + henry.'] 
A name proposed for the e. g. s. electromag- 
netic unit of inductance; 1 X 10-^ henrys. 

Abhidharma (ab-i-dfer'ma), n. [Skt. abhi- 
dharma, < abhi, near, to, -1- dharma, order, rule, 

Srecept.] The Buddhistic philosophy, 
ia (a'bia), n. A Polish silver coin of the 
value of one shilling sterling or twenty-five 
cents. 

abidal (a-bi'dal), n. [abided, v. i., + -al.] 
Abiding-place"; abode. A'. E. Z>. 

abidl (a-bi-de'), n. [E. Ind.] The silver half- 
rupee of Mysore. 

Abieteae(ab-i-e'te-e),»i.j)!. [NL. (Spaoh, 1842), 
< L. Abies {Abiet-'j + -ex.] Same as AbieUneae. 

abilious (a-bil'yus), a. Indicating or marked 
by an absence of bile, as in the stools. 

ability, n.— General ability, in polU. econ. , " those 
faculties and that general knowledge and intelligence 
which are in varying degrees the common property of all 
the higher grades of industry." A^red Ma/rshaU, Prin- 
ciples of Economics, 1. 268.— Gracious ability, the semi- 
Pelagian and Arminian teaching that though man by the 
fall lost the ability to keep the moral law, yet Qod by his 
grace restores it to all men. — Natural ability, a term 
used in New England theology in distinction to moral 
ability ; i. e., man since the fall h»a all the natural powers 
needed to obey God's law, but he is morally unable so to 
do since his will is opposed to righteousness.— Flenaiy 
ability, the Pelagian doctrine that responsibility is 
measured by ability, so that every man has full power at 
all times to obey Clod's law. — SpeciaJized ability, " that 
manual dexterity and that acquaintance with particular 
materials and processes, which are required for the spe- 
cial purposes of individual trades." Alfred MarshaU, 
Principles of Economics, I. 266. 

abilo (a-be']6)j n. [Tagalogname?] A name 
in the Philippines of Garuga floribunda, a tree 
belonging to the Balsameacese, with pinnate 
leaves crowded at the ends of the branches 
and with fruit in the form of small, fleshy 
drupes. It is fragrant and yields a gum which 
is soluble in water, but only slightly so in 
alcohol. 

abiochemistry (ab'i-o-kem'is-tri), n. [Gr. d- 
priv. -I- ptog, life, + fi. chemistry.] Inorganic 
chemistry as contrasted with the chemistry of 
vital processes. 

abiogenetical (ab-i-o-jf-net'i-kal), a. Same as 
abiogeneUc. 

abiology (ab-i-ol'6-ji), n. [Gr. d- priv. + /3/oc, 
life, + -7toyia,< T^tyeiv, speak: cf. biology.] The 
scientific study of things that are not alive ; 
all science except biology. Saechel (trans.), 
Planktonic Studies, p. 578. 

abion (ab'i-on), n. [Gr. a^iov, neut. of apioq. 
taken in the literal sense 'without (physical) 
Ufe,' < d- priv. + piog, life,] Lifeless things 
considered collectively, as distinguished from 
living things. Haeckel (trans.), Planktonic 
Studies, p. 578. ■ 

abiophysiology (aMi-o-fiz-i-ol'o-ji), n. [Gr. 
apioQ, without life, + (jruaioTMyia, physiology.] 
The study of the inorganic or purely physical 
and chemical phenomena in living organisms 
as distinguished from the biological phenomena 
proper. 

abiosis (ab-i-6'sis), n. [Gr. a- pnv. + /Jiuffi?, 
way of life.] Deficienoy of vital force. 



abiotic (ab-i-ot'ik), a. [Gr. d- priv. + Pcormdc, 
pertaining to life.] Noting those sciences 
which deal with inorganic nature, as con- 
trasted with the biological sciences. Haeckel 
(trans.). Wonders of Life, p. 27. [Bare.] 

abiotrophy (ab-i-ot'ro-fi), n. [Gr. d- priv. + 
^iog, life, + -Tpo(^ia, < Tpefew, nourish.] Degen- 
eration due to congenital deficienoy of vital 
force. 

abirritation, n. 2. Asthenia. 

Abispa (a-bis'pa), n. [NL. (Mitchell, 1838), 
< Sp. abispa, now usually avispa, < L. vespa, 
a wasp?] A peculiar genus of Australian 
solitary wasps compri.siug several species. A 
single female constructs a nest with a funnel-shaped 
entrance, so large that it appears to he the nest of a 
colony of social wasps. 

abjoint (ab-joinf), v. t. lab- + joint.] In 
my col. , to separate by a septum, as in the case 
of the scores of some fungi. Plow, Brit. Ured. 
and Ustil. Gloss., p. 305. 

abjunction (ab-jungk'shon), n. [NL. *abjunc- 
tio\n-), < L. abjungere, disjoin, separate : see ab- 
junctive.] In myeol., the separation of spores 
by means of a septum. 

ablastic (a-blas'tlk), a. Same as ablastovs. 

ablastozoa (a-blas*to-z6'a), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. 
d- priv. + /SAaordf, germ, 4- f^ov, animal.] An- 
imals without germ-layers; Protozoa. Eimer, 
Organic Evolution, p. 70. 

ablation, n., i. 0) The washing away by rains ot the 
lighter particles yielded by the decay and weather-waste 
of rocky ledges, whereby the heavier and more resistant 
minerals are left behind in a state of residual concentra- 
tion, sometimes affording a body of ore. 

able, a.— To spell able, to be able; to have all the 
ability or strength needed (for some particular purpose). 
[Conoq.] 

ablepnaria (ab-le-fa'ri-a), n. [NL., < Gr. d/3/U- 
(papog, without eyelids: see ablepharon.] Same 
as *abl^haron. 

ablepharon (a-blef'a-ron), n. [Gr. a/SMipapos, 
without eyelids, < d-'priv. + ^Uipapm, eyelid.] 
Absence, through disease or congenital defect, 
of one or both eyelids. 

abmho (ab'mo), n. \ab{solute) + mho.] A 
name proposed for the c. g. s. electromagnetic 
unit of conductance , admittance, or suscep- 
tance; 1x10^ mhos. 

abmodality (ab-mo-dal'i-ti), n. \_'abmodal + 
-ity.] Exception to or deviation from a statis- 
tical normalor mode when this is considered, 
for statistical purposes, as a fixed standard 
which living beings or their measurable quali- 
ties may approach or from which they may re- 
cede. See mode^, 4. 

statistical Biology seeks to determine the exact status 
of species as regards variation, expressed in modes, ab- 
■modalities and abnormalities; the direction, rate, and 
causes of variation in species; the suppression of old 
modes, the rise of new ones, and the shUtiug of modes ; 
and the Inheritance and permanency of these characters 
and changes. With such data, accurately determined for 
a number of species for a period of years, it will be pos- 
sible to test the validity and broad application of some of 
the fundamental theories upon which modem Biology is 
built. Biometrika, April, 1903, p. 313. 

abmortal (ab-m6r'tal), a. [ab- + mortal.] 
In med., situated or directed away from the in- 
jured or dead part : applied to the course of the 
electrical current in an injured muscle. 

abneural (ab-nU'ral), a. [ab- + neural.] 'Bie- 
lating to or situated on the side of the body 
farthest from the neural axis. 

abnormative (ab-n6r'ma-tiv), a. \a.b- + nor- 
mative.'] Not normative. Applied by Cross, Id- 
dings, Pirsson, and Washington (1902), in their quanti- 
tative classification of igneous rocks, to the minerals 
other than those which go to make up the norm or 
standard mineral composition by which a rock is classi- 
fied. When the actual mineral composition of 'a rock 
differs from its theoretical or standard composition, the 
rock is said to have an a^marmaUve mode. See quantir 
tative classification qf igneous rocks, under -krock. 

abnumerable (ab-nii'me-ra-bl), a. Not nu- 
merable; either haying (as a collection) or 
being a multitude greater than that of all the 
integer numbers taken collectively. The multi- 
tude of all the quantities whose values (like that of ir) 
can be expressed to indefinitely close approximation by 
means of indefinitely extended decimals is the first ab- 
nutnerable multitiule. There is a second, third, etc. (up 
to any finite ordinal number), abnumerable multitude ; 
and there is no highest abnumerable multitude, anymore 
than there is a highest enumerable multitude. There is 
no multitude greater than all abnumerable multitudes, 
since beyond them the individual members of the collec- 
tion lose their separate identity and merge into one an- 
other in true continuity. The multitude of all the.num- 
bers considered in the calculus and theory of functions 
is the first abnumerable multitude, and of higher multi- 
tudes mathematicians as yet know little more than that 
they are logically and mathematically possible. Also 
abnumeral. 

abnumeral (ab-nii'me-ral), a. [ab- + nu- 
meral.] Same as *abriumerable. 



absarokite 

aboard^, cfdv — to haul the starboard taCks 
aboard (»a««.X to bring the weather clues of the 
courses (lower square sails) inboard and down to the 
tack-irons in the deck by means of the tack-tackles.— 
To have the starboard (or port) tacks aboard 
inaut.), to be on the starboard (or port) tack, as the 
tacks are always boarded on the weather side of the ship. 

abol3ra (a-bo'bra), n. [Said to be a Brazilian 
name.] A greenhouse tendril-climbing herb, 
a member of the family Cucurbitacese, from 
Brazil, grown both for its much-divided foliage 
and its scarlet, gourd-Uke fruit. 

aboideau (a-boi-do'), v. t. [aboideau, n.] To 
improve (a tidal river or stream) and prevent 
the tidal overflow of its marshes and tidal 
meadows by placing tide-gates at its mouth. 

At first sight it might seem wise to aboideau all rivers 
at their mouths. Sot. Gazette, Sept., 1903, p. 180. 

aboma, n. 2. [cap.] A genus of gobies found 
in Mexico and Japan, having more than 6 dorsal 
snines. 




Darter Goby {.glioma hiJteosioma). 
{From Bull. 47 U. S. Nat. Museum.) 

abondance (a-bon-dans'), n. [P.: see ahunr- 
dance.] In solo whist, the naming-of the trump 
suit and winning of 9 tricks without the assis- 
tance of a partner — Abondance d^clar^e. Same 
as -habondance in trumps.— Abondance In trumps, in 
solo whist, the winning of 9 tricks with the trump that is 
turned up, without the assistance of a partner. 

Aboral pore, an opening or pore at the end of the body 
farthest from the mouth-opening, as in a few Anthozoa. 

aboriginalisni(ab-9-nj'i-nal-izm), n. The rec- 
ognition of the rigfits of aboriginal races. 

abort, V. t. To render abortive ; check or arrest 
the development of : as, to abort a fever. 

abortient, a. and n. In pathol., same as abor- 
tifacient. 

abortion, n. — nissed abortion, expulsion of a fetus 
sometime after its death. 

abortive, a. 8. Preventing full development ; 
arresting the course of, as of a disease: as, 
abortive treatment. 

Aboth (a'bot), n. pi. [Heb., pi. of 'db, father.] 
' The Fathers,' otherwise Pirhe aboth, ' Chap- 
ters of the Fathers' : a treatise in the Mishnah 
consisting of maxims and aphorisms of ancient 
' fathers ' or rabbis : analogous to the Book of 
Proverbs in the Old Testament. 

aboulic, a. See *abuUc. 

abrachiocephalus (a-bra^'ki-o-sef a-lus), n. ; pi. 
abrachiocephaU (-U). [NL., < Gr'.' d- priv. -I- 
^pax'ujv (L. brachitim), arm, -I- iie^dk^, head.] 
A monster without head and arms. 

abrader (ab-ra'der), n. [abrade, v. t., + -erl.] 
Any tool or machine used for abrading ; a file, 
emery-wheel, grinding-, sandpapering-, or de- 
polishing-machine. 

Abrahamt, a. See Abram. 

Abrahamitic (a'bra-ham-it'ik), a. Same as 
Abrdhamitieal. 

Abramt, Abrahamt, a. Corrupted forms of 
auburn. 

abranchial (a-brang'ki-al), a. [Gr. d- priv. + 
Ppdyxui, gills, + -al.] Saving no branchiae or 
gills, as certain worms, for example the earth- 
\vorm, in which respiration is carried on by the 
moist skin. • 

abranchiaUsm (a-brang'ki-al-izm), n. [dbranr- 
chial + -ism.] The condition of being abran- 
chial, or without gills, as the Firoloida among 
moUusks. Eneye. Brit., XXX. 796. 

Abranchiata, n. pi. 2. A group of macru- 
rous crustaceans having the gills rudimentary 
or absent. It includes the Mysidee, or opossum- 

. shrimps. 

abrastol (a-bras'tol), n. [Gr. d- priv. + Ppaar-f 
< lipd^ein, boil, ferment, -1- -ol.] A technical 
name given to the calcium salt of ;8-naphthol- 
sulphonic acid, (CioHe(OH)S03)2Ca+3H20. 
It is used as a preservative in wines. 

abrest, prep. phr. A simplified spelling of 
abreast. 

abrotine (ab'ro-tin), n. [abrot(anum) + -ine^.] 
A crystalline alkaloid, C2iH2^0N2, found in 
Artemisia Abrotanum . Its solutions give a blue 
fluorescence. 

absampere (abs'am-par''), n. [abs(olute) + 
ampere.] A name proposed for the c. g. s. 
electromagnetic unit of current ; 10. amperes. 

absarokite (ab-sa'ro-kit),». [Absarok{a) (see 
def.) + -»<e2.] Ia petrog., a name applied by 



absarokite 3 

Iddings (1895) to a group of igneous rocks oc- absorption-tube (ab - s6rp ' shon - 

curring in the Absaroka mountains in the east- tub), n. An instrument for the ab- «^ 

em part of the Yellowstone Park. Absarokite is sorption of gases, consisting of a 

usually porphyritic In texture, containing phenocrysts of vertical tube filled with glass beads 

ausite and oliTin in a ground-mass of orthoclase, leucite, xnrhinh ara wo+ wit>i fha nhKorhintr 

augite, olivin, and masnetite. The ground-maas may be ^°]^'^. a™ wet With the absorfting 

glassy and the texture aphanitic or phaneroorystalline. It material. It has been modihed by 

occurs in dilies and flows. Absarokite is the basaltic various experimenters, 

end of a series containing, in addition, shoshonite and abstat-. [ab(SOlute) + (electro)stai- 

?^"'"'"®- (jc).] In elect, a prefix which it has 

abscess, n — Acute abscess, an abscess occurring as been proposed to place before the 

the result of acute inflammation.— Cold abscess, a col- r\vapi■^oa^ plBpt.nVnl iinitssiiph ast.hfi 

lection of pus not associated with the ordinary signs of in- Practical electrical units suon as tDe 

flammation. It is usually located at some distance from O"™) ampere, volt, and coulomb, to 

the original point of suppuration, the matter burrowing designate the corresponding abso- 

along lines of fascia or within the sheath of a muscle : in lute electrostatic units. 

this case also called smtit«a(io» abscess.— Dubois's ab- -■Untn+aniTiovA I'nh'atat am nnr'/l 
soeases.multipleareasofnecrosisoccurriuginthethymus aDSLaxampere (ao siai am par ;, 

glandinyoungohildrenwithoongenitalsyphilis.— Grav- "• L^ee abstat-.j A name pro- 

itatlon abscess, a form of coU *abaeeiii Sterile ab- posed for the absolute electrostatic 

soess, an abscess containing no microorganisms.— StitcJl unit of current : about 3.3x10-10 

abscess, formation of pus after closure of a wound at the o^Tioroa 

points where the sutures are inserted. ' ampeies. ,,,,,,,.., ,,, ADsoipuon- 

absciss (ab-sis'), n, [See «*.a..a.] Apart cut ^^rSft' T iamt p- '"" 
?wA^»r«°f f ^'la"* X^/r**""'' ^° abscissa posedfortheabsoluteelectrostatieunitof elec- 
(whichsee). Also abseisse trical quantity; about 3.3 x 10-iOcoulombs. 

abscission, n. 7. In bot, the separation of abstatfarad (ab'stat-far"ad), n. [See abstat-.} 
spores from a sporophore on the disappear- A name proposed for the electrostatic absolute 
anoe of the connecting layer. unit of electrical capacity; about 1.1 X 10-6 

absciss-layer (ab-sis'la"er), ». In Bo*., a layer microfarads, 
or plane alon^ which separation takes place, abstatbenry (ab'stat-hen'ri), n. [See abstat-.'i 
i--. ^ name proposed for the absolute electro- 



as in the fall of leaves. 

abscoillomb (abs'ke-lom"), «. Same as *a&- 
coulomb. 

absentee, n. 3. An escaped or runaway con- 
vict: a euphemistic term formerly in use in 
Australia. 

absobm (abs'om), n. [aba{oVute) + ohm.'] A 
name proposed for the o. g. s. electromag- 
netic unit of resistance : 1 X 10-9ohms. 

Absolute differential limeu or absolute threshold 
of difference, mpeychol., the just noticeable difference 
of sensory stimulus stated absolutely, that is, without re- 
gard to the original stimulus of which it is an increment. 
—Absolute forest land, land fit only for forest growth. 
Also called absolute forest soil. — Absolute form factor. 
See */""»/«««<"■•— Absolute eeometiy, scale. See 
■kgeametry, *8ci>2e.— Absolute sensibility or absolute 



static unit of inductance; about 9 X lOH henrys. 

abstatohm (ab'stat-6m), n. [See abstat-.'] A 
name proposed for the absolute. electrostatic 
unit of resistance ; about 9 x lOH ohms. 

Abstemii (ab-ste'mi-i), n. pi. A sect of the 
early church, so called from their use of water 
instead of wine in the euoharist. They also 
abstained from all use of wine, and from meat 
and marriage, regarding these things as in- 
trinsically impure. They were followers of 
Tatian. 

abstinence, n. 4. The act of abstaining from 
the use of, or from the doing of, something ; 
specifically, in economics, voluntary abstention 
from the consumption of anything which one 



Bensitivity, in 3)«ycAo/., Fechner's term for sensitivity as _ .-.-., 

measured bythe inverse magnitude of the stimuli applied has the power of consuming or using, with the 
to the sense-organ. purpose of increasing one's resources or ac- 

ab^olv, V. t. A simplified spelling of absolve. cumulating wealth for future enjoyment 

absorbdji?' a. Asimplified spelling of a&so)'&e<f. abstract, v. «.— To abstract from, (i) To separate 

Absorbent screen, in optics^ a screen which absorbs cer- -'■—'" ' ■ 
tain or all of the rays of light falling upon it. Thus ruby 
glass is an absorbent screen cutting off all but the red 
rays of the visible spectrum. 

absorber, n. 2. In a hot-air engine, a ^art 
which absorbs heat from the air at one time 
and gives it out at another; a regenerator. 

absorptiometric (ab-s6rp"shi-6-met'rik), a. 
[L. aosorptio{n), absorption, + dr. /jirpov, mea- 
sure.] Measuring or determining the amount 



of absorption, as of a gas in a given quantity of 
a liquid or of radiation iii an opaque medium. 
— Absorptiometric equilibrium, the relation between 
the amounts of two or more gases absorbed by the same 
portion of a liquid with which they are simultaneously 
in contact. 

absorption, w. 1. («) in e^ct., the property ot the 
solid melectric of an electrostatic condenser by which it 
takes up a part of the charge and retains a part of the 
absorbed charge, after discharge, as residual charge. 
2. In Herbart's pedagogic system, the gradual 
process of the apprehension of the manifold: 
a translation of the German vertiefung. Other- 
wise called concentration a,ni self-estrangement. 
— Acoustic absorption, the absorption of sound-waves 
either by abody which does not perfectly transmit or re- . vT^v' 7"a ViKliM m 
flnnf. mmh waves or bv a bodv whose freauencv of vi- '''""■" >."■""" ^j,"' 



itself from ; occupy a plane or position apart ; pursue 
an independent course. 

Physics, which is wholly the science of the senses, ab- 
stracts from religion, /j-om morality, and /rom every kind 
of knowledge as far as the latter is independent of sense. 
I asij "abstracts from"; I do not say "rejects," or "re- 
pudiates," or "denies." Physical science merely attends 
to its own business. 

W. S. Lilly, On Bight and Wrong, p. 262. 

abstract-concrete (ab'''strakt-kon'kret), a. 
Relating both to the abstract and to the con- 
crete; in the Spencerian philosophy, noting 
those sciences which study abstractly concrete 
phenomena (physics and chemistry). 

Molar physics, molecular physics, and chemistry, deal- 
ing with abstract laws of motion and force that are gained 
from experience of concrete phenomena, and appealing 

. at every step to the concrete processes of observation 
and experiment, may be distinguished as abstract-eon- 
Crete sciences. J. Fiske, Cosmic Philos., II. 44. 

abstraction, n. 6. In geol., the tapping of the 
head waters of one stream by another the 
erosive action of which is more rapid. 

Abstractlonal demonstration, a demonstration which 
treats characters, relations, operations, and the like as 
themselves objects having characters, relations, .opera- 
tions, etc. 

An ancient 



flect'suJh waves or by a body "whose frequency of vi- »'">^'i >■"-""". '',".• ^^^^^ *«&«*?] , 

bration corresponds to that of the waves, so that it is Syrian musical instrument, probably a Fan s- 

thrown into sympathetic oscillation by resonance.- At- pipes. 

mospheric absorption, the loss of sunlight in passing abulic (a-bo'lik), a. Relating to or suffering 

through the atmosphere. It increases in proportion to f abulia Also nbmifir 

the diitance of the sun from the zenith, and also in pro- irom abulia. Also ooounc. 

Be- abundance, n. 3. In cara-playtng, same as 

*abondance. 



portion to the shortness of waves of heat or light. 

sides the general absorption there is also a so-called 

'selective absorption" (see srferfira), in accordance with abuTahaye (a'''b6-ra-ha'ye), n. [Jap., < abura. 



which each component of the earth's atmosphere absorbs 
with special intensity certain speciflc wave-lengths. 



oil, fat,"+ haye, said to mean 'minnow.'] A 
Japanese name of a fish of the family Cyprmidse, 
Sarcocheilichthys variegatus, found in the wa- 
ters of Japan. Also known as higai. 
abusefulness (ab-tis'ful-nes), n. Capability of 
being abused or put to a wrong use. Buskin, 
Unto this Last, p. 124. 
Abutilon, »- 2. [7. c] A plant of this genus, 
generally of a cultivated species. Qee velvet- 
leaf, 3, and American jute, under j'Mfez. 
amplitudeof anlnciaentray,AiiiiBampmuueaiperpene- . -V ' . o ,»i Tn a rntarv pnoiTie a nart tiro- 

trating to a depth of one wavelength in the absorbing aDUimeni, n. a. (c) m a rotary engine, a part pro 
medium, and e the base of natural logarithms.— Dls- '"°''" '° ""* °" 



thus causing dark lines in the optical spectrum, inert 
bands in the photographic spectrum, and cold bands 
in the holographic spectrum. Absorption is to be dis- 
tinguished from selective reflection,— Coefficient of ab- 
sorption, a physical constant used to express the spe- 
cific absorbing power of a substance. Specifically— {a) In 
the absorption of gases, the volume of a gas which one 
volume of a liquid will dissolve. (6) In optics, the con- 
stant K in the equation jr = "T^ip^ where Aa is the 

amplitude of an incldentray, Aj its amplitude afterpene- 

■ - . - .. " 1 — t-^ -- *»-- -1 v.- — , ,-, — „ ^ , . 

vided to cut off the steam pressure from the back or ex- 
iimctive"abs6rption, in nMd., a process by which a haust side of the piston. ,„,.,. „, . 

Kh is separa™d from healthy tissue, a thin layer of abuttal, n. 2. The fact of abutting or of lying 
the latter in immediate contact with the necrosed por- contiguous: as, the abuttal of the land on a 
tion being absorbed. —Fluorescence absorption, the hiehwav. 
increased absorption of light by a substance which oc- , ^ j 
curs when the latter is rendered fluorescent.- Selective aouv, aav. aaaprep. 
absorption. ' See selective. above. 



A simplified spelling of 



Acadian 

abuze, v. t. A simplified spelling of abuse. 

Abysmal clay. Same as *abyssal clay. 

abyssal, a. 3. Inpetrol. , applied by Brogger and 
others to deep-seated or plutonic igneous rocks. 
— Abyssal benthos. See *bcnthos and -khypobenthos.— 
Abyssal clay, fine clay now being deposited on the sea- 
floor in depths exceeding 600-700 fathoms. This mateiial 
is generally red, purple, chocolate, or brown in color, is 
made up of impalpable particles free from organic re- 
mains, and is regarded by Murray as constituted of fine 
volcanic materials which have been decomposed in sea- 
water and have accumulated with excessive slowness dur- 
ing immense periods of time. Intermingled with the clay 
are particles of metaUic iron and concretions of manga- 
nese oxid. Some geologists regard it as doubtful whether 
rocks representing such profound oceanic deposits are 
present in existing continental masses ; others find paral- 
lel conditions suggested in some of the barren and highly 
colored Silurian and Cambrian slates. 

Abyssinian church, gold. See *chwrch, *gold.—-A\tyB- 
sinlan languages, the languages of Abyssinia, some 
Semitic and others Hamitic. The Semitic class includes : 

(a) Amharic, derived from the ancient Sabean or Him- 
yaritic, introduced from Yemen in southern -Arabia, 
and closely related to Geez or Ethiopic. (See next.) 
It has been the oiflcial language of Abyssinia since about 
the year 1300 (when the capital of Bthiopia was removed 
to Shoa), gradually superseding the ancient Geez, but 
adopting its syllabic alphabet (with some modifications 
and many additions) and a large number of its words. 
It is the popular language ; its literature is comparatively 
modern and slight. (6) Ethiopic, called by its usere the 
Ge'ez, usually written Geez, the language of the Aga'azi, 
' emigrants ' from southern Arabia who had settled in 
Tigt6 (now a province of Abyssinia) about 836 A. D. Su- 
perseded by Amharic as the official language of the coun- 
try about the year 1300, it has continued to be the liturgio 
language of the Abyssinian Church, somewhat as Latin 
in the Roman Catholic Church. Originally written, like 
the other Semitic languages, from right to left, the 
dire6tion was early changed, under Greek influence, to 
the European order (from left to right). The alphabet 
consists of peculiar characters of Himyaritic origin. 
There is considerable literature, including an ancient 
translation of the Bible. The two principal modern rep- 
resentatives of Geez are the dialects known as (1) Tigri 
{Tigre, Tigral, native Tigral), spoken by nomadic tribes 
in the extreme north, and (2) Tigriila, a more corrupt 
form largely mixed with Amhanc words, as spoken in 
the old province of Tigr& The Hamitic family is repre- 
sented in Abyssinia by Agau (^Agmi), spoken by a larget 
number of Abyssinians and Tigr6 people, by GaUa, and 
by many others. 

A, 0. (3) In elect., an abbreviation for alternat- 
ing current. (4) An abbreviation of Analytical 
Chemist.. 

aco, aci, aC2, acs, etc. Points of fl.exure in the 
heating curves of iron and steel. The point 
aci on heating is the same as ar^ on cooling, 
etc. 

acacanthrax (ak-a-kan'thraks), n. [NL., < 
Gr. aKUKog, not bad' (a- priv. + Kaicdg, bad), -I- 
avBpa^, carbuncle : see anthrax.] Non-specifie 
anthrax; carbuncle. 

acacetin (a-ka'se-tin), n. [acacia + -et- -I- 
in^.] A compound, CigHiaOs, found in the 
leaves of JRobima Pseuducacia. It is probably 

, the monomethyl ether of *apigenin (which see). 

acacia, n — Parasol acacia, a variety of the common 
locust or false acacia. It forms a compact spherical head 
and, though not producing flowers, is much cultivated in 
central and northern Europe for decoration and shade. 

academic, n. 3. A member of an academy or 
learned society ; an academist or academician. 
Swinburne, Essays and Studies, p. 372. N. E. D. 

academicalism (ak'a-dem'i-kal-izm), m. [aca- 
demical, a., + -ism.'] Adherence to academic 
rules or methods; conventionalism; formal- 
ism. Atheneeum (quoted in N. and Q., 8th ser., 
IV. 363). 

academicism, n. 2. A tendency toward Pla- 
tonic opinions. 

academize (a-kad'em-iz), v. t. ; pret. and pp. 
academieed, ppr. aeademizing. [academy -t- 
-ise.] To form into an academy, or subject to 
the rules of an academy. Daily Telegraph, May 
4, 1868. N.E.D. 

Academy of music, (a) A local musical society or cor- 
poration, founded either for the support of musical edu- 
cation or for research connected with musical science. 

(b) An operatic company or choral club organized for the 
study and rendering of musical works, (c) A building 
devoted to the rendering of musical works. The most 
famous of the many Italian academies is that of Bologna, 
founded in 1482. The French Academy, which is a royal 
subvention for the performance of opera, really dates 
from the privilege granted in 1609. The earlier operas of 
Handel were largely written for an operatic association 
called the Royal Academy. 

Acadian. I. a — Acadian halrstreak. See -khair- 
streak.— Acadian owL See itowU. 

II. n. 2. In geol., the middle division or 
stage of the Cambrian system of eastern 
North America, named from its typical devel- 
opment in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 
but extending into Newfoundland, Cape Bre- 
ton, and eastern Massachusetts, and perhaps 
farther south in the Appalachian region. Pale- 
ontologically it is known as the Paradoxides horizon, con- 



Acadian 

trasting with the Olendlus horizon, or Georgian stage, 
below, and with the Dicelloeephalus horiam, or Sarato- 
gian stage, above. Its rocks are chiefly slates and shales. 

Acajou oil, a fat oil obtained from the acajou or cashew- 
nut, Anacardium oceicUntale, used for food and in cook- 
ing in Brazil and the West Indies. 

Acalephse, n. pi. 2. A class of Ccelenterata, 
ineluding medusEB of considerable size, with 
gastral filaments, endodermal gonads, and 
lobed umbrella-edge, and without true velum : 
contrasted with HyAromedussB and Jctinozoa. 
Same as Acraspeda. 

acalyptrate (ak-a-lip'trat), a. [0-18 + calyp- 
trate!) la hot., not furnished with a oalyptra ; 
in entom.,ot or belonging to the Acalyptratx. 

acamp (a-kamp'), adv. [o3 + camp.'] To the 
camp : campward. J. Barlow, Columbiad, vi. 
637. 

a candelUere. 2. Said of a style of decoration 
frequently found on the majolica of Urbino, 
Castel Durante, and other manufactures, con- 
sisting of animal grotesques arranged symmet- 
rically around the border or on either side of a 
central design. . 

acanth (a-kanth'), n. [acanthus.'] Same as 
acaHth^l,sj 2. 

acanthad (a-kan'thad), n. [NL., (.Acanthus + 
-0(Z.] A plant of the Acanthus family. 

Acantharchus (ak-an-thar'kus), n. [NL., < 
Gr. axavSa, a thorn, -I- (?) apx6(, rectum.] A 












Mud-sunfish iAcantharchus pomotis), 
(From Bull. 47 U. S. Nat. Museum.) 

genus of sunfishes of the family Centrarchidx, 
ineluding the mud-sunfish, A. pomotis. 

Acantharia, ». pi. 2. One of the four sub- 
orders into which Haeckel divides the Badio- 
laria: characterized by having the capsule- 
membrane uniformly perforated and the 
skeleton composed of aeanthine spicules. 

Acanthephyra (ak-an-thef 'i-ra), n. [NL.] 
The typical genus of the family Acanfhephyri- 
dss. Milne-Edwards, 1881. 

AcantbephyridsB (a-kan-the-fi'ri-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < Acanthephyra + -idee.] A family of ma- 
cmrous podophthalmous crustaceans mainly 
inhabiting the deep sea. They have the body later- 
ally compressed, the first antenna with 2 long flagella, 
and the first two pairs of trunk-legs slender and subequal. 
The typical «enus is Acanthephyra. Also MiergCidae. 

Acantherpestes (a-kan-th6r-pes'tez), n. [Gr. 
wcavBa, spine, -I- ipir^crr^s, a reptile.] A genus 
of Carboniferous myriapods, some of the mem- 
bers of which attained a length of a foot. They 
were ai'med with branching spines and appear to have 
had lateral branchial pores ; hence they are regarded by 
Scudder as amphibious. 

acanthin, aeanthine (a-kan'thin), n. [Gr. 

t anavda, thorn, -f- -in^, -ine^.] An organic sub- 
stancCj allied to horn or chitin, which enters 
into the composition of the spicules in the non- 
silieious Badiolaria. 

aeanthine, a. 3. Inicfta., spine-like; bearing 
spines. 

acanthinic (ak-an-thin'ik), a. Composed of 
or containing *acanthin (which see). 

acanthinous (a-kan'thi-nus), a. [acanthin + 
-Otis.] Consisting of or resembling acanthin. 

acanthion (a-kan'thi-on), n. [NL., < Gr. aK&v- 
6urv, dim. of irnvda, a spine.] In craniom., the 
extreme point of the nasal spine. Von Torok. 

Acanthistius (ak-an-this'ti-us), n. [NL., < 
Gr. aicavBa, spine, + IctIov, dim. of lardv, a web.] 
A genus of serranoid fishes allied to Flectro- 
poma: found in South America and elsewhere. 

Acanthobatis (ak-an-thob'a-tis), n. [Gr. aicav- 
8a, spine, + park, skate, roach.] A genus of 
fossil rays or skates from the Miocene Terti- 
ary of France and Wilrtemberg. 

Acanthoceras (ak-an-thos'e-ras), n. [Gr. aitav- 
0a, spine, + dpag, horn.] The typical genus 
of the family Aeanthoceraiidse. 

Acanthoceratids (ak-an-thos-e-rat'i-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < Acanthoceras + 4dcB.] A family of 
tetrabranehiate cephalopods or ammonites 
whidi have evolute or loosely coiled whorls 



bearingmore or less continuous transverse ribs. 
The species are from the Cretaceous system. 

Acantnodisetodon (a-kan-tho-ke'to-don), n. 
[NL., < Gr. arnvBa, spine, -I- x<^Itv, hair (bristle), 
+ o&iic, tooth (see Chsetodon).] A genus of 
chsetodontids, the butterfly-fishes of the East 
Indies. 

Acanthocladia (a-kan-tho-kla'di-a), n. [Gr. 
amvBa, spine, + icK6.Sog, a branch.] The typir 
cal genus of the family Acanthocladiidse. 

Acanthocladiidse (a-kan"th6-kla-di'i-de), n.pl. 
A family of cryptostomatous Bryosoa, repre- 
sented -by genera which occur in geologic for- 
mations from the Silurian to the Permian. 

Acanthocottus(a-kan-th6-kot'us), n. [NL., < 
Gr. axavBa, spine, + k6ttos, a river-fish (the 
bullhead?): see Coitus.] A genus of sea-seul- 
pins. Earlier called My otocephalus. 

Acanthocybium (a-kan-tho-si'bi-um), n. [NL., 

< Gr. UKavBa, spine, -I- (?) /cfejSof, a die, a' verte- 
bra.] A genus of mackerels, family Sconibridse, 
of the tropics, remarkable f orthe elongate form 
and serrate teeth. The peto or wahoo of the 
West Indies, A. petus or A. solandri, belongs 
to this genus. 

acanthocyst (a-kan'tho-sist), n. [Gr. anavBa, 
thorn, + idiang, bladder.] In the Nemertini, 
a sac or an enormous cell containing one or 
more calcareous stylets. 

Acanthodei, n. pi. 2. In Agassiz's classifica- 
tion, an order of selachians or sharks having 
the endoskeleton and parts of the skull calci- 
fied ; pterygoquadrate articulated with the 
cranium and sometimes bearing teeth ; fins, ex- 
cept the caudal, with stout anterior spines; 
and shagreen scales quadrate and compactly 
arranged. The members of this order are all fossil and 
belong wholly to the Paleozoic formations. Two families 
are distinguished, the Acanthodidee and the Diplcusan- 
thidae. 

acanthodiau (ak-an-tho'di-an), a. andm. [Acan- 

thodes.] I. a. Belonging' to or having the 

characters of the genus Acanthodes or the order 

Acanthodei. 

II. n. A fossil fish of the genus Acanthodes. 

Acantholabrus (a-kan-tho-la'brus), n. [NL.J 

< Gr. &Kav6a, spine, + L. Idbrum, lip (see 
Ldbrvs).] A genus of labroid fishes of the 
north of Europe, having an increased number 
of anal spines. The species is A. exoletiis. 

acanthology (ak-an-thol'o-ji), n. [Gr. axavBa, 
thorn, spine, + -/Uyyta, < '^ijeiv, speak.] The 
study of the structure and functions of spines, 
especially of those of sea-urchins. 

Acanthomeridse (a-kan'tho-mer'i-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < Acanthomera, a genus (< Gr. aKavBa, a 
thorn, spine, -1- ^e/joj, a part (or fir/pdg, thigh?)), 
-I- -idee.] A family of dipterous insects eon- 
fined to America and containing only two gen- 
era, Acanthomera and Ehaphiorhynchus. They 
are allied to the gadflies of the family TabanidsB. The 
family contains the largest Dvptera known, some of them 
reaching a length of two inches. 

acanthometran (a-kan-tho-met'ran), a. and n. 
I. a. Pertaining or relating to the genus .4ca?i- 
tyuymel/ra. 
II. n. A member of the genus jlcoTOifeoTOeira. 

acanthometridan (a-kan-tho-met'ri-dan), a. 
and n. I, a. Pertaining to or resembling the 
Aoanthometridse. 

II. ». A member of the family Acanfho- 
metridsB. 

Acanthonida (ak-an-thon'i-da), n. pi. [NL., 

< Gr. aKavda, thorn, + -on- -i- -ida.] An order or 
a family of acantharian radiolarians having 20 
spines arranged according to Miiller's law (4 
equatorial, 8 tropioal, and 8 polar). As an 
order it includes the families Asfrolonchidse, 
QuadrilonchidsB, and Amphilonchidse. 

Acanthonidse (ak-an-thon'i-de), n. pi. Same 
as * Acanthonida. 

acanthophore (a-kan'tho-fdr), m. [Gr. axavBa, 
thorn, -f- -^opog, < (j>ipew, bear.] A somewhat 
conical granular mass which bears the median 
stylet in the bottom of the eversible portion of 
the proboscis in certain MetanemerUni. 

acanthophract (a-kan'tho-frakt), n. One of 
the AcanthophractSB. 

acanthopodons (ak-an-thop'o-dus), a. [(Jr. 
anavda, spine, -f- ttcAq {woS-), foot, -f- -ous.] 1. 
In hot., bearing spines on the petiole or pe- 
duncle. — 2. Same as acanthopod. 

acanthopore (a-kan'tho-p6r), n. [Gr. hxavBa, 
spine, + irdpog, pore.] In the extinct tabulate 
corals of the family Chsetitidm, one of a set of 
pores which emerge on the surface in small 
tubercles. Contrasted with *autopore and 
*mesopore. 





AcanthosHgma ferfiitsiliiim. 
a, two perithecia (below), one enlargred (above) ; 
b, two spore-cases cut longitudinally to show the 
fusiform septate spores. 



acarine 

acanthopous (a-kan'tho^pus), a. [Gr. aiaaSa, 
a spine, + <5^ ("t-), eye.] Having spines on or 
about the eye. * 

Acanthosoma (a-kan-tho-so'mS), m. [NL. 
(Curtis, 1824), < Gr. aKavBa, spine, -I- aafta, 
body.] An interesting genus of pentatomid 
bugs common to the old and new worlds, a. 
grieeum of Europe is remarkable for the solicitude shown 
by the female for her young. She not only protects the 
eggs, but cares for the young for a considerable period 
after hatching. 

acanthos^henote (a-kan-tho-sfe'not), a. [Gr. 
i,mvBa, spine, + *Bij>Tivun-6(, < aijainovv, v., < cip^v, 
a wedge.] A term applied by Mackintosh to 
the spines of Echinotdea, which are shown by 
transverse section to consist of a number of 
wedge-shaped portions ra(iiating£romacentral 
axis and separated by bands of porous tissue. 

acanthosphere (a-kan'tho-sfer), «. [Gr. 
aKavda, thorn, + a<palpa, sphere.] One of the 
peculiar spiny bodies contained in the cells of 
Niiella : the Stachelkiigeln of the Germans. 

Acanthostigma (a-kan-tho-stig'ma), n. [NL. 
(De Notaris, 1863), named in allusion to the 
spine - like 
bristles of 
the peri- 
thecium, < 
Gr. &Kav- 
6a, thorn, 

-f- OTiy/M, 

mark, dot, 
spot.] A 
genus of 
pyrenomy- 
eetous fun- 
gi hav- 
ing small 
superficial 

perithecia beset with short, stiff bristles. The 
spores are mostly fusiform and hyaline with several septa. 
The species are mostly saprophytic. A. parasiticum is 
said to cause a disease of the silver fir, Abies Picea, in 
Europe. 

Acanthostracion (a-kan-tho-stra' si-on), n. 
[NL., < Gr. &Kav0a, spine, + barpaiaov, dim. of 
Sarpamv, a shell.] A generic name applied to 
the three-angled box-fishes with horn-like 
spines above the eyes. 

Acanthotelson (a-kan-tho-tel'sgn), n. [Gr. 
amvBa, spine, H- Tihjov, limit: see telson.] A 
genus of extinct amphipod Crustacea from the 
Carboniferous rocks. 

acanthozooid (a-kan-tho-zo'oid), ». [Gr. 
UKavBa, thorn, + eooid.] The narrow hook- 
bearing posterior end of the proscolex of cer- 
tain Cestoidea, as Dipylidvum caninum. See 
^cystozooid. 

a cappella. 2. In music, noting a species of 
time which employs four minims or half -notes 
in each measure. 

acapulco (a-ka-pul'ko)^ n. [Acapulco, a Mexi- 
can seaport.] Anamem the Philippine Islands 
and Guam of Herpetica alata, an introduced 
plant of Mexican origin, the leaves of which 
are used as a remedy for ringworm and other 
parasitic skin-diseases. See ringworm-shrub. 

acara (a-ka-ra'), ». [Tupi acard.] A name 
applied to different cichloid fishes found in 
South America. From the common name the 
genus Acara was named. 

acari(ak'a-ri), «.^Z. [Plural of acistrtts.] The 
order Acdrina as a whole, or any number of 
species or individuals of the order. See Aca- 
rus and Aearima. 

acariasiS, n — poultry acarlasls, any infection of 
poultry by mites {Acanna), as the cutaneous infection 
with the chicken-tick (Dermanysirm gaUinse) or the 
chicken-mites {Sa/rcopteg ^nutans, S. Isevis gallinse), the 
subcutaneous infection with the cystic fowl-mite (iMad- 
Twsioptes cystieola), oi the infection of the air-passages 
with the internal chicken-mite (Cytoditea nudui).— tBO- 
roptic acaiiasis^a highlycontagious cutaneous infection 
of certain domesticated animals with mites (.Acari-na) be- 
longing to the genus Psoroptes. The best-knowji forms are 
the common sheep-scab, and cattle-mange or cattle-scah, 
sometimes called Texas itch. Similar infections occur on 
the horse, ass, mule, goat, and rabbit. — SarcoBtic aoar 
riasis, a highly contagious cutaneous infection with mites 
{Acanna) belonging to the genus Sareoptes. The most 
common form is the itch or scabies of man, caused by the 
itch-mite {Sareoptes scdbiei). which burrows irregular 
galleries in the epidermis. Norwegian iteh is a specially 
severe variety of the disease. Varieties of sarcoptic aca^ 
riasis or sarcoptic mange also affect the horse, cattle, 
goat, camel, llama, hog, rabbit, ferret, dog, wolf, lion, 
wombat cafi pigeon, and poultiy. 

acariform (a-kar'i-f6rm), a. [NL < Gr. aKopi, 

aearus, mite, + L. forma, form.] Same as 

aearoia. 
acarine (ak'a-rin), a. and n. [NL. *acarinus, 

< aearus, aearus.] I. a. Like an acarian; of 

or relating to the order Acarina. 



acarlne 

II. n. A member of the order Acarma or of the 
genus Aearus — Acarlne diseases, diseases such as 
mange or the Itch. 

acarocecidinm (ak"a-ro-se-sid'i-um), %.; pi. 
acaroceeidia (-a). A ' plant-gall made by- 
mites: practically the same as *phytoptoce- 
eidium. 

The analogy of these organs to the acaro-ceddia (that 
is to say, to galls caused by certain acarids) 6f laurels 
and various other plijnts is striking. 

Smithsoniam, Report^ 1896, p. 452. 

acarodomatia, n. Plural of *acarodomaUum. 

acarodomatium (ak''''a-ro-do-ma'sM-um), n. ; 
pi. acarodomatia (-shi-'a).' [NL., < Aearus + 
Gt. Sa/idTiov, dim. of Sofia, a house : see dome.'] 
A shelter formed on certain tropical plants for 
the protection of mites (acari) when they are 
of service to the host. 

acarologist (ak-a-rol'o-jist), n. [acarolog-y + 
-ist.'\ One who is versed in the study of the 
Acarina, or mites and ticks. 

If that be so, then it appears to me that Dr. Oudcmans 
has proved conclusively that the sense in which acarolo- 
gists use the genus Oribata is correct. 

Annals and Mag. Nat. 3ist., April, 1902, p. 311. 

acarology (ak-a-rol'6-ji), n. [NL. aearus + 
Grr. -Xoy«2: see -oZogry'.] The scientific study of 
mites. 

acatalepsy, n. 3. A weak understanding; 
mental deficiency. 

acatamatliesia (a-kafa-ma-the'si-ai), n. [NL., 

< Gt. o-priv. + Kora/idft?a<f,tioroughknowledge, 

< Kara/iavBdveiv, learn thoroughly,? Kara, intens., 
+ fiavBdvetv, 'know well.] Inability to compre- 
hend ordinary conversation, accompanied by a 
blunting of the perceptions. Baldwin, Diet, of 
Philos. and Psychol. 

acatastasia (a-kat-a-sta'si-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
aKaTaaraaia, instability, < d- priv. -t- KaToaraaii, 
stability: seeeatastasis.~\ In jwed., irregularity 
in the symptoms or course of a disease. 

acatastasis (ak-a-tas'ta-sis), n. [See *acatas- 
tasia.'] 1. An unsettling, as of the mind. M. 
ffooTcer. — 2. In med., same as *aeatastasia. 
Syd. Sao. Lex. 

acatastatic (a-kat-a-stat'ik), a. Unsettled ; in- 
determinate; irregular. 

acategorical (a-kat-e-gor'i-kal), a. [a-, not, 
-1- ctetegoi^ical.] Dlogieal; loose; inexact:- as, 
acategorical avgrnnents. [Rare.] N. E. D. 

acatharsia, n. (c) Amenorrhea. 

acathoUc (a-kath'o-lik), a. [o-i8 -|- catholic.'] 
Un-Catholie; not Catholic; henocj sectarian. 
Encyc. Brit, XXX. 525. 

A. C. 0. In elect., an abbreviation of Anodic 
Closure Contraction. 

accelerant (ak-sel'e-rant), a. and n. [L. aecele- 
rans, ppr. of aceelerare, hasten : see aeeelerate.] 
I. a. That accelerates; accelerating. 

II. n. That which quickens ; specifically, one 
of the nerves stimulation of which causes in- 
creased rapidity of the heart's action. 

accelera-te, v. t. 3. To assign a date earlier 
than the true or real one ; give an earlier date 
to; antedate. Milman, Hist. Latin Christian- 
ity, I. 72._ 

acceleration, n. («) in Ual., the supposed acquisi- 
tion of new characters by adults, and their inheritance 
by descendants at earlier and earlier stages of their lite ; 
^tachygenesis (which see).— Angular acceleration, 
the time-rate of angular velocity. It is measured nu- 
merically as radians per second per second. — EOLUation 
Of acceleration. The acceleration of a body is equal to 
the force acting on it divided by its mass. The accelera- 
tion of a moving body at any instant is the rate at which 

dv dSa 
Its velocity is changing at that instant : "= Jf^gtS'" 

Eanaf t>rial acceleration of the sun, the diminution 
of the rotation period for points on the sun's equator as 
compared with the period at points in higher latitudes. 
Between the equator and latitude 40° the difference is 
about two days.— Linear acceleration, rate of change 
of linear velocity : usually expressed in centimeters per 
second per second.— Faxallelogram of accelerations, 
a vector diagram for the resolution or composition of ac- 
celerations, similar in construction and principle to the 
parallelogram, of forces. See/orc«i.— Secular accel- 
eration in astron., a slow Increase in the mean orbital 
motion of a heavenly body. In the case of the moon it 
amounts to about 8 seconds in a century. See accelera- 
tion.— TliSiagle of accelerations, avector diagram for 
the resolution and composition of accelerations, similar 
to the triangle of velocities or of forces. See ^polygon of 
vectors.— Vnit of acceleration, the acceleration which 
produces unit change of velocity m unit time : usually 
one centimeter per second per second.— Unit of angu- 
lar acceleration, the acceleration which produces unit 
change in the angular velocity of a body in unit time : 
usually a radian in a second. 

accelerative, a. 2. In philol, indicating a 
notion of acceleration : applied to certain verb- 
forms in some agglutinative languages. See 
the extract. 

The highly agglutinating character of this language 
[the KuM-lAisluu of North Kachai- Hills and parts of 



Nagaland] is evident from the numerous conjngations 
given by Mr. Soppitt, for some of which he has no names, 
but which may be called Acceleratives, Ketardatives, Com- 
plementatlves, and so on. Eeane, Man Past and Present, 
p. 185. 

Accelerative force, in physics, a force which produces 
positive acceleration and consequently increases the ve- 
locity of a moving body : opposed to retarding force, the 
acceleration due to which is negative. 

accelerator, n. {e) a device in a motor-car by which 
the operator may render inoperative the speed-governor 
of the motor. If the governor is of the centrifugal type, 
as the speed increases the balls or weights Sy outward 
against the action of a spring. The accelerator Increases 
the tension of the spring or draws the balls Inward di- 
rectly, so that the governor ceases to act to close the 
throttle or regulate speed as the motor increases its num- 
ber of revolutious above the limit set by the normal ten- 
sion of the springs. 

accelerator-pedal (ak-sel'e-ra-tor-ped'''al), n. 
A pedal used to actuate the rods of the accel- 
erator mechanism iu many forms of motor-car. 
See ^accelerator (e). 

accelerograph (ak-sel'e-ro-graf), n. An ap- 
paratus designed for measuring the succession 
of pressures developed in a powder-chamber by 
the combustion of a charge. The powder may be 
exploded in an inclosed vessel or be placed in the bore 
of a gun and act on a projectile, 

accelerometer (ak-sel-e-rom'e-t&r), n. 1. An 
instrument for measuring the force required 
to start a train and keep it going and the cen- 
trifugal force when the train rounds a curve. 
The instrument consists of two glass vessels connected by 
a tube, one containing a liquid such as mercury and the 
other red alcohol. Amer. Inventor, July 15, 1904, p. 312. 
2. An apparatus for showing by direct registry 
the law of the movement, m the function of 
time, of a piston subjected to the action of 
powder gases. 

accensor, n. 2. In the early Christian church, 
the one who lighted and extinguished the can- 
dles on or about the altar. This office is now 
performed by an altar-boy. 

accent, n., 8. Musical accent, in general is said to be 
transferred, or false, when for esthetic reasons it is placed 
in some unusual place, contrary to the simple rhythm : 
thus in a syncopated passage (see synemation, 2) the ac- 
cents are systematically transferred. In violin-i laying, 
an accent is called dead when the bow is held firmly 
against the strings after beginning an emphatic tone, so 

. as to choke the sound. 

10. In decorative art, an added relieving or 
contrasti-ve touch or tint : as, deep blue or 
crimson, with accents of gold.— Logical accent. 
(a) The accent or stress placed by the voice on the root- 
syllable of a word, as in Anglo-Saxon and other Teutonic 
languages : as, for example, Anglo-Saxon gif'an, to give, 
fargifennes, forgiveness, etc. (6) The special stress or 
emphasis laid on a particular word in a sentence : as, for 
example, on ' us ' in the line, " Better lor us, perhaps, it 
might appear "{Pope, Essay on Man, 1. 169). Latham, Eng- 
lish, II. 45.— Primary accent, (a) The principal accent 
or stress In a word of several syllables. In English, as a 
rule, it falls on a root-syllable, as in shep'herdess, unnat- 
ural, impos'slble ; or on the first syllable : but the fact 
depends upon the history of the word in question, and 
cannot be reduced to one or two rules. (&) A character, 
usually ('), used to mark such an accented syllable. — 
Rhythmical accent, accent depending on rhythm as 
associated with quantity or pitch.— Secondary accent. 
(a) A second or minor accent or stress heard in the pro- 
nunciation of some words with two or more syllables, 
preceding or following that bearing the primary accent. 
(6) A character,usually("), used to mark such an accent. 
The term often includes minor accents of the third (terti- 
ary) or weaker grades, as in ln"'con"tro-ver'ti-ble, hy"per- 
caf'arlec'tlc, in'"'com"pre-hen"'si-biri-ty, etc. — Tonic 
accent, syllabic stress. 

accentualist (ak-sen'tu-al-ist), n. [accentual 
+ 4st.] One who hoffls to a particular theory 
of accent. 

acceptance, n. 4. Acceptableness; the qual- 
ity of being acceptable. Browning, Ring and 
Book, ii. 835.— Acceptance of persons, favoritism ; 
partiality.— Proposal and acceptance. See -kproposal. 

acceptive, a. 2. Fitting; appropriate. Mrs. 
Browning, Loved Once. 

access, n. 8. In the Eom. Cath. Ch., same as 
accession, 6. 

accession (ak-sesh'on), v. t. To enter in the 
accession-book of a liWary. See '^aceession- 
hooTc. 

accession-book (ak-sesh'on-buk), «. Ablank- 
book in which the titles "of the books or vol- 
umes received by a library are entered in the 
order of their receipt, with all the necessary 
details regarding them, such as date of entry, 
accession-number, class-number, author, name 
of publisher, place and date of publication, 
size, number of pages, etc. J. C. Dana, Li- 
brary Primer, p. 77. 

accession-nniUDer (ak-sesh'on-num'b6r), n. 
The number given to a voluriie when it is en- 
tered in the accession-book of a library, show- 
ing the order of its receipt. 

accessorius, a Lateralis accessorius, the accessory 

lateral line ; in fishes, one or more series of mucous tubes 
in addition to the usual aeries called the lateral line. 



accordion 

accessory, I. a. 3. In the logical system of 
Lotze, adding (as thought) to the coherence of 
the matter of thought a notion of the ground 
of its coherence. See the extract. 

That peculiarity of thought which will govern the whole 
of our subsequent exposition lies in the production of 
those accessory and justificatory notions which condition 
the form of our apprehension. 

Lotze (tra.ns.], Logic, Introd., §7. 

4. In geol., noting those minerals which are 
present in relatively small quantities in a rock 
and are not mentioned in its definition, such as 

, zircon, apatite, and magnetite in granite : con- 
trasted with essential,— AxxeBsory germ-plasm. 
See *germ-plami.—AceeBaoiy idioplasm. See *idio- 
j>Zasm.— Accessory parts or voices, in music, parts or 
voices which supply an accompaniment to those which 
are principal or essential. — Accessory signs, in pathd., 
customary or constantly attendant signs. 

II. n. 4. In orgatir-building, same as acces- 
sory *stop. 

Accident yield. See *yield. 

Accidental variations. See ^variation. 

accidentalism, n. 4. In philos., the opinion 
that events are sometimes modified without 
adequate cause : a use of the word proposed 
by J. M. Baldwin. 

accipenserin, n. See *acipenserin. 

acchmatable (a-kli'ma-ta-bl), a. Acclimatiza- 
ble. [Rare.] N. E. b. " 

Acclimation fever. See *feveri-. 

acclimatize, v. II. intrans. To become cli- 
matically accustomed or habituated to a new 
locality, or to new conditions. 

accolent (ak'o-lent), a. and n. [L. accolens 
(-ent-), ppr. of dccolere, dwell by, < ad, to, + 
colere, till, dwell: see cult.'] Dwelling near 
by ; one who dwells near by. 

The close resemblance between the skulls of the ancient 
Clbolans and those of the accolents of the Gila-Salado has 
been commented ou by others. J. W. Fewkes, in Smith- 
sonian Report, 1896, p. 510. 

accommodation, n. 5. In biol., a change 
which is brought about in a living being by its 
own activity and is not transmitted to its de- 
scendants, as contrasted with a variation re- 
garded as a congenital change which is not the 
effect of the activity of the organism and is 
transmitted to descendants ; an acquired char- 
acter. — 6. In genetic psychology, the reverse of 
habit. It implies modification of function or type, and 
finds expression in selective thought, interest, etc. Bald- 
win, Handbook of Psychol., p. 49. 
7. In- theol., the theory that God in his revela- 
tion so modifies its teaching that it meets the 
needs of man, who is limited in knowledge and 
holiness. So God's law is accommodated to 
the hardness of man's heart, and his truth to 
ignorance. — 8. A public coach with seats inside 
for twelve persons, and -with an entrance on 
each side. The body was hung on leather thorough- 
braces after the manner of the post-chaise. It was first 
used in New York on Broadwaybetween Wall and Bleecker 
streets. Its successors were the sociable and the omnibns, 
— Absolute accommodation, that of one eye acting 
independeiiitly of its fellow.— Accommodation phos- 
phenes. See -kphosphene. — Limits of accommodai- 
tlon, in physiol. and psychological optics, the nearest and 
farthest points at which an object can be seen single ; also 
termed range of accommodation. — line of accommo- 
dation, in psychological optics, the portion of the line of 
sight for points in which the same degree of accommodar 
tion is sufficient.— Range of accommodation. See 
limits of itaccornnwdation — Relative accommoda- 
tion, that effected by the two eyes acting together. 

accompaniment, n. (a) Au accompaniment is said 
to be omligato when it so far differs from that which is ac- 
companied that it is necessary for the intended effect, 
butadlibitum when itso nearly coincides with thatwhich 
is accompanied that It may or may not be used, at wilL 
The form of an accompaniment is specifically described 
by terms such as arpeggio, figured, pulsatile, harmonic, 
contrapuntal, running, etc., and its character is indicated 
by naming the instrument or other apparatus by which 
it is provided : as, a piano accompaniment, a chorus ac- 
companiment, etc.— Accompaniment figure, in mueic, 
a small pattern of notes which is used again and again, 
with but slight modifications, so as to form a continuous 
background or framework for a solo or other principal 
melody. The so-called AlberH bass is one variety of ac- 
companiment figure ; but the term is extended to cover 
much more elaborate melodic figures which are repeated 
in accompaniments. 

accordatura (a-k6r-da-t6'ra), n. [It., < accor- 

' dare, accord, v.] The normal series of tones 
to which the strings of a stringed instrument, 
such as the violin, are tuned: any deviation 
from this series is called scordatura. Some- 
times written accord. 

according, adv — According to Gunter, reckoned, 
determined, ascertained, or laid down in accordance with; 
or by means of, the rule, scales, tables, or instruments 
devised by Edmund Gunter (1681-1626), a noted English 
mathematician; hence, exact or exactly ; accurate or ac- 
curately. 

accordion, n. II. a. Resembhng m its folds 



accordion 

the bellows of an accordion : as, an accordion 
camera (one that is extensible), accordion 
skirts, etc. 

accordment (a-tdrd'ment), n. [accord, v., + 
-ment.'i Accord: agreement: reconcilement. 
N. E.D. 

account, n — Bureau of accountB. See *bw-eau.— 
Joint account, an account, as in a bank or in some par- 
ticular course of business dealings, in which two or more 
persons are conjointly interested, as distinguished from 
an account in which only one person, firm, or corporation 
is interested.— To square accounts, to ascertain, and 
to pay or receive, the balance due in any particular 
course of business dealings; settle up by paying or re- 
ceiving the balance due. 

accountant, n — chartered accountant, a certified 
public accountant [British.] 

The fiftieth anniversary of the incorporation of char- 
tered aceountanuia Scotland. Atheneeum, Dec. 19, 1903. 

accounter (a-koun't6r), n. [account, v., + 
-er.] 1. One who counts or reckons; an ac- 
countant; a 'teller.' — 2. One who keeps or 
renders, or is required to render, an account, 
as a steward of his stewardship. 

accounting (a-koun'ting), n. [account, v., + 
-ing.'] If. Reckoning; computation; count- 
ing. — 2, An examination, reckoning, render- 
ing, or balancing of accounts so as to arrive at 
the true state of any transaction or course of 
transactions : as, the court ordered an account- 
ing ; the parties came to an accounting. — 3. 
The art or science of keeping accounts ; the 
principles or methods of account-keeping; ac- 
countancy: as, manufacturing accounting; 
mercantile accounting. Amer. Accountants 
Manual, I. 183. 

accountment (a-koxmt'ment), n. [account, v., 
+ -ment.'] Accounting; responsibility. [Rare.] 

accouplement, m. 8. Inarch., the act of plac- 
ing two pillars, columns, or pilasters close to- 
gether, so as to form a pair, in contrast with 
similar pieces which are spaced more widely. 
Accouplement is rare in classical buildings as 
we know them, but is common in modern work. 

Accra rubber. See *r«B6er. 

accrete, a. 2. In 6jo?.,gi'own together: said of 
parts normally separate but naturally grafted. 
See accretion, 2. 

accretion, n. 5. In/oj'es<rj, increase in diam- 
eter or height: distinguished from increment, 
increase in volume. — 6. In petrol., a. term pro- 
posed by Johnston-Lavis for a mass formed in 
solution by deposition about a nucleus, as in 
oolite, or upon the walls of a cavity, it stands 
in contrast to concretum, which is defined by the author 
named as a mechanical agglomeration about a nucleus. — 
Accretion borer. See *6ore7-.— Accretion cutting. 
Same as -ka^icretion thinning. — Accretion thinning, in 
forestry, a thinning made specifically to increase the 
rate of growth iu diameter of the trees which are left 
standing. 

accultural (a-kul'tu-ral), a. [L. ac- for ad- + 
cultura, culture, + -dl.^ Obtained by accul- 
turation, or by the adoption of foreign cultural 
elements. 

The invention is at first individual, but when an inven- 
tion is aucepted and used by others it i3{accultural, and 
the invention of the individual may be added to the in- 

' vention of others, so that it may be the invention of 
many men. 
J. W. Poimll, in Kep. Bur. Am. Ethnology, 1897-98, p. xxi. 

acculturation (a-kul-tii-ra'shon), n. [L. ac- 
tor ad- + cultura, culture, + -ation,^ The 
process of adopting and assimilating foreign 
cultural elements. 

The process of culture in all the five departments is by 
invention and actmlturation. 
J. W. Povxll, inBep. Bur. Am. Ethnology, 1897-98, p. xxi. 

acculture (a-kul'tiir), n. [See accultural.'] 
The cultural elements acquired by contact 
with foreign forms of culture. G. S. Sail, 
Adolescence, II. 726. 

acculturize (a-kul'tur-iz), v. t. ; pret. and pp. 
acculturized, ppr. acculturizing, [acculture + 
-ize.2 To make the culture of a people similar 
to that of another; to bring about assimilation 
of culture. 

The arts and industries of the partially acculturized 
Fapago Indians. Smithsonian Report, 1896, p. 44. 

accumbent, a. 3. In entom., lying closely, as 
the scales on a butterfly's antenna. 

accumpaniment, n. A simplified spelling of 
accompaniment, 

accumpany, v. t. A simplified spelling of ac- 
company. 

acbumulator, «• 3. (c) in the pressure accumula- 
tor the displacement plunger is forced into the hydraulic 
cylinder by a piston which fits a second cylinder and 
on whose acting face a pressure of steam or air is main- 
tained from a steam-boiler or from a compressed-air pump 
or reservoir of large capacity. The name aeemniUator 
is also given to a storage battery, iu electrical engineer- 



6 

Ing, since the battery may be charged and discharged at 
different rates, and in the chemical reaction caused by 
the charging current an electrical euergy is accumulated 
which is discharged when the circuit is completed through 
the line. The energy may also be accumulated or stored 
in the form of heat in steam or other heat-transferring 
medium. In what has been called the regenerative accu- 
Tnutator, for example, steam from the exhaust-pipe of an 
intermittent non-condensing engine, such as a hammer, 
a hoisting-engine, or a rolling-mill, is received in a sheet- 
steel cylinder containing cast-iron plates. The metal 
mass acts to condense aud reevaporate this exhaust steam, 
and to accumulate the varying energy of the exhaust, so 
as to deliver a constant flow of low-pressure steam to 
some other form of steam-motor, preferably a condensing 
steam-turbine. 

Ace in the pot, a dice game in which each player gets 
rid of a counter for every ace thrown. 

a.-C.-e. mixture. See ^mixture. 

aceconitic (as-e-ko-nit'ik), a. [ace{tic) + 
{a)conitic^'] Noting an acid, CgHgOe, which 
is formed by the action of sodium on the ethyl 
ester of bromacetio acid. It is isomeric with 
aconitic acid. 

acedia (a^sa-de'S,), n. [Cuban use of Sp. ace- 
dia, a flounder.] A Cuban name for a species 
of tongue-fish or sole, Symphurus plagvMa. 

acediamine (as-e-di-am'in), n. [Appar. ace{ttc) 
+ di-^ + amine.'] A substance CH3C(NH)- 
NH2. Also acetamidine. 

aeefalous, a. A simplified spelling of acepha- 
lous. 

aceitillo (a-sa'i-tel'yo), n. [Porto Eioo Sp., 
dim of Sp. aceite, oil.] In Porto Rico, a small 
tree, Simarouha TuUb, the wood of which is 
strong, durable, and well suited to all kinds of 
coarse carpenter-work. 

ace-line (as'lin), n. In hand-baU and similar 
sports, a line used in marking the courts. 

acenapbthene (as-e-naf'then), n. [ace^tic) + 
iMplithene.] A hydrocarbon, Cx^^iq, obtained 
from coal-tar and also preparea artificially by 
heating a-ethylnaphthalene. 

acenaputhylene (as-e-naf 'thi-len), n. [ace(Uc) 
+ naphtJiylene.] Ahydrocarbon, CigHg, formed 
when the vapor of aeenaphthene is passed 
over red-hot lead oxid, 

Acentrogobius (a-sen-tro-go'bi-us), n. [NL., 
< G-r. aKevrpog, without sting, spine, or spur, -I- 
L. gobims, goby.] A genus of Asiatic river 
gobies, little different from Ctenogobius. 

Acentropus (a-sen'tro-pus), «. [NL. (West- 
wood, 1835), < Grr. o-priv. + Khrpov, spine, -I- 
Trowf, foot.] An anomalous genus of pyralid 
moths of the sabfaxaiiy Schcenobiinee, which 
contains the most completely aquatic forms of 
the order Lepidoptera. The larvse live below the 
surface of the water on the leaves of aquatic plants, but 
have no air-gills. Their method of respiration is un- 
known. 

acentrous (a-sen'trus^, a. [Gr. d- priv. + 
Kivrpov, center.] Without a center; specifi- 
cally, noting a condition of the vertebral col- 
umn found in some batrachians and fishes, in 
which bony neural arches are associated with 
a persistent notoohord which shows no trace 
of segmentation : said also of cells in which a 
oentrosome or centrosphere cannot be detected. 

aceptaal, n. 2t. An animal or living being 
supposed to be headless; one of the Acephali. 
Topsell, Four-footed Beasts. N. M. D. 
II. a. Headless; without a head or leader. 

acepbalate (a-sef'a-lat), a. [As acephal{ous) 
+ -ate^.'] Acephalous; specMoally, of or per- 
taining to the Acephala. 

acephalic (a-se-fal'ik), a. [acephal-ous + -*c.] 
Same as acephalous; headless. 

Its evolution has been acephalic, diffuse, or headless. 
L. H. Bailey, Survival of the Unlike, p. 16. 

Acephalina (a-sef"a-li'na), n. pi. [NL., as 
acephal{ous) + ■4naM.'\ A group of Eugrega- 
rinse, or a suborder of Gregarinida, in which 
the body is non-septate and there is no epi- 
merite at any stage. They are chiefly coelomic 
parasites. Monocystis is an example. Same 
as MonocysUdea. 

acephaline (a-sef'a-lin), a. [NL. acephaUmis 
(neut. pi. Acephalina), < Gr. oK^^a/loc, headless : 
see acephalous.] Resembling the Acephalina, 
or having no epimerite, ascertain Gregarinida. 

k small sporozoite penetrates into a blood corpuscle 
and there grows, assuming all the characters ol a small 
acephaline Gregarine. Encyc. Brit., XXXII. 814. 

acepbalism (a-sef'a-Uzm), n. The opinions 
and practices of the aoephalists, or those who 
acknowledged no ecclesiastical superior. See 
AcephaU. 

acephalocyst, n. 2. A sterile echinoooccus 
cyst. 

acephalophorous (a-sef-a-lof'o-rus), a. [Gr. 
o-priv. + K£^\ifi, head, -f'^opof, < i^tpetv, bear.] 



acetanilide 

Not bearing a distinct head; resembling the 
Acepiialophora, 

aceraceous (as-e-ra'shius), a. [NL. Aceracese 
+ -ous.] In hoi., having the characters of or 
belonging to the Aceracese or maple family. 

Acerata (a-ser'a-ta), n. pi. [Gr. mepaToc:, 
without horns, 'i a- priv. + k^/poc, horn.] In 
Kingsley's classification of the Arthropoda^ a 
division given rank as a class and coequal with 
the Crustacea. It is defined as including branchiate 
arthropods in which the branchial folds act either as 
gills or as lungs. The body has a well-defined cephalo- 
thorax and abdomen, six segments and their appendages 
appertaining to the former, and the segments more or 
less fused ; a caudal spine or telson ; and no antennse. 
The Acerata&re divided into two groups, the Merostomata, 
of which Lirnulus is the only existing representative, 
and the Arachnida, or spiders, mites, and scorpions. 

acerate^ (as'e-rat), a. [L. aceratus, mingled 
with chaff (taken here as ' like chaff,^ that is, 
'sharp-pointed,' appar. associated with acus 
(acu-), a needle), <acM«(ocer-), chaff.] Needle- 
shaped or rod-shaped : specifically applied to 
monaxon spicules found in calcareous sponges; 
in hot, same as acerose (6). 

a cerquate (a cher-kwa'te). [It. dial. (Peru- 
gian) : a, with ; cerquate, pi., < eerqua= Sardin- 
ian kerku (= It. querce, querda), < L. quereus, 
oak: see Quercus.] Said of decoration con- 
sisting of conventionalized oak leaves and 
acorns, usually painted in deep yellow on a 
blue ground. Such decoration is frejjuently 
found on Italian majolica wares, particularly 
those of Urbino. 

Acervularia (a-s6r-vu-la'ri-a), n. [NL., < L. 
acervulus, a little heap, + -aria.] A genus of 
extinct tetracorals of the family Cyathophyl- 
lidse, abundant in the Silurian and Devonian 
formations. They grow In bushy colonies, and have 
stout septa, tabulae in the central area, and the peripheral 
zone filled with vesicular tissue. 

acervulus^ n. 2. The fruiting pustule of cer- 
tain fungi, as GUeosporium and related genera, 
consisting of small dense masses of conidio- 
phores and conidia formed beneath the epi- 
dermis of the host, which bursts and permits 
the escape of the conidia when they mature. 

Acetabularia (as-e-tab-u-la'ri-a), n. [NL., < 
L. acetabulum, cup, + -iiria.] "See *acetabu- 
lum, 5. 

acetabulate (as-e-tab'ii-lat), a. Cup-shaped, 
as the sucker of certain trematodes. 

acetabulum, }t. 6. [cap.] A genus of calcare- 
ous green algse, Chlorop'hycese, found in tropi- 
cal or subtropi- 
cal waters : 
characterized 
byanerectaxis 
surmounted by 
a solid cap 
which con- 
sists of numer- 
ous radiating 
chambers. 
Also Acetabu- 
laria. Tourne- 
fort, 1719. 

acetabulous 
(as-e-tab'u- 
lus), a. In hot., 
same as acetab- 
uliform, 1. 

acetacetic (a- 
set-a-se'tik), 
a. See *aceto- 
acetic. 

acetaldehyde 
(as-et-al'de- 
hid), n. [acet- 
ate) + alde- 
hyde.] The al- 
dehyde CH3CHO, formed by the oxidation of 
common or ethyl alcohol. It boils at 21° C, 
and has a disagreeable penetrating odor. 

acetamidine (as-et-am'i-din), «. Same as 
■kacediamine. 

Acetaminoacetic acid. Same as ■*'aceluric 
add. 

acetaminol (as-efc-am'i-nol), n. [acetiic) + 
am{monia) + -in^ + -ol.] A trade-name for 
TT-acetaminobenzoyleugenol, NH(C2H30)C6- 
H4C02.CgH3(OCH3)G3H5. It is a crystalline 
substance having antiseptic properties. 

acetanilide (as-et-an'i-lid), n. [acet-yl + ani- 
lide.] A substance, CgHBNH.CaHgO, formed 
by heating aniline and glaijial acetic acid for 
several hours, or by the action of acetyl ohlo- 
rid or acetic anhydrid on aniline. Fownes. 




a, Acetabulutn extgjtum, a thallus en- 
rged; ii. Acetabulum exi^tum, spores 
tin lid. (From Murray's "Introduction 
, . to Seaweeds.") 



acetenyl 7 achromatic 

acetenyl (a-set'e-nil), «. [ncet(ic) + -ewe + acetoxyl(as-e-tok'sil),«. [acet(ic)+ ox(ygen) Had ... the warm breeze grown o«Aiii ? 

-««.] A term used in composition, indioating + -yl.l 1. Kolbe's name for acetyl.— 2. A Jfor™, Eai^thly Paradise, in. iv. 89, 

that a compound contains the group CH:C, de- name for the group CH2(0H)C0: as,acetoxyl- Achilles (a-kil'ez), n. An argument, other- 
rived from, acetylene (C2H2), as aceten'ylben- glycoUc add, CH2(OH)CO.CH(OH)C02H.— 3. wise called 'Achilles and the Tortoise,' which 
zene, CeHsC.-CH. It has also been erroneously A name for the group — O.C2H3O : as, ace- was proposed by Zeno of Elea to prove that 
used to designate the group CH2:CH, styrene toxylhutyric ester, CH3CH2CH(O.C2H30)C02- motion is impossible. Suppose that Achilles runs 
(CgHsCHtCHo) having also been called aeet- C^r. [Commonly used as a prefix.] parallel to the tortoise, which is moving slowly in the 

enylhenzene. acetozorie(a-set'o-z6n),n. iacet{ie) + ozone.-] ^ncS5es"™h\"lJ^ume!;t%sXtTchi?kfSevefwm 

acetenylpenzene. See ^acetenyl. A trade-name for *bensoylacetylperoxid (which overtalse the tortoise, because In order to do so he must 

acethemin, acethsemin (as-et-he'min), n. see). first move to the point at which the tortoise started, and 

[acet{ic) + GcT. aiua, UoodA The term applied acetract (as'e-trakt), n. [L. ace(tum), vine- when he arrives there the tortoise will again be a certain 
to a preparationrd34H3304N4ClFe, of Kmin gar + B te)«rac«.] A soUd extract of a drug ,tlrel%tcrAJliSirwTJo't'rr?L'^tK^J.i'sl 
said to contain an acetyl group, CH3CO. It made with a menstruum oontammg acetic until he has completed or ended a series of advances 
is derived from the colormg matter of the acid. Buck, Med. Handbook, I. 65. which has no completion or end. The argument Is ab- 

blood. acetum, n. 2. A pharmaceutical preparation ^urd Irom both the logical and the mathematical point 

Acetinblue. See*l)lue. usually made by percolating a drug with di- ."J.f^,.. , , .,-,,. , , i-m ■ x _i_ * 

acetize (as'e-tiz), v. i.; pret. and pp. aeeUzed, lute acetic acid."^ "^ ^?W°A i-^ tin) ». [ac*»H(m) -I- -et 

VW-acemng. To undergo acetous fermenta- aceturic (as-e-tu'rik), a. iaceUe + jmc] ijlf/L'^f H^?f?^,fi'JS"^^'?1^ ' T-n -^ 
twn ; become sour. R. F. Bwrton. Noting an acid, the acetyl derivative (C2H3- *^e action of dilute sulphuric aciS on aohiUein. 

acetoacetate (as"e-t6-as'e-tat), n. [acetoa- O.NHCH2CO2H) of glycocoU or glycin. ft Afi^Jf^LH-^^rSl^r^f^'t^^'l r^'^J^/V... 
cet{io) + -atei.] A salt of aoetoacetic acid. melts at ^06° C. AlsS called aaetylghjein and achlUodynia (a-kil - o - dm 1 - a), n. [,AcMl(e8 

acetoacetic (asVto-a-se'tik), a. Noting an acetamvnoacetio acid. tendon) -HGr.o<J{*,pam.] Pam in the heel, 

acid, CH3COCH2CO2H, scarcely known in the acetylacetdnate (as'e-til-a-set'6-nat),»s. \_ace- Achirinse (ak-i-ri ne), n.pl. [NL., < Achwus 
free state because of its instability, it is found tylacetone -1- -afci.] A salt formed from acetyl- + -*"«•] A subfamily of soles, typified by the 
in the urine ol persons suffering from diabetes and some- acetone. genus Achirus. 

times in that ol those suffering from levers. See •kOm- acetylacetone (as*e-til-as'e-t6n), n. iacetiic) achloihydria (a-klor-M'dri-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
M«ioa«d.— Acetoacetio ester, an ester of acetoacetio "V'"J,j^''""7r„ a „„m„„„„i' ptt rnPTT a- nriv. + chlorh/udric + -ia.l Absence of 
acid, especially the ethyl ester, CH3COCB0CO2C0HB. It J^'SL 9''"""^-} A compound, OJI3CUCM2- ? .^„ V,„7^ ""VyX^^^ 
is a coiSrless llduld with a pieasant odOT, and bofls at COCH3, formed by the action of sodium on a hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice. 
180°C. It is of very unusual importance, both because its mixture of acetone and ethyl acetate. Itisa achOCOn (a-cho-kon ), n. [A native name in 
conduct is typical of a large class of similar compounds liquid which boils at 137° C. It forms salts which are Peru.] A name in Peru of a large tree of 
and because it can be used for the synthesis of a great probably derited from the tautomeric form, CHsCOCH*- the violet family, Leonia glycycarna. It bears a 
variety of compounds. (OHjCHs. rough yeUow edible fruit the s^e of a p^ch, filled with 

acetOChlorhydrose (as''e-t6-kl6r-hi'dr6s), n. acetylate (a-set'i-lat), v. t. ; pret. and pp. aoet- a soft sweet pulp of the same color, and is held in much 
lacet(ic) + chloriin) + hydriogen) + .086.] A yUted,Taw.acetylating. [acetyl + -ateK] To esteem by the PeruTians. , . , ,, 

bitter dextrorotatory compound, CeHvCCaHg- introduce the acetyl group into; especially, acholic (a-kol ik), o. [Gr. o- pnv. + xo^, 
O.OgCl, formed by the action of acetyl chlo- to prepare an acetyl derivative of an organic ^]^ = f « cftoiic] Marked by the absence of 
rifon <5-glucose. compound containing a hydroxyl- or amino- ^'^f^J'^^ *'°™ ^■^«- ^'"^*' ^^^ ^°' ^^^^' 

acetol (as'e-tol), m. lacet(ic) + -oW] A com- crroup. P;-^' j.. , , ,, .^, r iq ^ i ^ .. n 

pound, CH3COCH2OH, having the ofdcial acetylation (a-set-i-la'shon), n. [.acetyl + achontote (a-kon'dnt), j>. [a-i8 + cftp»dnie.] 
name 1-hydroxypropanone. it is a liquid which -ation.] The treatment of "organic substances A meteoric stone, or aerolite, containing little 
boUBwithde™mposltionati4rc Variously designated with acetic anhydrid in order to determine the °' "» "°^ ^2 ^^^^J}^^^^? "^e from chon- 
f„a"^i&''So^'''^""'""'* ' ^ ^""'^'^ ■ presence and amount of alcoholic hydroxyl. ^T^^^: See*metemte. 

a. ° t7ntu™^ltet-5 lA'tnm^ n Xacetum vine Same as ace/s(fea*«o«.-Acetylation teal the ap- achondroplasia (a-kon-dro-plasi-a),_». [NL., 

acetolatum (a-set-?-la tum), n. [acetum, vine- ^^^^^^^^ „, thif process to glycerol and fatty substancis < G'- "- pnv. + x<>-<'&m, cartilage, +. izTmaii, 
gar.] An aromatic liquid preparation o»- Is a part of their chemical examination. molding, conformation.] An anomialy of de- 

tained by distilling vinegar containing an es- acetylcarbinol (as"e-til-kar'bi-nol), n. Same velopment marked by deficient cartilaginous 
sential oil. j^g *(icetoZ growth resulting in a form of dwarfism. The 

*^,?^°ttLtu'-ndSc\?^ntrd''^hi^s?o*^,^g^^^^^^ '^^^i::tJ^<,^^^!s^t^T^^^^^"''^''''"^'''' 

sr^fiSL%\l*trckmiVi"^^*''"^^"''''''''"'"^°"^- itSnl^n?Ut'?n'?re"rtt'Su"ZStal^^^^^^^^^^^ achondroplastic^ (a-Ln-dro-plas '.tik), a. 

. " 7* .. . / "• v 4. -i -A ,r.-a ^ n,rya< gas and watcr-gas ol poor quality. \achondro{vlasm) + plastic] Relating to or 

AcetoniC acid, a-hydroxyisobutyrio acid, (CHsJaCfOH)- ".,, . " , „.., ,1,., „ „«„„*„>! —n-i, „„i;„«;i«„«i„„i„ 

CO2H, a orystaUine acid prepared from acltone. It acetylglycm (as''e-til-gli'sm),m. Same as affected with aohondroplasia. 

melts at 79° C. *aceturie add. achordal (a-k6r'dal), a. [Gr. a-pnv. + ;{:op(J)J, 

acetonine (a-set'6-nin), m. [acetowe H- -jJ8e2.] acetylide (a-set'i-lid), TO. [acetyl + -ide^.] A a cord.] 1. Not connected with or developed 
A very unstable 'base, C9H18N2, whose thio- compound formed by the replacement of one from the notochord.— 2. Having no spinal 
carbonate is formed by the action of carbon or both of the hydrogen atoms of acetylene by cord, 
bisulphid and ammonia on acetone. a metal. Cuprous acetylide (CuaCg) and saver aeet- achoidate (a-k6r'dat), a. and n. [NL. *achor- 

acetonitrile ■ (as'e-to-ni'tril), n. [acetone + yUde (AggCg) are highly explosive, while the aoetyUdes datus, < Gr. a- priv. -I- xop^^i chord.] I. a. 
mtriU.] Methyl cyanide, CH3CN, the nitrile "' fltali and alkaline eajth-metals are not explosive. Havingno notochord; invertebrate; belonging 

of acetic acid. It is a liquid which boils at Achsemenian, a. II. m. A Persian of the time to the ^cAordato. 
g]^ go (;j of Achsemenes or the Achsemenidss ; also, the II. m. One of the .icfeordato. 

acetonuria (as"e-t6-nii'ri-a), n. [NL., < ace- Persian language of thatperiod (recorded in achoresis (ak-o-re'sis), n. [NL. achoresis, < 
tone + QrT. oilpov, urine.]" The elimination of cuneiform inscriptions ). Gr. d- priv. + ;i:"P«i', make room, contain.] A 

acetone in the urine : seen notablyin diabetes achascophytum .(a-kas-kot i-tum), n. ; pi. condition of diminished capacity of any one of 
and in febrile diseases achascophyta {-U). [NL.,< Gr. a-priv. H- ;ta'^- the hollow viscera, as the bladder. 

acetonvl (a-set'6-nil), n. [acetone + -yl.] A f '". *» open, dehisce, + fvriv, a plant.] In Achorutes (ak-o-ru'tez), n. [NL. (Templeton, 
term used in cdmpositionr indicating that a ^ot., a. plant having an indehiseent .fruit. 1835), < Gr. a- priv. + xop^^C, a dancer, 

compound contains the group CH3COCH2-,.de- Achatinemda (a-kat-i-nel i-de),«.jj«. [NL., jumper, < ;i;op«'«v dance.] A genus of collem- 
rived from acetone, as acetonylacetone, CH3- <Achatmella -)- -idee.] A family of stylomma- bolan insects of the family Podundas. it is re- 
nnriTl r<ii nnr<TT Tf io alan nanrl fnr pnm- tophorous, pulmonatc Gosferopooa. They have a markable for the fact that certain of its species, as .4. 
^^U^^a2ytl2'^JKJyn.s. 11 is »is,o ubbu lui oum ^^r^^ buUmofd shell, indifferently dextral or sinistral, nivicola of the United States and^. murorum of Europe, 
pounds containing tne group (fuU.g)3yj., as and a radula of two types, one having the teeth in veiy occur Irequently in great numbers on the surface of snow, 
aeetonylurea, (CH3)2C.NH oblique rows, central, laterals, and marginals all ol the They are sometimes called Sfww-fleas. 

>C0. same type, base narrow, head rather broad, with numer- achrematite (a-kre'ma-tit), n. [Gr. drpiyuarof, 

no NH ous small denticles (as in .dcAatiJwiia proper, jlM)-w!Si/««ia, w;(.i,„„f rnnnfiv < n "-nriv + vrmiui mnrtftv 

1 X 4. / ;i- -1 =»+';; r,5n « and roraoJ«iii»Ki), the other having the central tooth ^^"?^^ ^3.^^'.,^ t ^ i /f^4.^i^^' 

acetonylacetonate (a-set'o-ml-a-set o-nat), n. j^jj,], ^,,3 narrow, laterals bicuspid, and marginals as in see chrematistic.] Amineral of doubtful char- 
[acetonylaoetone + -ate^.] A salt formed from Helix (AmMtra and Carelia). acter found at the mines of Guanacer6, Mex- 

acetonylacetone. See *acetonyl, achenocarp, n. Same as acJise/noearp. ioo. it occurs In masses varying from yellow to red, 

acetophenine (as"e-t6-fe'nin), n. [oce<opAe- ^gjiemian^a-kfer'ni-an), a. and«. [Achernar, and consists ol the arseniate and molybdate of lead. 
n(,yl) +-ine^.] A weak base, CasHjvN, formed the name of a starj' + -dan.] I. a. Notijig Achroma unguium, in pathol., the presence of white 
by the action of ammonia and phosphorus pen- stars similar to Achernar, in the spectrum of „'P^''°"*+%°ft?;=; „.n „ rp „^hrr,«,nf < rw. 
toxid on aeetophenone. It crystallizes in nee- which hydrogen, helium, asterium, oxygen, ^P^'^P'^** ^^VT ^i 1" „iS'„™„2T V^ ^' 
dies which meft at 135° C. nitrogen; and carbon are predominant: sup- S^ffi™^' <^°i°5ilf„i,'^„? Tl?^o^.oh Tr 

aeetophenone (as"e-t6-fe'n6n), n. [acet(ic) + posed by Loekyer to be cooling- *T' l?v Z5=«r l I «o"eeted fbr 

«/.A+-o»^o^Aaompo^^^^^ =' s!^irn^SL??d'oTrd?;;rpSp^r^S'r^%^^^^^^^ 

formed by the distillation o± a mixture of cal- Acheson graphite, .process. See *grapUte, far advanced beyond those which determined the con- 

ciurn acetate and benzoate. it melts at 20.6° and *proceSS. ' • struotion ol the old achromats) and made ol the new 

boils at 202= C. It is used as a hypnotic and in thenrepar Acheulian (a-sh6'li-an), a. Of or pertaining Jena glass, which renders it possible to give the achro- 

ration of a great variety ol compounds. Also *ethylon- ^~,^J^ Tohaii] in i\\'p. SnTnmP vnllRv nortliprS ™*' » A"' field.— Old achromat, an achromat made of 

vhen *vhmulmeth«lket(me, and hypnone. to Baint-AcHeul, m tHe Homme valley, nortnern oia.fashioned crown- and flint-glass, and necessarUy hav- 

i' _.■_ .. ^/.f.AT.m.i'na Cna"B t.o-ra'riTi'l « France — Acheulian deposits, in greoi. and arcA«oJ., ing a field which is not flat. 

acetopyrin, acetopyrine tas e to pi rm;, ». paleolithic deposits contamlng carelnlly worked flint achromatic, a. 2. In. biol.: (a) Colorless; 

Same as *acopyrm. „ , , , . implements of more recent date than the rude flints v,„„i;„„ fl\ rn«!„,,i+ +„ Htnin • a tprm a,n- 

aeet0-S0luble(as"e-t6-S0l'u-bl), a. Soluble in found in the Chell&n beds : so named by Mortillet from '^l^'-Vf- .,^''> ^^™*'%* T ^^^}^- ^,„?™i,fjl 

o „ Jti« »niH • fl s «X.to-«o?M6'te albumin, a form the occurrence of such relics at Saint-Aoheul. phed to the portion of the cell-nucleus which 

of serum albu^rie^cribed by Sn as T- achiev. v. t. A simplified spelling of achieve, exhibits little or no tendency .to sta n m car- 

Pii^X^n theTrine achilia (a-M'U-a), ». [NL., <*acfc««s, Upless: -mine, hasmatoxy in, or certain anilme dyes 

areSK(^^XkW. I«^^^^^^^^ - «^o...] -Congenital absence of one or ^^^^^^^^^'^t.^^'^^^JZ^lto-;. 

The oxime ((CH3)2C : NOH) of acetone. It is both lips. r , , i.„n rii,-ii .;■ posed to the staining portion ol the karyoMnetic figure. 

• vniatilfi qolid-vrtiieh melts at 60° and boils at achiU (a-chil'), adv. [a» + emu.] oriiiiea, seeMftroTreoMn.— Achromatic mass, in cj/toJ., any non- 
134 8° C chilly. staining portion of the karyokinetio figure, such as the 



achromatic 

substance which accumulates about the poles of the ach- 
romatic spindle.— Adiromatlc ^mirror ^objective, 
Aocnlar, AreftacUvitr, ^stereoscope. See the nouns. 
— Acliromatlc q)lndle, the protoplasmic threads be- 
tween the poles of the spindle in karyokinesis, which do 
not stain. 

achromatistous (a-kro'ma-tis'tus), a. Of the 
nature of or characterized by achromatosis ; 
deficient in coloring matter. Syd. Soe. Lex. 

achromatizable (a-kro'ma-tJ-za-bl), a. Capa- 
ble of being corrected for chromatic aberra- 
tion. Also spelled achromatisable. 

achromatolysis (a-kro-ma-tol'i-sis), n. [Gr. 
axpii/mTOQ, not colored, -H" ^iim^, dissolution.] 
In eytol., the breaking down or dissolution of 
the achromatic substance of the cell : opposed 
to ohromaiolysis. 

achromic (a-kro'mik), a. [Gr. d- priv. -1- 
%pa/ia, color.] Devoid of color; colorless. 
When starch is inverted by diastatic ferments a point is 
reached where the solution no longer gives a blue color 
with iodine ; this is termed the achromic point of the 
starch solution. 

achromin (a-kro'min), n. The achromatin or 
linin of the nucleus of the cell, as contrasted 
with the chromatin. 

The most common division of the caryoplasm in the 
cells of the animal and plant body is into two chemically 
different substances, which are usually called chromatin 
(or nuclein) and aehr&min (or linin). 

Haeckel (trans.), Wonders of Life, p. 140. 

achronism (ak'ro-nizm), n. [Gr. d-priv. -1- 
XP^og, time, + -js»».] Lack or deficiency of 
time ; absence of time (in which to accomplish 
anything). [Rare.] N. E. V. . 

acbroSglycogen (ak - ro - o - gli'ko - jen), n. [Gr. 
ixpoos, colorless, + glycogen.'] A colloid carbo- 
hydrate which results from snail-muoin on pro- 
longed boiling with dilute acids or alkalis. On 
decomposition it is said to yield glucose. 

achylia (a-M'U-a), n. [NL., < ac%to, without 
chyle: see achylous.'] Absence of chyle. — 
AlAylia gastrica, a disease marked by deficient secre- 
tion or absence of the gastric juice. 

achsnuona (a-ki'mus), a. [NL. *achymits, < Gr. 
a- prir. -I- xvf^C, juice : see chyme.] Having 
no chyme. 

achyrophytmn (ak-i-rof'i-tum), n.; pi. achy- 
rophyta (-ta). [NL., < Gr. axvpov, chaff, glume, 
-t- ^irrdv, a plant.] In hot., a glumaoeous plant, 
as grasses, sedges, etc. 

acicnla, n. 5. Ei6o<.: (a) The bristle-like pro- 
longation of the raohilla of a grass-spike. (6) 
A tooth-like process in the hymenium of cer- 
tain fungi. 

Aciculina (a-sik-u-li'na), n. pi. [NL., < L. 
etdeula, a needle, + -ina.] A suborder of 
monaxonidan Demospongise of the order Hadro- 
merina, having diactine megaseleres. It in- 
cludes the families Epalladdie, Stylocordylidse, 
and Tethyidse. Also Aciculinse. 

aciculite (a-sik'u-lit), n. [L. a(Acula, a needle, 
-I- -jte2.] Same' as aifcireite. 

aciculus, n. 2. Same as aeieulum. 

acid, a. and n. I. a — Acid alizarin blue, brown, 
green. See *6Z«e, *6rozc?i, *^een. — Acid COlor. See 
ircolor. For specific acid colors see -kacid-blue, acid-green, 
■kacid-red, etc— Acid dyestuff. Same as acH -kcolor.— 
Acid intoxication. Same as -kacidoais.—AcH leather. 
SeeMeotAcr.- Add mordant color. Same as mordant 
moid Acoter.- Acid or addic ozid. See Aoxuf.— Add 
soap. See*soap.— Acid steel. See -ksteel.— AiAi tax, 
impure sulphuric acid which has been used in refining 
petroleum. Also known as sludge aeid.— Add test, tide, 
gee -kte^l, Mide^. 

H, n. — Schaeffer'S acid, the commercial name of 
•ae •! the seven isomeric monosulphonic acids of ^- 
■aphthol. It is an important raw material in the color 
iBdustry. — Scheele's add, a 6 per cent, solution of ab- 
solute hydrocyanic acid in water. 

Acidanthera (as'i-dan-the'ra), n. [NL., appar. 
< L. addiis, sour, acid, + Gr. avdijpig, flowering 
(or NL. anthera, anther. )] A genus of about 20 
African and Australian plants of the family 
Iridacese, intermediate between Gladiolus and 
Ixia. They are grown indoors in pots, or in the open 
in summer. The best-known species is A. Ucolor, with 
creamy white, chocolate-blotched fiowers in a simple, lax 
spike. 

Acidaspis (as-i-das'pis), n. [NL., < L. acidm, 
sharp, + aspis (Gr. aanit:), shield.] A genus 
of trilobites in which the shield bears numer- 
ous spines: characteristic of the Silurian and 
Devonian formations. 

acid-black (as"id-blak'), n. One of the naph- 

tholblaeks Anthracene acid-black, a mordant acid 

coal-tar color. In an acid bath it dyes unmordanted wool 
a black which becomes ni uchf aster when after-chromed.- 
Azo add-black, the name assigned to a mixture of va- 
rious dyestuffs. It is largely used on account of its good 
distributing power and the handsome shade, resembhng 
logwood-black, which it produces. 

acid-blue (as"id-bl6') ,»• Same as <yyanol*hlue. 
—Azo add-Wue, an aciddyeatuff of the monoazo type, 
similar to Victoria *violet.— Biebrich acid-blue,an acid 



coal-tar color of unpublished constitution, which dyes 
wool blue in an acid bath.— Fast add-blue, a coal-tar 
color prepared by the action of parapheuetidine upon flu- 
orescein chlorid and the sulphonation of the product It 
dyes wool and silk violet-blue in an acid bath. Also called 
violaTtiine SB. 

acid-brown (as*id-broun'), n. An aeid coal-tar 
color of the diazo type, which dyes wool and 
silk brown in an aeid bath — Azo add-brown, an 
acid coal-tar color of unpublished constitution, which 
dyes wool very level shades of brown in an acid bath. 

acid-carmoisin (as"id-kar'm6-i-sin), n. One of 
the fast reds. See fast red, under red^. 

acid-cell (as'id-sel), n. One of the cells at the 
cardiac extremity of the stomach which secrete 
the acid constituent of the gastric juice. 

acid-cerise (as'id-se-rez'), n. An impure acid- 
magenta. 

acid-egg (as'id-eg), n. A form of pumping ap- 
paratus for handling liquors which would act 
chemicallyupon the moving partsof an ordinary 
piston- or plunger-pump, chambers which have an 
elongated spheroidal or egg shape receive the liquor at a 
low pressure, and, when they are filled, either air or steam 
under pressure is admitted to them, displacjng the liquor 
through connecting pipes to the desired point. 

The pumping of the acidsupto the top of the towers is 
now always performed by means of compressed air, either 
in theold "iK!id-es'S'«,"or more economically in "pulsom- 
eters." Encyc. Brit., XXV. 44. 

acid-fast (as'id-fast), a. A literal translation 
of the German "saurfest": applied to a class 
of bacteria which, wh^n once stained with 
basic aniline dyes, tenaciously hold the dye on 
subsequent exposure to acids or alcohol. The 
most notable representative of this group is the tubercle 
bacillus, and its recognition in the tissues, the sputum, 
etc., is essentially based upon this " acid-fastness." 

acid-fuchsin (as'id-f 5k'sin), n. Same as acid- 
magenta. — Fast acid-fUcbslu. Same as fatt *acid- 
mag&nta. 

acid-gland (as'id-gland), w. 1. One of certain 
glands found in the pedipalp Arachnida, secret- 
ing an acid liquid. 

In connection with the acid-glands he describes a con- 
voluted mass of tubules twisting about on each side of 
the central or right gland, and succeeded in tracing two 
of these tubules, apparently opening into the left sac. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1902, II. 171. 

2. In entom., one of the glands, found in the 
honey-bee and other stinging Hymenoptera, 
which secrete an aeid liquid. There are also glands 
which secrete an alkaline fluid ; and the poison of the 
insect is effective only when both fluids are mixed. A. S. 
Packwrd, Text-book of Entom., p. 368. 

3. One of the glands of the stomach secreting 
the acid portion of the gastric juice. 

acid-green, n. 2. An acid dyestuff, a sulpho- 
nated triphenylmethane derivative, which dyes 
wool and silk green in an acid bath. 

Acidic ozid. See aa,d *oxid. 

acidifiant (a-sid'i-fi-ant), a. That acidifies 
or renders acid ; acidifying. 

acidimeter, n — TwicheU's 
addlmeter, a form of acidim- 
eter shown m the accompany- 
ing cut. 

acidimetric (as^'i-di-mef- 

rik), a. Of or pertaining 

to the acidimeter or to 

aeidimetry ; acidimetri- 

cal. 
acidite (as'i-dit), n. [acid 

+ Ate.] A term proposed 

by Von Gotta (1864) for 

all igneous rocks which 

are rich in the acid radi- 
cal silica, as opposed to 

those which are poor in it, 

which he called basites. 
acidity, ».- coefficient of 

addl^, in petrog., a ratio de- 
rived fiom the chemical aoaly- J J J . 
sis of a rock by dividing the L°£S^"„Ef 'iSfl'^'/'.t 
number of atoms of oxygen con- sucngO, of the acid teited. 
tamed in the various oxid bases 

by the number of atoms of oxygen belonging to the acid 
radical silica. This ratio is characteristic of certain 
groups of igneous rocks. 

acidize (as'id-iz), v.t.; pret. and pp. acidised, 
ppr. acidizing, [add + 'Ase.] To treat with 

an acid; render acid Addlzing process, the 

trade-name of a method of vulcanizing india-rubber by 
treating it with a solution of calcium or sodium hypo- 
chlorite, with or without the addition of an acid. 

acid-magenta, n — Azo add-magenta, an acid color 
of unpublished constitution, which dyes wool a color 
resembling that produced by magenta.— Fast acld- 
ma^enta, an acid coal-tar color of the monoazo type. 
It is prepared by combining diazotized aniline with 
amido-naphthol-disulphonic acid, and dyes wool and silk 
a bluish red in an acid bath. Also called fast add- 
fuchsin, 

acid-maroon (as^id-ma-ron'), n. A crude acid- 
magenta. " 



aclythrophytum 

acid-mauve (as*id-m6v'), n. An acid coal-tar 
color made by sulphonating mauvaniline. 

acidophil, acidophile (a-sid'o-fll), a. [NL. 
acidum, an aeid, + Gr. ^aof, loving.] Capable 
of being dyed vfith acid stains: said of cells 
or parts of cells. 

acidophilic (as"i-do-fil'ik), a. Same as *acid- 




Twichell's Acidimeter. 

a, jar filled with water; &, 

measure for acid ; c. sodium 

acid carbonate to be added 



Special attention has been called by Rosin (24), to the 
micro-chemical differentiation of the constituents of the 
cell body, the HiSsl hpdies reacting to the basic dyes, 
while the ground substance is acidophilic in character. 

F. B. Bailey, in Jour. Exper. Med., Oct. 1, 1901, p. 666. 

acidophilous (as-i-dof'i-lus), a. [NL. acidum, 
acid, + (ptTieiv, love.] Same as acidophil. 

acid-orange (as'id-or'anj), n. Same as orange 
II (which see, under orange^). 

acidosis (as-i-do'sis), n. [NL. acidum, an acid, 
-I- -osis.] Poisoning by certain acids^ such as 
uric acid or the fatty acids, formed within the 
body under various morbid conditions, such as 
cancer, diabetes, or fever. Also called acid 
intoxication. 

acid-ponceau (as"id-pon-s6'), »■ An acid coal- 
tar color of the monoazo type, it is prepared 
by combining diazotized j3-naphthylamine-sulphonic acid 
with 0-naphthol, and dyes wool and silk scarlet in an 
acid bath. Also called fast acid-ponceau, aeid-acarlet or 
fast acid-scarlet, and porweau S. 

acid-red (as*id-red'), n. An acid coal-tar color 
which dyes wool red in an acid bath. Also 
called /a«t acid-red. 

acid-rosamine (as'id-roz-am'in), n. An acid 
coal-tar color of the xanthene type, which 
dyes wool and silk a bluish red. Also called 
violamine G. 

acid-roseine, acid-rubine (as"id-r6'ze-in, 
-ro'bin), n. Same as acid^nagenta. 

acid-scarlet (as'id-skar'let), n. Same as *acid- 
ponceau. Also called /ast acid-scarlet. 

acidulation (a-sid-u-la'shon), n. The act or 
process of rendering (something) acid, or of 
imparting an acid or subacid quality to it. 

Addulous water, a natural mineral water containing a 
notable amount of free carbonic acid. 

acid-violet (as'''id-vi'o-let), n. A name of two 
coal-tar colors {fast acid-violet ABR and B) of 
the xanthene type, of similar composition. 
They dye wool and silk reddish violet in an 
acid bath. Also known as violamine B and vi- 
olamine B Fast add-vlolet 10 B, an acid coal-tar 

color of the triphenyl-methane-carbinol type. It dyes 
wool violet in an acid bath. 

acidyl (as'i-dil), n. [a,cid + -yl.] Same as 
'^aciyl (the preferable form). 

Acinetaria (as"i-ne-ta'ri-a). n. pi. [NL.] 
Same as Aometse. 

acinetarian (as-i-nf-ta'ri-an), a. and «. I. a. 
Pertaining to or having the characters of the 
Acinetaria. 
II. n. One of the Acinetaria. 

acinetic (as-i-net'ik), a. [Gr. d-priv. + KivtjTdg, 
moved, movable: seeTiinetic] That prevents 
motion ; that deprives of, or causes the loss of, 
volxmtary motion. 

acinotubular (as*i-n6-tii'bu-lar), a. [NL. aci- 
mis, acinus, -I- L. tubuhis, tubule. ] Possessing 
both acini and tubules : said of certain glands. 

Acinous cancer. See *cancer. 

acipenserin (as-i-pen'se-rin), n. [AcJfenser 
(see def.) + -in^.] A protamih found m the 
testicles of a fish, Acipenser stellatus. 

Aciprion (a-sip'ri-on), m. [NL., < (t) Gr. d/u'r, 
a point, + irp'ujv,' a saw.] A gelius of true 
lizards or LacerUUa of Miocene age. 

acknowledgeable (ak-norej-a-bl), a. lack- 
nowledge + -able.] That can be acknowledged, 
admitted, or recognized; recognizable; no- 
ticeable. 

acknowledgedly (ak-nol'ejd-li), adv. [ach- 
nowledged + -ly.] Admittedly; confessedly. 
acleistous. See *aclistmts. 
acli (S'kli), n. [Tagalog and Pampanga acli.] 
A name in the Philippine Islands of Xylia 
xylocarpa, a valuable timber-tree. The wood 
is strong and durable and does not take fire easily. It 
is used in boatbuilding and for posts and beams of 
houses. The bark is saponaceous. Seepyengadu. Also 
acle. 

aclistous, acleistous (a-kli'stus), a. [Gr. 
aK?.€caTog, not closed, not fastened, < d- priv. 
+ KTuiordg, closed: see clistocarp, etc.] Not 
closed : used in crystallographv to designate 
certain open forms of hemimorphic type ; also, 
certain crystalline groups characterized by 
these forms. See *form, 2 , and *symmeiry, 6. 

aclythrophytum (ak-li-throf'i-tum), «.; pi. 
aclythrophyta (-ta). [NL.,<Gr. d- priv. + /c^ei- 



aclythrophytum 
dpov, a bar, + (pvrSv, a plant.] In hot, a plant 
with naked or apparently naked seeds ; that 
is, one destitute of a pericarp. 

acmatic (ak-mat'ik), a. [Irreg. < acme + -atic^. 
The normal adj. is acmic.'] Of or pertaining 
to an acme. [Rare.] Hyatt, Biol. Lect., p. 141. 

acmic (ak'mik), a. [acm(e) + -jc.] Of or per- 
taining to an acme, specifically to the acme of a 
genetic series of organisms, or the period when 
it is richest in genera and species. [Rare.] 
Amer. Jour. Sd., Oct., 1903, p. 300. 

acmite-trachyte (ak*mit-trak'it), n. See 
*trachyte. 

acmonoid (ak'mo-noid), a. [Gr. ok/jum, an an- 
vil, + eldog, form.] In anthrop., noting a type of 
cranium high, long, with straight sides, a slight 
swelling of the parietal protuberances situated 
very far back, and the occipital resembling a 
quadrangular pyramid leaning slightly on its 
cranial base. G. Sergi, Var. of the Human 
Species, p. 42. 

Acne agmlnata, n form of acne in vrhich the lesions are 
grouped together, forming patches of various sizes.— 
Acne Indurata, a form of acne in which the papules are 
hard and shot-like, deep-seated, and inflamed, but do 
not always go on to suppuration.— Acne necrotlca, a 
form of acne, affecting chiefly the forehead, in which the 
papules break down, leaving depressed scars like pock- 
marks. — Tar acne, a papular eruption of the skin caused 
by the external application of tar in susceptible persons. 

acneform (ak'ne-f6rm), a. [Irreg. < NL. aene, 
acne, + forma, form.] Resembling acne in 
appearance. 

acnemia (ak-ne'mi-a), n. [NL., < Gr. aimriiiog, 
without the calf of the leg, < a- priv. + KvliiJ.ri, 
calf of the leg.] Absence or imperfect forma- 
tion of the legs. 

acocantherin (ak-o-kan'the-rin), n. [Jcocan- 
thera (see def.) +' -in^.'] A poisonous gluoo- 
side, C32H50O12, obtained from an African 
arrow-poison which is prepared from Acooan- 
thera Abyssinica. In physiological action it 
resembles the glucosides of Digitalis. 

Acoela, n,. pi. 2. A suborder of Bhabdoccelida 
in which the cavity of the enteron is obliter- 
ated by the concrescence of its walls, the mouth 
leading through a simple pharynx directly into 
the digestive syncetium. It contains the fam- 
ilies PorporidsB and Aphanostomidse. 

Acoelomata, n. pi. 2. The ooelenterates and 
sponges considered collectively as animals 
without a true coeloma, or body-cavity, as dis- 
tinct from the enteron or digestive cavity. 
Many.zoblogists regard the Metazoa as corrsiating of two 
great primary groups : the Acaelomatd, or sponges and 
coelenterates, and the Caelomata, or all the remaining 
Metazoa. 

The cavities of the Acoelomata, except certain ectoder- 
mal pits, are in all cases continuations of the primary 
central cavity lined by endoderm, and no cavities exist 
lined by mesoderm comparable to a ccelom. 

A. E. Shipley, Zool. of Invertebrates, p. 36. 

acoin (ak'6-in), M. 1. A trade-name for hydro- 
chlorid of diparanisylmonophenetylguanidin, 
a local anesthetic introduced in 1899-. — 2. A 
general name given to a series of derivatives 
of guanidin similar to the above. 

acolous (ak'o-Jus), a. [Gr. d/cu/lof, limbless, < 
o- priv. + KOMv, limb, member.] In teratol., 
without limbs. 

acomia (a-ko'mi-a), n. [NL., < Gr. axo/wc, with- 
out hair, < a- priv. + K6ft?i, hair: see comasi.] 
Same as alopecia. 

aconate (ak o-nat), n. [acon{ic) + -ate^.l A 
salt derived from aoonio acid. 

acone (a'kon), a. [o-is + cone.'] In entom., 
lacking the cone or crystalline lens, in insects 
having acone eyes the cone or refracting body is repre- 
sented only by the four primitive cone-cells. Distin- 
guished from *eua>ne and itpaeudoame. 

Acone eyes, where the cone or refracting body is want- 
ing, but is represented by the four primitive cone-cells. 
A. S. Packard, Text-book of Entom., p. 252. 

aconic (a-kon'ik), a. [acon(ite) + -Jc] De- 
rived from aconite : distinguished in chemistry 
f ronj aconitic. — Aconic acid, an acid formed by boil- 
ing iotadibrompyrotartaric acid with water or with a solu- 
tion of sodium carbonate. It is easily soluble in water 
and melts at 164' G. 

aconital (ak'o-ni'''tal), a. [aconite + -a?.] 
Characteristic of aconite : as, aconital bitter- 
ness. 

aconite, n. 2. An extract or tincture of this 
plant, used as a poison and as a medicine. 

acoprosis (ak"o-pr6'sis), ». [acopr(ous) + 
-osis. ] Absence of fecal matter from the intes- 
tine. 

acoprous (a-kop'rus), a. [Gr. aieowpog, with no 
or little excrement, < d- priv. + Kdivpog, excre- 
ment.] Without fecal matter in the bowels ; 
characterized by acoprosis. 



acopyrin, acopyrine (ak-o-pi'rin), «. [aci, „ , 
+ lanti)pyrine.'i The acetyl salicylate of anti- 
pyrin, C6H4(OC2H30)C02H.CiiHi20N2. It is 
used as a remedy for headache. 

acoria (a-ko'ri-a), n. [NL. , < Gr. anopia, < ampoq, 
equiv. to d/aSpEorof, insatiate, < d- priv. + Kopev- 
vvvai, sate, satiate, satisfy.] Excessive appe- 
tite. 

acorin (ak'o-rin), n. [acor(y^) + -in'^.] A name 
given to a substance, formerly supposed to be 
a glucoside, obtained from Acorus Calamus. 
It is of uncertain composition and probably a 
mixture. 

acormus (a-k6r'mus), n. [Gr. d- priv. + Kop/ioc, 
trunk.] In teratol., a monster with a head and 
an undeveloped napiform body, without ex- 
tremities. 

acorn-gall (a'kdm-gai"), n. See gall^ and 
knopper. 

acosmic (a-koz'mik), a. [a-T-8 -I- cosmic] Sun- 
dered; disordered; confused; inharmonious. 
Some who have . . . felt utterly lost in this charmed 
circle of agnosticism . . . despair of building up again 
the world they have lost out of its a£osmic elements. 

6. 5. Hall, Adolescence, II. 537. 

acospore (ak'o-spor), n. [Gr. aur/, point, -|- 
oTtopd, seed.] In phytogeog., a plant (mostly 
of the grasses) wnose fruit is provided with 
awns to assist dissemination. 

Acotylea (a-kot-i-le'a), n.pl. [NL., < Gr. d- 
priv. + kotMi;, cup, socket.] A group of poly- 
clade 2W6eKana without suckers and with the 
mouth in the middle of the body or behind it. 
It includes the families Planoceridse, Lepto- 
planidse, and Cestoplanidse. 

acoulation (a-ko-la'shon), n. [Irreg. < Gr. 
d/coii(e(v), hear, + L. latio{n-), bearing.] The 
telephonic transmission or reproduction of 
sounds, with increase of intensity, by means 
of a combination of microphone and telephone. 
Also spelled akoulation. 

acoupa (a-ko'pa), n. [Pg.] A kind of weak- 
fish, Cynoseion acoupa. 

acousma (a-kSs'ma), n. ; pi. acousmata (-ta). 
[Gr. anovafia, a thing heard, < d/toiieivjhear.] 1. 
pi. Things heard or received on authority and 
without further inquiry or explanation, as 
among the acousmatid or probationary disci- 
ples of Pjrthagoras. — 2. A form of auditory 
hallucination. Baldwin, Diet, of Philos. and 
Psychol. 

Acoustic absorption. See -kabsorption. —Acoustic agra- 
phia. See -kagraphia.— Acoustic disk, an instrument 
for demonstrating the principles of Savart's wheel, the 
siren, and Newton's disk.— Acoustic organ. Same as 
organ of Corti. — Acoustic orifice, in entom., an orifice 
for the admission of air to the acoustic apparatus, as the 
orifice caudad of the prothorax in the Locustidae. — 
Acoustic penetration, the carrying power of articulate 
sound measured by the distance in meters at which, 
under defined and standard conditions, it is still audible. 
-Acoustic resonance. See resonance, 2.— Acoustic 
shadow. See AsAaiiow.- Acoustic strias. Same as 
strise acusticse (which see, under stria). — Acoustic tet- 
anus, muscular contraction induced experimentally by 
the application of a faradic current, the number of in- 
terruptions being measured by the pitch of the sound 
caused by the vibrations. — ACOUStlc tubes, a set of 
tubes designed to illustrate the effect of different length 
and size on pitch. 

acousticolateral (a-kos"tj-ko-lat'e-ral), a. 
Having the organs of hearing arranged' later- 
ally. 

acoustometer (a-kos-tom'e-tferi, n. [acoiist{ic) 
+ (Jr. /isTpov, a measure.] An instrument for 
determining the acoustic properties of a room 
or other inelosure. 

acquaintt, n. An acquaintance. Chaucer. 

aCQLUiescence, t. 3. Originally, but nowrarely, 
contentment ; satisfaction. In the ethics of Spi- 
noza, acquiescence in one's very self is an 
ignoble self-satisfaction ; but acquiescence of 
the soul in the knowledge of God is the high- 
est result of virtue. 

Acquired character. See *charaeter. 

acquisitiveness, n. 3. In psychol. : (a) The 
proprietary or collecting instinct. W. Jfames, 
Princ. of Psychol., II. 422, 679. (6) The capa- 
city for learning or for intellectual acquisition. 

Acquittal in law, a judicial act which, in discharging one 
person from tlie accusation of a crime, operates to dis- 
charge all others who may be accused as accessories in the 
commission of the same crime : distinguished from ac- 
quittal in fact. ' 

acracy (ak'ra-si), n. [Gr. d- priv. + -Kparla, 
< Kparelv, to rule.] The extremest form of phys- 
iocracy, which reduces all government to the 
action of so-called natural laws and amounts 
to anarchism. L. F. Ward, Psychic Factors 
of Civilization, p. 319. 

Acrseides (a-kre'i-dez), n. pi. [NL. (perhaps 
erroneously transferred, as if NL., from a P. 



acroblastesis 

form *aer4ides) for AcrieidiB, < Acrxa + -idee.] 
A group of butterflies corresponding to the 
AcrseinsB. Acreeides is the form used by most 
English entomologists. 

acramphibryous (ak-ram-fib'ri-us), a. [Gr. 
dicpoc, at the end, + du^l, on both sides, + 
l3pvov, a ilower or blossom, + -ous.] In bot., 
producing lateral as well as apical buds. 
Jackson, (Jlossary. 

Acrasiales (a-kra-si-a'lez), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. 
aicpama, bad mixture, + -ales.] The lowest of 
the three orders Af Myxomycetes, consisting of 
two small families of imperfectly known amoe- 
boid organisms, some of which are found in 
old manure. 

acre-foot (a'ker-fut"), n. A unit of volume of 
water used in irrigation, equivalent to one 
acre covered one foot in depth, or 43,560 cubic 
feet. Water fiowing at the rate of one cubic foot a 
second for 24 hours will cover an acre to a depth of 1.98 
feet. In common usage, a cubic foot per second, or 
second-foot, for 24 hours equals 2 acre-feet. 

acreophagist, akreophagist (ak-re-of'a-jist), 
n. [acreophag-y + -ist.] . One who habitually 
abstains from eating meat; a vegetarian. 

acreophagy, akreophagy (ak-rf-bfVji), n. 
[Gr. d- priv. + Kpeoipayla, eating of flesh, < 
upeo^&yoi, flesh-eating: see ereophagous.] A 
habitual abstention from meat-eating. 

acrepid (a-krep'id), a. [Gr. d- priv. + uppwig, 
a boot, a foundation.] Having no crepis or 
f oundation-spicule : specifically applied, in 
sponge-spicules, to desmas in which the crepis 
is atrophied. 

acribia (ak-ri-bi'a), n. [NL. acribia, < Gr. 
aKpipeia, < dxpf/S^fJ' accuratOj precise.] Literal 
accuracy; exactness; precision. 

acriby (ak'ri-bij, n. Same as *acribia. 

acridic (a-krid'ik), a. lacrid(,ine) + -ic] 

Derived from acridine Acridic acid, an acid, 

C11H7O4N, formed by the oxidation of acridine. It 
crystallizes in needles and decomposes at 120°-130° C. 
Also called 2, S'quinolinedicarboxylic acid. 

Acridiides (ak^ri-di'i-dez), n.pl. [NL., irreg. 
(as if from a F.pl.?) for Acrididee, < Acridvum + 
-idee.] In the classification of Brunner vonWat- 
tenwyl, the ninth tribe of grasshoppers, of the 
family .4crM?i<i«, typified by the genus Acridium. 

acridine (ak'ri-din), n. [acrid (?) + -»»e2.] 
An organic compound derived from anthracene 
by replacing one of its CH-gronps with a nitro- 
gen atom, its empirical formula being Ci4HgN. 

It is important in the color industry Acrlcline 

color. See *coJor.— Acridine orange, red, etc. See 
korange^, *redi, etc. 

acridinic (ak-ri-din'ik), a. [acridine + -ic] 

Derived from acridine Acridinic acid. Same as 

kacridic acid. 

acridioid (a-krid'i-oid), a. Having the char- 
acteristics or appearance of grasshoppers or 
locusts of the family Acrididee. 

acridone (ak'ri-don), n. [a:Crid{ine) + -one.] 

CO 
A compound, C6H4 < > C6H4, formed by th» 

NH 
oxidation of acridine. It melts at 354° C. 

acridyl (ak'ri-dil), n. [acridiine) + -yl.] The 
radical or group CisHgN, derived from ♦acri- 
dine (which see). , 

acrinyl (ak-ri'nil), n. In ehem.j a hypotheti- 
cal radical, CeH4.OH.CH2, of which the sulpho- 
cyanide (C6H4.OH.CH2.NCS) is the yellow, 
pungent, vesicating fixed oil formed by the 
action of the enzyme myrosin upon the gluco- 
side sinalbin contained in white mustard seed, 
Brassica alba. 

acrite^ (ak'rit), n. [L. acris, sharp, + -ife^.] 
The inactive mannite formed by the reduction 
of acrose or of inactive mannose. 

acrosesthesia (ak"ro-es-the'si-a), n. [Gr. 
anpov, a terminal point, an extremity, + c&cBtj- 
acg, perception, sensation. The second sense 
is not justified by the meaning of the Gr. axpov.] 
1. Pain in the hands or feet. — 2. Excessive 
sensibility; hypersesthesia. 

acroaspliyxia (ak"r6-as-fik'si-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
d/cpof, at the end, + ao(^v^ia, "asphyxia.] Ar- 
rest of the circulation of the blood in the dis- 
tal portion of the extremities. 

acrbblast (ak'ro-blast), n. [Gr. aKpov, apex, + 
p/Mard;, germ.] In embryol., that portion of 
the embryonic germ-layers in vertebrates 
which gives rise to the blood and connective 
tissue ; the mesenchyme. 

acroblastesis (ak-ro-blas-te'sis), n. [NL., < Gv. 
dfcpov, apex, + /JAaordf, bud, germ, spore.] In 
bot., a condition in lichens in which the gem- 
tube proceeds from the end of a spore. 



Having the 




acr, acrocora- 
coid ; j^rc, pre- 
coracoid I p»/t 
pneumatic fora- 
mina ;y, foramen 
for nerve. 



acroblastic 

acroblastic (ak-ro-blas'tik), a. In hot., arising 
from a terminal bud: applied to branches of 
the inflorescence. Celakovsky. 

acrocarp (ak'ro-karp), n. [acroearp(ous).'] An 
acrocarpous plant : applied mainly to the Ac- 
rocarpi. 

:acrocephalous (ak-ro-sef a-lus), a. Same as 
acrocephalic. 

acroceroid (ak-ros'e-roid), a 
characteristics or appearance of 
a moth of the family Aeroceridx. 

Acrochilus(ak-r6-ki'lu8),». [NL., 
< Gr. axpov, the farthest point, + 
;r£i^of, lip.] A genus of chubs 
found in the Columbia river, 
noted for the bony sheath to the 
jaws : hence caUed hardmouth or 
chisel-motcth jack. 

acrocoracoid (ak-ro-kor'a-koid), 
n. [Gr. anpoc, at the end,"+ cor- 
ocojd.] In omith., a process or 
projection from the distal end 
and internal face of the coraooid, 
to which the clavicle is usually 
attached. 

.acrodontisin (ak'ro-don'tizm), n. 
laerodont + -ism.'] ' The property 
of being acrodont, or of having teeth ankylosed 
to the cutting edge of the jaws. [Rare.] 

aerodrome (ak'ro-drom), a. Same as *aerod- 
romous. 

.acrodromous (a-krod'ro-mus), a. [Gr. d/cpov, 
point, + -Spo/iog, < 6pa/ielv, run.] In bot., run- 
ning to a point : said of a nervation in which 
the nerves all terminate in or point to the apex 
of the leaf. See nervation (o) (4) and fig. 4. 

Acrodus (ak'ro-dus), n. [NL., < Gr. axpog, at 
the end, + bdovg, tooth.] A. genus of cestra- 
ciont sharks known chiefly by the pavement- 
' teeth. They occur in the Jurassic and Creta- 
ceous formations. 
acrogamoUS (a-krog'a-mus), a. [Gr. o/cpof, at 
the end, -I- ya/wg, marriage.] In hot., produc- 
ing the ovules at the summit of the embryo- 
sac : the usual condition in angiosperms. Van 
I^ghem. 
acrogamy (a-krog'a-mi), n. [^acroganinous + 
-^3.] The state of being acrogamous. 
acrogonidiiuu (ak'ro-go-nid'i-um), «.; pi. 
acrogonidia (-a). [Gr. o/cpof, at the end, + go- 
nidium.] A gbnidium formed at the terminal 
end of a f ertUe hypha. 

J^crogynse (a-kroj'i-ne), n.pl. [NL., < Gr. oKpov, 
apex, -1- yw^, female.] In hot., a suborder of 
oryptogaraic plants of the order Jungerman- 
niales, class Hepatiae, in which the arehegonia 
are formed from or near the apical cell. See 
*Anacrogynie. 

:acrog3rnous (a-kroj'i-nus), a. [As Aerogynse + 
-oj<s.] lu bot., having the arehegonia formed 
from or near the apical cell, as in the Aerogynse. 

JSicrolepis (ak-rol'e-pis), n. [NL., < Gr. o/cpoc, 
at the end, -I- 'AekIq, scale.] A genus of ganoid 
fishes from the Carboniferous and Permian 
rocks. 

.acrologue (ak'ro-log), n. [Gr. a/cpof, at the be- 
ginning or end, -I- Myog, word.] An aerologic 
name, that is, a letter-name beginning with 
that letter; an alphabetic name formed on or 
exhibiting the principle of aerology, as the 
Hebrew aleph beginning with a, beth with 6, 
ete. See the extract. 

The alphabetic names, considered as pictorial aaro- 
logues, may therefore in some cases receive an easier 
explanation from the Hieratic characters than from the 
Semitic letters as we have them. 

laaae Taylof, The Alphabet, 1. 169. 

.acromegalia (ak"ro-me-ga'li-a.), n. Same as 
*aa'omegaly. 

■ acromegalic {ak"r6-me-gal'ik), a. and n. [As 
acromegaly + -ic] I. a. Of the nature of or 
relating to acromegaly. 

II. n. A victim of the complaint known as 
acromegaly. 

^acromegaly (ak-ro-meg'a-H), n. [Gr. cKpov, ex- 
tremity, +*/ieya?ua,< jityaQ {;ieyal-), great.] A 
disease characterized by hypertrophy of the 
bones and soft tissues of the face and extremi- 
ties. It is thought to be due, possibly, to a morbid 
change in the internal secretion of the pituitary body, 
since this structure is also enlarged. Most of the so- 
called 'giants ' owe their size to this disorder. Also called 
Marie's disease. 

^acromerOBticll(ak-ro-mer'o-stik),re. [Gr. mpog, 
at the beginning or end, + fupoi, part, + arixog, 
line.] A short poem or stanza containing 
several acrostics, as in the aeeompanying ex- 



10 

ample, in which the name 'Jesus' occurs four 

times: 

I nter cuncta micans I gniti sidera ccel I, 
E'xpellit tenebraa Etoto Phoebus ut orb E; 
S ic csGcas reniovet lESUS caliginis umbra S 
V iviflcansque simul, V eroprsecordiamot U 
3 olem JustitisB se S e probat esse beati S. 

y. and Q., Feb. 26, 1887. 

acromion, n. 3. In ichth., same as supraclavi- 
cle; a shoulder-girdle bone above the clavicle. 

acromiosternal (a-kro^mi-o-st^r'nal), a. Ec- 
lating to the acromion process and the ster- 
num. 

acronus (ak'ro-nus), n.; pi. aeroni (-ni). [NL., 
<Gr. axpov, apex, summit.] In bot, a termi- 
nal ovary; that is, one without a basal disk. 
Necker. 

Acronycta (ak-ro-nik'ta), n. [NL. (Ochsen- 
heimer, 1816, as Acromcta; Treitschke, 1825, 
as Acronycta), Gr. aKpdwnroi, of nightfall : see 
acronyctous.] Aprominent and very largegenus 
of noctuid moths, synonymous with Apatela 
(Hiibner, 1810). 

acroparsesthesia (ak^ro-par-es-the'si-a), n. 
[Gr. axpov, extremity, -I- jropd, beside, + olabrjaig, 
perception, sensation (see parsesthesia). See 
remark un^er *acroassifee«Ja.] 1. Parsesthesia 
ofthehandsorfeet. — S. Excessive parsesthesia, 
or petversion of normal sensation. 

acroparalysis (ak''r9-pa-ral'i-sis),». [Gr. aKpov, 
extremity, + nap&^vaii', paralysis.] Paralysis 
which affects the extremities only. 

acropathy (a-krop'a-thi), n. [Gr. oKpov, ex- 
tremity, -I- noBog, disease.] Disease of the 
hands or feet. 

Acrophalll (ak-ro-fal'i), n.pl. [NL.,< Gr. mcpog, 
at the extremity, + (jiaMog, phallus.] A group 
of nemathelminths in which the cloaeal aper- 
ture is at almost the extreme end of the body 
on the ventral side. 

acrophobia (ak-ro-fo'bi-a), n. [Gr. axpov, top- 
most point, + (popeiv, fear.]' Morbid fear of great 
heights. 

acrophonic (ak-ro-fon'ik), a. [Gr. anpov, es.- 
tremity, +^1'!^ sound.] Same as aerophoneUc. 

acropolitan (ak-ro-pol'i-tan), a. Of or pertain- 
ing to the acropolis or citadel of an ancient 
Grecian city, especially that of Athens. 

acrorhagUS (ak-ro-ra'gus), n.; pi. acrorhagi 
(-ji). [NL.,prop. *'acrorrhagus,<Gv. dxpof, atthe 
end, + pa^(pay-), a grape, a berry.] One of the 
marginal tubercles on the peristome of Actinia 
bearing nematoeysts or stinging-cells. 

acroscopic (ak-ro-skop'ik), a. [Gr. CKpov, apex, 
-I- oKoireiv, see, + -ic] In bot., lo6king to- 
ward (that is, on the side toward) the apex. 

acrose (ak'ros), n. [L. acris, sharp, 
+ -o«e.] A sugar which has been 
shown to be identical with «-fruc- 
tose. It has been prepared synthetically in 
several ways, especially by the action of a 
dilute solution of sodium hydroxid on glycerol 
aldehyde. It is of special interest aa being 
the first sugar containing six carbon atoms 
to be prepared synthetically. It was also used 
for the synthesis of ^{-glucose. 

acrosome (ak'ro-som), n. [Gr. axpov, 
apex, + aa/m, body.] In cyiol, the 
body which forms the extreme ante- 
riorportionofthespermatozoon. Von 
Lenhossek, 1S9T. In the spermatozoa of 
some animals the acrosome is spur- or hook- 
shaped and is thus adapted for boring its way 
into the egg. 

Acrospeira (ak-ro-spi'ra), n. [NL. 
(Berkeley and Broome," 1857', < Gr. 
aKpov, tip, + ffjTKpa, coil.] Amonotypic 
genus of hyphomycetous fungi having 
erect branched sporophores spirally 
bent at the tips, and bearing simple 
spherical, blaek, rough spores. A. 
mirabilis sometimes destroys the ripe 
fruit of Spanish chestnuts ( Castanea) . 

acrosperm (aJi'ro-spferm), n. [Gr. j — £ 
anpov, tip, + airepfia, seed.] In bot., 
an angiosperm of the group or class 
which are supposed by Treub to have Diagram of 
been originally fertilized through the fa,e s'^™°i- 
chalaza instead of the mieropyle — tozoan. 
the Acrospermse. Compare *pleuro- ._ "■ =?■«' 

unprm " ^ . body.oracio- 

sptrrrn. some; d, nu- 

Acrostalagmus (ak"ro-sta-lag'mus), k^"^;^'^°j' 
n. [NL. (Corda, 1838), referring to dupUcel'e, 
the drop-like conidia at the tips of [i^J^',"!', . °l 
the conidiophores, < Gr. dicpor, tip, aiiai ' 'fUal 
-I- arahryfidg, a drop.] A genus of "j^J^'^''"''' 
hyphomycetous fungi having erect 
verticillate-branched conidiophores and simple 
conidia collected in globular masses at their 



act 




-/ 



Acrostaiagmus cinnabarinus. 

a, a branching conidiophore, enlarged : b, one of the branchlets, 

showing the globular masses of conidia, greatly magnified. 

tips. A. cinnabarinus is a common species oc- 
curring on decaying vegetable matter. 

Acrostichese (a-kros-tik'e-e), n. pi. [NL., < 
Acrostichum + -ex.] A tribe of polypodia- 
oeous ferns, typified by the genus Acrostichum. 
It comprises genera of varying habit and venation but 
readily associated by similarity in fructification, the 
naked sporangia overspreading at least a portion of the 
under surface of the wholly or partially metamorphosed 
fertile frond. 

acrosticlioid (a-kros'ti-koid), a. Pertaining 
to the fern genus Acrostichum-, or to the tribs 
Acrostiehex. 

Acrostichum (a-kros'ti-kum), n. [NL., so 
called in allusion to the 'acrostic' appearance 
of the spores : see aerostic] A genus of tropi- 
cal ferns, largely American. The species are di- 
verse, and are sometimes referred to other genera. In 
general they are long-leaved, rather coarse species, with 
mostly simple or pinnate fronds. No less than twenty 
species have been advertised in American horticulture 
catalogues. They are treated as greenhouse plants, 

Acrotidse (a-krot'i-de), n. pi. [Aerotus + 
-idx.] A family of deep-sea fishes remotely 
allied to the mackerels: notable for the very 
soft, rag-like body and the absence of spines 
and ventral fins. 

Acrotinae (ak-ro-1i'ne), n.pl. lAcrotus + -inx.] 
The subfamilybfragfishes, of the family /coste- 
idx, typified by Acrotus willoughbyi. 

acrotonOUS(a-krot'o-nu8), a. [< Gr. aKpm, apex, 
+ rdvog, cord.] In bot., extending to the apex: 
applied to the tissue of the pollen-sac of or- 
chids when prolonged to the upper end of the 
anther. 

Acrotreta (ak-ro-tre'ta), n. [NL., < Gr. ciKpog, 
at the top, -i- Tp^rdg, bored through, perforated. ] 
A genus of extinct brachiopods with a flat dor- 
sal valve and a subcorneal ventral valve per- 
forated at the top: from the Cambrian and 
Silurian beds of Europe and America. 

Acrotretidae(ak-ro-tre'ti-de), n.pl. [NL., i Ac- 
rotreta + -idx.] A family of inarticulate 
brachiopods of early Paleozoic age, embracing 
the genera Acrotreta, Conotreta, Acrothele, and 
lAnnarssoma. 

Acrotus (ak'ro-tus), n. [NL., given as from 
Gr. " aKpoTog, without oars (ventral fins)" ; but 
there is no such form. Cf . Gr. anparog, without 
noise, < d- priv. -f- Kpdrog, a rattling, a clap- 
ping.] A genus of deep-sea fishes represented 
by A. willoughbyi. This species, once taken on the 
coast of Washington, is usually placed in the family 
Acrotidse, next to Icosteidse. 

act, n — Ballot Act. Same as Beform BUI (which see, 
in Cyclopedia of Names).— Carey Act, an act of Congress 
donating one million acres of desert land to each State 
containing such land, upon condition that the land do- 
nated be reclaimed by irrigation at the expense of the 
State.— Desert Act. Same as Carey it Act.— 'Ra.ia'b. Act, 
an act of the United States Congress in 1887 which gave 
to each State and Territory $15,000 a year for the estab- 
lishment of an agricultural experiment station (see ifogri- 
cultural), to be a department of the land-grant college 
(see Morrill *A.e^ except where a separate station al- 
ready existed. The fund is maintained by an annual 
appropriation.— Morrill Act. (a) An act of the United 
States Congress in 1862 which provided for the mainte- 
nance of at least one college in each State, the chief oi)ject 
of which should be instruction in the branches of learn- 
ing related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, though 
other scientific and classical studies were not excluded 
and instruction in military tactics was included. For 
this purpose a grant was made of 30,000 acres of public 
land for each senator and representative, the proceeds 
of sale to be invested as an endowment. (6) A second act 
(1890) which provided for an annual appropriation, to be 
increased in ten years from $16,000 to a permanent sum 
of $26,000 from the proceeds of the sale of public land, 
for the more complete endowment of these institutions. 
Thia income could be applied only to instrucljon (with 
facilities) In agriculture, the mechanic arts, the English 



act 

language, and other branches directly related to indus- 
trial lile.— Scalp Act, in the United States, a statute 
which provides for the payment by a State of a bounty 
or reward for the destruction of certain animals deemed 
to be injurious to agriculture. It is usually provided 
that the reward shall be paid upon the production of the 
heads or scalps of the animals destroyed.— Sherman 
Act, an act of Congress of July U, 1890, directing the 
setretary of the treasury to purchase monthly 4,600,000 
ounces of fine silver bullion, or so much thereof as might 
be offered, at the marlcet rate, not to exceed a for STIJ 
grains of 8ne silver. It was repealed In 1893. 

Actiad (ak'ti-ad), n. [Gr. 'Axria, the Actian 
games, + -acP-. Cf. Olympiad.} The space of 
four Actian years ; the four years intervening 
between one celebration of the Actian games 
and the next. See Actian. 

actinally(ak'ti-nal-i), adv. Toward, or having 
reference to, the" actinal or oral side of an 
echinodermf orally. 

Actinaria (ak-ti-na'ri-a), n. pi. [NL., neut. 
pi. of *actinarius,<GrV. aln-k (am-iv-), a ray.] The 
flesh-corals, a suborder of Anthozoa, usually 
with 6 (or a multiple of 6) simple tentacles and 
no skeleton. It includes Actinia, Adamsia, Ce- 
rianthus, and other genera. 

actine (ak'tin), n. A ray of a monaxon or rod- 
like megasclere of a sponge. 

actinellidan (ak-ti-nel'i-dan), a. and n. I. 
a. Pertaining to or having the characters of 
the AcUnellida. 
II, n. One of the Actinellida. 

acting, p. a. 2. Performing, or used in per- 
forming, stage-plays.- Acting edition (of a play), 
one which contains full stage-directions for the informa- 
tion of the playei's. 
II. n. The profession of an actor or player. 

actinian (ak-tin'i-an), a. and n. [^Actinia + 

-an.'] I. a. Pertaining to or resembling an 

actinia. ^ 

II. n. An animal of the family Actiniidse 

or of the order AcUnUdea. 

actiniarian (ak-tin-i-a'ri-an), a. and n. I. a. 
Pertaining to or having tte characters of the 
Actiniaria. 
II. n. One of the Actiniaria. 

Actinic ^ocus, i^Ilght, Aphotometer. See the nouns. 
— Actinic plane a plane of maximum actinic activity in 
a system of standing light* waves. According to Wiener, 
such planes pass through the loops of the system, and at 
right angles to the path of the waves.— Actinic *Tay, 
^spectnim. See the nouns. 
actinicism (ak-tin'i-sizm), n. {actinic + -dsm.j 

Same as actinism. 
actinicity (ak-ti-nis'i-ti), n. Chemical or pho- 
tographic activity ; a property of rays of the 
spectrum by which chemical reactions are pro- 
duced or promoted. Same as actinism. 

Actinidia (ak-ti-nid'i-a), n. [NL., < Gr. oKrig 
(oKTiv-), a ray, + dim. -toiov.'] A genus of twin- 
ing shrubs, of about eight species, natives of 
eastern Asia and members of the family Tern- 
Strcemiacese. About half of the species are in cultiva- 
tion for covering arbors and porches, A. arguta being the 
most common species. The leaves are large and ovate, 
and are more or less toothed or serrate ; the flowers are 
small and whitlah. The species are hardy and useful 
climbers. 

Actiniidea (ak-tin-i-id'f-a), n.pl. [NL., Irreg. 
< Actinia + -id-ea.] Aii order of zoantharian 
Anthozoa consisting of colonial or solitary Zo- 
antharia cryptoparamera, with or without a 
skeleton The mesenteries are arranged in cycles (each 
cycle usually consisting of 12 couples of equal size), and 
the tentacles equal the mesenteries in number. It con- 
t»ins the Actiniidse, Corallimorphidse, Ilyanthidx, Lipo- 
nemides, Amphianthidee, Dendractidm, and Thaiaedan- 
thidee. 

actinine (ak ' ti - nin), a. ^Actinia + -mei.] 
Actinian. 

actinioid (ak-tin'i-oid), a. [Actinia + -otd.] Re- 
sembling a sea-anemone or actinian. 

Actiniomorpha (ak-tin"i-o-m6r'fa), n. pi. 
[NL., < Actinia + Gr. uop^ii, form.] A sub- 
class of Anthozoa including Actinaria, Antipa- 
tharia, and Madreporaria. 

actinism, n. 3. In bot., the chemical action 
of sunlight on plants. 

Actinistia (ak-ti-nis'ti-a), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. 
anTk, a ray, + lariov, a web (?).] A suborder 
of extinct ganoid fishes ranging from the Car- 
boniferous to the Jurassic. They are characterized 
among other things by having the interspinous bones of 
each dorsal and anal fln fused into a single piece. 

actiniumi n. 1. This supposed chemical element, of 
a metallic character, was announced by Phipson in 1881 
as obtained from a commercial white pigment consisting 
mainly of oxid and sulphid of zinc with sulphate of ba- 
rium. It was described as forming a white sulphid which 
became brown and finally blacit under the aotionof the 
sun's rays, the blackening being prevented by screening 
the surface with a plate of glass, and removed when the 
darkened surface was exposed to air in the absence of 

2. A radioactive substance found by Debierne 



11 

to exist in the residues remaining from pitch- 
blende after the extraction of the uranium: a 
new radio-element closely related in its chem- 
ical behavior to lanthanum, from which it has 
not as yet been found possible to separate it 
completely, it has not been obtained in a state of suf- 
ficient purity to give any characteristic spectrum and is 
Identified and recognized entirely by its radioactive prop- 
erties. Actinium itself has not been found to emit a ra- 
diation but undergoes disintegration with the formation 
of a series of radioactive products known as radioactin- 
ium, actinium-X, actinium emanation, actinium A, actin- 
ium B, and actinium C. Of these, the first, second, third, 
and ^fth emit alpha-rays, the fourth beta-rays, and the 
sixth beta- and gamma-rays (see irobscure rays). These 
products are present in all ordinary actinium prepara- 
tions. The occurrence of actinium indicates that it is a 
disintegration product of uranium, although its genetic 
relationship to ionium and radium has not yet been es- 
tablished. Actinium is identical with the emanium of 
Glesel. See -kemanation. 

M. and Mme. Curie, with the collaboration of MM. 
Bemont and Debierne, succeeded in establishing the 
existence of three new radio-active substances in pitch- 
blende : radium associated with the barium in the min- 
eral, and closely resembling it in its chemical properties ; 
polonium associated with the bismuth, and actinium, with 
the thorium. J. J, Thomson, Elect, and Matter, p. 141. 
ActlnlniB rays, Becquerel rays emitted by the disinte- 
gration products of actinium. See obscure ■krays. 

actinoblast (ak-tin'o-bl&st), n. [Gr. dfcr/f 
(anTiv-), ray, + /SXaor'df, germ.] . In sponges, 
the mother-cell, in which is formed each ray 
of a radiate spicule ; a scleroblast. 

actinobranch (ak-tin'o-brank), m. [NL. oc*s- 
nolyranchia, < Gr. d/cWf ■("aKT4»-),ray, + hranchia, 
gill.] One of the gill-like vascular organs 
found in certain anthozoans. 

actinobranchia (ak*ti-n6-brang'ki-a), n. ; pi. 
actinobranchias (-e). [NL.] Same as *aeUno- 
hranch. 

actinocarp (ak-tin'o-karp), n. [Gr. axrlg (aicriv-), 
ray, + Kapndg, fruit (carpel).] A plant having 
the carpels or placentas radiating from the 
central axis of the fruit. 

actinocarpic (ak"ti-n6-kar'pik), a. In tot., of 
the nature of an actinocarp. 

Actinocephalidse (ak''''ti-nd-se-fal'i-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < Actinocephalus + ■4dse.'i A family of 
cephaline Gregarinida. The sporonts are always 
solitary; epimerite symmetric, simple or with appen- 
dages ; cysts dehiscing by simple rupture; spores navicu- 
lar, bicouic, or cylindric, with conic extremities. They 
are mostly parasites In the alimentary canal of carniv- 
orous arthropods. The family contains Actinocephalus, 
Antkorhyrbchus, Stictospora, Schneideria, and other 
genera. 

Actinocephalus (ak"ti-n6-sef'a-lus), n. [NL., 
< (Jr. d/crif (aKTiv-), ray, + KCipakfi, head.] The 
typical genus of the family ActinocephaUdss. 
Stein, 1848. 

Actinoceras (ak-ti-nog'e-ras), n. [NL., < Gr. 
d/cTi'c (uKTiv-), ray, -f- /c^paf,'liom.] A genus of 
nautiloid cephalopods typical of the family 
Aotinoceratidee. 

actinoceratid (ak'ti-no-ser'a-tid), a. and n. 
I. a. Pertaining to the Actinoceraiidx. 
II, n. One of the Aotinoceratidee. 

ActinoceratidsB (ak'ti-no-se-rafi-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < Actinoceras + -idle.'] A family of lon- 
gicoue nautiloid cephalopods. They have the si- 
phuncle more or less filled wlth^alcareous deposits which 
may radiate into and even fill the chambers of the shell. 
The family includes several important genera, namely, 
Actiiwcerae, Hormoeeras, and Tretoceras, chiefly of Si- 
lurian age. 

actinocrinid(ak''''ti-n6-krin'id), o. and». I. a. 
Pertaining or related to the Actinoerinidse. 

II. n. An encrinite of the family AcUno- 
crinidse. 

Actinoerinidse, n. pi. 2. In Wachsmuth's 
classification, the third family of the camerate 
crinoids. They have a monocyclic base, three radial 
plates in the cup, fixed brachials large and interradials 
numerous, arms stout, usually biserial and simple, with 
long pinnules, and food-grooves subtegminal. The family 
is a large one and is sometimes divided into Actinoerinidse 
and Batocrinidse. It Is represented by numerous genera 
and species of Paleozoic age occurring in the formations 
from the Lower Silurian to the Carboniferous. 

actinogram (ak-tin'o-gram), n. [Gr. d/crif 
(d/crjc-), ray, + ypd/i/ia, what is written.] 1. 
A record of the chemical activity of light 
made by means of the actinograph. — 2. An 
impression made on a sensitized photographic 
plate by the Eontgen or Becquerel rays. 

actinograph, ».— Hurter and Driffield's actino- 
graph, a slide-and-roUer calculating-machine for deter- 
mining photographic exposures. A cylinder, carrying a 
chart which shows geographically the intensity of day- 
light for every hour ot each day of the year, is fitted in a 
light box. The slide next this cylinder is furnished with 
two scales, one marked for lens-apertures and the other 
set out for exposures. Next to this is a small pointer 
slide which is adjusted to a fixed plate-speed scale and 



actinometer 

Indicates the exposure for each of six selected typical 
meteorological conditions. The instrument is plotted 
tor any desired latitude. 

actinographic (ak"ti-n6-graf 'ik), a. Of or per- 
taining to actinography or the actinograph; 
obtained by means of the actinograph. 
actinography (ak"ti-nog'ra-fi), n. [As ac- 
tinograph + -y^.] The registration of actinic 
power by means of the actinograph. 
Actinoidea (ak-ti-noi'de-a), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. 
d/o-(f (d/cTfi'-), ray, + ilSog, form.] Same as 
Crimoidea. 
actinolite, n. 2. A trade-name of an appa- 
ratus by which the ultra-violet rays may be 
employed in the treatment of cutaneous dis- 
eases. 
actinologist (ak-ti-nol'o-jist), n. [actinology 
+ 4st.] One who is versed in the study of the 
Aetinozoa, or the sea-anemones, corals, and 
related forms. 

actinologue (ak-tin'o-log), n. [Gt. d/cWf (aicnv-), 
ray, + A6yog, analogy, proportion (?).] In a 
radiate animal, as a sea-anemone or an echi- 
noderm, any organ or other part of an actino- 
mere which corresponds to another in a differ- 
ent actinomere. 

actinology, n. 2. The study of the Aetinozoa : 
as, the actinology of the South Atlantic. 
actinolyte (ak-tin'o-Ut), n. [Gr. d/cn'f, ray, + 
Xvt6c, < Xieiv, dissolvcj separate.] 1. A chemir 
cal compound analyzable into its components 
by light. — 2. Any substance in which light 
effects a marked sensible change. 
actinolytic (ak'ti-no-lit'ik), a. Pertaining to 
or of the nature of an aetinolyte. 
Actinomeris (ak"ti-nom'e-ris), n. [NL., < Gr. 
d/cTif (d/cnv-), a ray, + fiipoc, a part.] A small 
genus of North American Compositse, of which 
one or two are sometimes grown in gardens. 
The cultivated species are perennials, to be 
treated after the manner of perennial sun- 
flowers. 
actinometer, n. chemical actinometers measure 
the energy of radiation by its chemical effects. Bun- 
sen measured the amount of hydrochloric acid made by 
sunshine from a mixture of hydrogen and chlorin ; Mar- 
chand measured the amount of carbonic-acid gas liber- 
ated from a solution of perchlorld of iron and oxalic acid 
by the use of his antiphotypimeter. Photographic acti- 
nometers measure the Intensity of the shade produced on 
a sensitized plate by an exposure during one unit of time. 
Vapor actinometers measure the volume of liquid (water, 
alcohol, or ether) evaporated in a unit of time. Thermal 
actinometers measure the heating effect of radiation by 
many different devices: sometimes called pyrheliometers. 
De Saussure used the simple hot box ; Sir John Herschel, a 
large thermometer-bulb filled with a blue liquid ; PouUlet, 
a measured volume of water inplosed in a blackened cyl- 
inder, the temperature of the water being given by a ther- 
mometer within it ; Crova and Vlolle, a black-bulb ther- 
mometer within a large spherical inclosure kept at 
uniform temperature ; Arago, as modified by Davy, a ^air 
of bright- and black- bulb thermometers each inclosed in a 
plane-glass spherical envelop from which the air has been 
exhausted : when exposed to the sunshine the black bulb 
attains a higher temperature than the bright bulb, and the 
difference between the two is an index of the amount of 
heat which penetrates the glass envelop. The complete 
theory of this action was published by Ferrel in 1886. 
Langley used a fine wire coated with lamp-black, the inten- 
sity of an electric current flowing thi'ough the wire being 
shown by a delicate galvanometer and varying with the 
temperature of the wire. Hutchins, following Mellon! 
and Tyndall, employed a delicate thermo-electric junc- 
tion together with a galvanometer ; Chwolsou, a pair of 
plates one of which is exposed to the sunshine while the 
other is in the shade, the difference of temperature being 
shown by the intensity of a thermo-electric current ; and 
Angstrfim, in his electrically compensated actinometer, 
two thin strips alternately exposed and shaded, the dif- 
ference of tem- 
perature being * 
measured by the 
intensity of the 
electric current 
needed to bring 
them both to the 
same tempera- 
ture.-Absolute 
actinometer, 
an apparatus for 
determining in 
absolute units 
the total quan- 
tity of heat re- 
ceived at any 
place during any 
time by radia- 
tion, as distin- 
guished from 
the relative 
measurements 
made with an 
ordinary acti- 
nometer. — Dra- 
per's actinom- 
eter, an ac- 
tinometer which 
measures the ac- 
tion of light by 
the weight of 

ViolU's Actinometer (cross-section). (Seep.12.) Carbon dloxld 




actinometer 

disengaged by It from a solution of fenic oxalate. It 
was devised by Professor Henry Draper.— BtChardson'S 
actLaomelier, an instrument for measuring andrecording 
the intensity of the chemically active rays of the sun by 
means of the expansion of dry chlorin gas.— ROBCOe'B ac- 
tinometer, an actinometer devised by Sir Henry Roscoe 
for measuring the action of light by the use of paper sen- 
sitized with silver chlorid. The paper, fixed round a 
drum moved by clockwork, is periodically exposed behind 
a hole in a thin sheet of brass fastened over the drum. — 
Stajlley*S actinometer, an actinometer for measuring 
the actinicity of light by the length of time required to 
bring a piece of sensitized paper to a standard tint.— 
Vlolle'B actinometer, a black-bulb thermometer placed 
at the center of a spherical metallic inclosure wliich is 
kept at a known constant temperature by the flow of 
water within its double walls. A small aperture allows 
sunshine to fall upou the thermometer-bulb, whose rate 
of warming is observed. 

Actinometric degrees, the calculated quantity of radi- 
ant energy received by an actinometer in any given in- 
terval of time as expressed on any arbitrary scale. 

actinomyces, n. 2. \_cap.'] [>rL. (Harz, 1877).] 
A genus of fungi of doubtful relationship. The 
type is A. bovis, the ray-fungus. See actino- 
myces, 1. 

actinomycotic (ak*ti-no-mi-kot'ik), a. \_*acii- 
nomycosis{-ot-) + -ic] Resembling, related to, 
or caused by the ray-fungus or actinomyces. 
Jour. Exper. Med., V. 179. 

Actinomyxidia (ak'''ti-n6-mik-sid'i-a), n. pi. 
[NL., < Gt. a-KTig (aicnv-), ray, -I- /tifa, slime 
+ -idia. ] A group of peculiar parasites found 
in fresh-water oligoehsetes. They are regarded by 
some as being intermediate between Xyxospt^idia and 
Xaozoa, while others consider them as belonging to the 
former group. Stole, 1899. 

Actinonema (ak'ti-no-ne'ma), n. [NL. (Per- 
soon, 1822), < Gr. dxrif, ray J" -I- vijim, thread.] 
A genus of Fungi Imperfecti characterized by 
pycnidia produced upon a superficial layer of 
radiating mycelium. The spores aie hyaline and 
mostly two-celled. A. roese is a common species wliich 
attacks leaves of roses. See -kleaf-blotch. 

actinophore, » — Epazlal actlnophores, in ichth., 
uodules of bone or cartilage between the dorsal rays and 
the intemeural spines. — Hypaxial actinopbores, in' 
icfdh., nodules of bone or cartilage between the anal 
rays and the interhemal spines. 

Actino^oda (ak-ti-nop'o-da), n. pi. [NL., < 
(Jr. anTic (aKTiv-), ray, -1- ttov'c (iroS-), foot.] An 
order of Bolothurioidea. The tentacles and podia 
are supplied by the five radial canals of the water- vascular 
system springing from the circular canal. The order in- 
cludes the families Holothuriid/e, CvcumariidsB, Molpa- 
diidx, Elpidiidx, and PetagaUiuriidx. 

Actinopteria (ak'-'ti-nop-te'ri-a), n. [NL., < 
Gr. d/crif (d/cnv-), ray, -I- Trrepiiw^Trrcpii), feather 
(wing).] Agenus of Paleozoic aviculoid shells. 
They have a well-defined auricle and wing and radial sur- 
face-plications which cover the latter. Abundant in the 
Devonian fonnations of America and Europe. 

Actiliopterygia(ak-ti-nop-te-rij'i-a)^ n. pi. 
[NL., < Gr. afcrif (aicni>-), a ray, -I- irTepvyim, a 
fin.] A great group of fishes including all of 
the living bony fishes except the Dipnoi or 
lung-fishes and, usually, the Crassopterygn or 
fringe-finned ganoids. The term Teleosiomi is 
more commonly used and usually embraces all 
of the living bony fishes. 

actinosome (ak'ti-no-som), n. Same as aciijio- 
s»ma. 

addnostome, n. 2. The pentagonal area in 
the center of the oral surface of an eehinoderm 
which is occupied by the peristome and mouth. 

actinostomial (ak'''ti-no-st6'mi-al), a. [NL. 
*»ctino$tomiaUs, < acUnostomium, aetinostome. ] 
Pertaining or relating to the aetinostome : as, 
the actinostomial ring in Asteroidea. 

actinostomons (ak-ti-nos'to-mus), a. [Gr. 
d(cr/f, ray, + ard/ia, mouth.] In iot., radiating 
round the mouth : applied specially to the ra- 
diate structure round the ostioles of certain 
lichens. 

Actinostroma (ak-ti-no-stro'ma), n. [NL., < 
Gr. d/cr/f, ray, -1- OTpoi/M, bed.] A genus of 
hydrocoralline hydrozoans. They grew in spread- 
ing masses and exhibited, in vertical section, a series of 
radial pillars extending more or less continuously through 
successive layecs. An abundant reef-building organism 
in the Devonian. 

actinotherapentic (ak'ti-no-ther-a-pu'tik), a. 
Pertaining to the therapeutic use of certain 
rays of light, especially in the treatment of 
cutaneous diseases. 

actinotherapy (ak"ti-n6-ther'a-pi), n. [Gr. 
mcrtf (oKTiv-), ray, -I- Bepairela, cure.] Same as 
*r<xd%otherapy. 

actinotrocha (ak^ti-no-ti-o'ka), n. [NL., < Gr. 
d*rtf (uKTiv-), a ray, + rpoxii (?), a wheel, a 
ring.] The peculiar larval form of Phoronis, 
an aberrant genus of marine worms of doubtful 
affinities, being sometimes classed with the 



12 




Three stages in the Metamorphosis of the Actinotrocha into 
Phoronis. A. Actinotrocha larva with the invagination (f), which 
will fomi the trunk of the Phoronis larva, beginning to appear. 
S, stage with the invagination partly extruded. C, stage when 
the extrusion is complete and the alimentary canal has passed into 
it. (C is after Metschnikoff.) a, mouth ; b, anus ; c, invagination 
which ultimately forms the greater part of the body of the adult. 
(From " Cambridge Natural History."} 

Gephyrea, sometimes with the Molluscoidea, 
and sometimes with the Hemichordata. 
action, n,, 1 1 (b). in the pianoforte the action is 
said to be neavjif or light, hard or 6agy, according to the 
amount of resistance to the finger ; deep or ihaXLow, ac- 
cording as the dip of the keys is great or small ; repeating 
if th e mechanism permits repetition of the stroke without 
allowing the keys to rise to their original position, etc. ; 
and the word is also extended to the ped^ mechanism. 
In the or^an (besides the above usages) the action is called 
an ele<Arie,pmwmaiic, or tracker actum, according as 
the mechanism connecting the keys with the valves varies 
in construction; and the word is also extended to the 
stop mechanism. Furthermore, in the organ the action 
is said to be extertded when the keyboards are placed at 
some distance from the case in which are the pipes. 

13. In psychol., bodily movement, in so far as 
it is directly preceded, accompanied, or fol- 
lowed by consciousness. Some psychologists dis- 
tinguish this as the exterTial voluntary action from an in- 
ternal voluntary action, in which the effect of the initial 
volition is itself a mental process, a change in the train 
of ideas which does not m^iifest itself by any sort of ex- 
ternal symptom. Others use the phrase aetimb of the 
mind loosely as the equivalent of mentaZ function or m^n- 
tal activity. 

A voluntary action consists, in the first place, of a feel- 
ing, in which the tendency of the will is manifested ; sec- 
ondly, of a change in ideational content which may be 
accompanied by an external effect mediated by the or- 
gans of movement; and thirdly, of the general idea of 
the dependence of this change upon the whole trend of 
consciousness. 
W. Wundt (trans.), Human and Animal Psychol., p. 233. 

14, In mech., the sum of the average momenta 
of the elements of a moving system, each mul- 
tiplied by the distance through which it moves. 
— Action consclouaness. See ifeonsciousness. — Action 

' ex contractu, a civil action in which the rights of the 
parties are subject to the law of contracts as distinguished 
from the law of torts.— Action ez delicto, a civil action 
in which the rights of the parties are subject to the law 
of torts as distinguished from the law of contracts. — Ao 
tion tbeory, a psychophysical theory which correlates 
the attributes of sensation with definite phases of the pas- 
sage from excitation to discharge in the cerebral cortex : 
its quality and intensity with locality and sti'ength of ex-, 
citation ; its value and vividness with locality and strength 
of discharge. B. Muneterberg, Harvard Psychol. Stud., I. 
iv.— Automatic action, in psychol., a term used, with 
various shades of meaning, to denote action which, 
originally voluntary, has become more or less mechani- 
cal.— ContlnuouB action, in mech., action in the same 
direction, without a reversal. The action of a circular 
saw or band-saw or a dynamo is continuous ; that of an 
engine-piston is alternating. — Directive action, action 
which tends to cause a body possessed of polarity, as a 
magnet or a crystal, to take some certain position in the 
field of force in which it lies. See the extract. 

If the attraction with parallel axes exceeds that with 
crossed axes there must be a directive action resisting 
the turn from the crossed to the parallel positions. 

J. H. Poynting, Smithsonian E«p. 1901, pp. 209, 210. 
Dynamic action, in tociol., an action in which the end 
is sought mediately : opposed to static action, in which 
the end is soughtlmmediately.— Funicular action. See 
*/«»»M!Mtor.— Impulsive action, in psychol., a simple 
voluntary action determined by a single motive. W. 
IFundt (trans.), Human and Animal Psychol., p. 232.— In- 
stinctive action, in psychol., action founded on a con- 
genital, instinctive basis, but consciously motived by ac- 
quired experience. Morgan, Habit and Instinct, p. 136. 
-—Joint action, a civil action in which several parties, 
having the same or similar rights in the subject-matter of 
the suit, are joined as plaintiffs or defendants. — Law 
of mass action, in pays, ehem., the statement that 
when any substance in solution enters into, a chemical 
reaction the amount of tlie reaction in the unit of time 
is proportional to the active mass of the substance, that 



activity 

is, to the number of gram-molecules of the substance 
contained in one liter of the solution.— Law Of recip- 
rocal action. See *2aw.— Local action. (*) In an elec- 
tric battery, the developmcntof electrical energy by chem- 
ical action on the elements of the battery even when the 
outer circuit is open. Such local internal circuits weaken 
the effective or useful current, (c) In dynamo-electric 
machines, wasteful internal circuits in the pole-pieces or 
cores ; eddy, parasitic, or Foucauit currents. — Multi- 
plicity of actions, a term used in equity jurisprudence 
wherein a court of chancery has jurisdiction to compel 
the consolidation of several suits where the issue in till 
can he determined in a single action. A suit in such a 
court may be brought to prevent a 'multiplicity of ac- 
tions. ■ — FsycJbiomotor action, in psychol. , action which 
occurs as the direct response to a perception or idea. 
The term includes ideomotor and sen^oriTnotor action.— 
Selective action in psychd., action which results from 
the clash in consciousness of two or more impulses. £. B. 
Titehener, Outline of Psychol., p. 266.— Static action. 
See dynamic -kaction.— Volitional action, in psychol., 
a term used, with various shades of meaning, to denote 
action which involves the exercise of active attention. 

action-extension (ak ' shon-eks-ten"shon), n. 
In pianoforte-maMng, a wooden rod which 
transfers the motion of the key-tail to the 
whip. Its length varies with the size and arrangement 
of the action. Analogous to sticher in organ-building. 
See cut ander pianoforte. 

action-rail (ak'shon-ral), n. In pianoforte- 
making, abarorraii extending across the action 
from side to side, to which are pivoted the 
movable parts of all the hammers and damp- 
ers. See cut undeT pianoforte. 

action-time (ak'shon-tim), n. In psychol., a 
term occasionally used for the simple reaction- 
time. 

activ, a. A simplified spelling of active. 

activate,®.*. 2. Inj)A^«Jcs, to render active; 
specifically, to make radioactive by exposure 
to the influence of a radioactive substance; 
to ionize. See *radioactivity. 

J. Elster and H. Geitel describe their method of study- 
ing the radio-activity of the atmosphere in places removed 
from physical or meteorological laboratories.. In these 
measurements it is necessary to maintain the body to be 
activated for several hours at a negative potential of 
several thousand volts. 

Sei. Amxr. Sup., Apr. 18, 1903, p. 22816. 

activated (ak'ti-va"ted), p. a. In physics, in 
a state or condition of acquired radioactivity ; 
ionized. 

They find that underground air is not like activated 
air, but rather resembles radium and thorium com- 
pounds, which, Willie neutral themselves, are capable of 
ionizing gases by means of the free ions they emit. 

Elee. World and Engineer, Jan. 10, 1903, p. 86. 

activation (ak-ti-va'shon), n. The act of ren- 
dering active or the state of being activated ; 
specifically, in physics, the process or method 
of producing radioactivity in a body by expo- 
sure to the influence of a radioactive substance 
or otherwise ; the state or condition of being 
radioactive ; ionization. 

active, a. 9. In j)s^ctoZ., representative of a 
type pf character whose dominant character- 
istic is a natural and constantly renewed ten- 
dency to action — Active ^congestion, -'^mass, 
•pressure, ^principle. See the nouns.— Active de- 
posit, in radioactimty, a substance deposited by the 
emanation from a radioactive material, as radium or 
thorium, and Itself capable of producing excited activity 
in neighboring bodies. — Active mateilal (of a storage- 
cell), in elect., the substance or substances which change 
chemically during charge and discharge.— Active verb, 
a verb which expresses action. It may be (a) active 
transitive, in which the action passes from the subject or 
agent to an object : as, the sun gives light ; or it may be 
ib) active intransitive, in which the action is confined to 
the subject : as, the sun shines. — Active voice in gram., 
that form or aspect of a verb in which the subject of the 
verb a represented as acting. See active, 8. 

activital (ak-tiv'i-tal), a. [activity + -al.'] Re- 
lating to action as opposed to thought. J. W. 
Powell. 

Full knowledge of aboriginal character may be gained 
only through study of both the actiwJtal habits and the 
intellectual systems of the aborigines ; for in every stage 
of human development, action and thought are concomi- 
tant and complementary. 

Hep. Bur. Am. Ethnol., 1897-98, p. 825. 

activity, n. 6. In psychol., a self-determina- 
tion of mental process, experienced or in- 
ferred, especially characteristic of the cona- 
tive consciousness. The term has been variously 
and loosely used in modern psychology. In those sys- 
tems which are still dominated by philosophical influ- 
ences it denotes a primary and irreducible experience of 
self-causation or free initiative. To the psychologist 
who looks upon mind as a system of organic functions 
activity is given with the direction of the course of con- 
sciousness, knowingly or unknowingly, upon a determi- 
nate end : a partic'lar mental process is the first term of 
a definite series, the remaining members of which it 
evokes in their order, while the series reaches its natural 
conclusion when the end is attained. In this sense, how- 
ever, mental activity becomes practically synonymous 
with mental function itself, since the limiting cases of 
anoetlc sentience and involuntary movement are still 
self-determined in just so far as consciousness is in- 



aiCtivlty 



13 



yolved in them. Lastly, there are psychologistB who, speak mcorrectly, < aKvpog, unauthorized, im- 
Investigating mind as a stream o( mental proceaaes, nmnfir r^ n nHv + idmnr a.ll«lnln^^r^ + /i4v/v 
predicate of it neither activity nor passivity, but hold P™P^r iS «- P"^- T ™P°f' auwonty;, + Myog, 
that the antithesis of active and paaalve has no more speecii.J J! auJty diction. [Bare.] 
place within psychology than the antithesis of subjective AcVStOSporea (a-sis"t6-8p6're-a) ,n.pl. [NL. , 
and objective. However, they still employ the terms, in < &r. a- priv. + Kvarig, bladder,' + airdpog, seed 



obedience to traditional usage, as descriptive names of 
mental states or mental complexes ; they speak, for ex- 
ample, of 'active' attention, meaning attention that is 
equivocally conditioned; and of a 'feeling of activity' 
which accompanies the state of active attention. Such 
a terminology, however harmless in intention, can only 
add to the existing confusion. 
actol (ak'tol), n. [act + -ol.'\ A trade-name 



(see spore).'} A suborder of Sporozoa, of the 
order Hxmosporidia. it contains those forms in 
which the trophozoite is an ammbold hemamoeba or is of 
simple body form and is typically endoglobular through- 
oiitthe schizogonous cycle. An alternation of hosts occurs 
in many cases, schizogony tallying place usuallyin a warm- 
blooded vertebrate host, while sporogony occurs in an 
invertebrate host, usually an arthropod. Compare *ff«- 



for silver lactate, C^SgOgAg, a substance mosporm. 

used as a soluble antiseptic. It must be kept Acystosporidia (a-sis''''t6-spo-rid'i-a), n. pi. 



from the sunlight, 

Actuality theory, in psyehol., the theory that psychol- 
ogy deals with the immediate and underived reality of 
experience, while the natural sciences, as abstracting 
from the knowing subject, deal only with mediate expe- 
rience ; opposed to the theory of suistanticUity or of 
mmd-stiietance. W. Wundt (trans.), Outlines of Psychol., 
p. 314. 

actuarial! (ak-tu-a'ri-an), a. Same as actua- 
rial. 

acnate, a. 3. Having an elongate smooth 
form pointed at one end; needle-shaped: ap- 
plied to sponge-spicules. 

II. n. An acuate monactinellid sponge- 
spicule. 

aculeolus (ak-u-le'o-lus), n.; pi. aculeoU (-li). 
[NL. (L. as a doubtful reading), dim. of acu- 
leus: see aculeits.'\ In hot,, a minute aculeus 



[NL., as Acystospor-ea + 4d4a.'\ A group of 
protozoan cell-parasites infesting certain verte- 
brates. They are found mainly in red blood-corpuscles, 
bu t also in the kidney, liver, and intestinal epithelium. In 
blood they cause hypertrophy of the corpuscles and dimi- 
nution of the hemoglobin. They are associated with 
malaria in man and with Texas fever in cattle. See -kBee- 
TnameebidsB and ieOymnoBpondia. 

ad, V. A simplified spelling of add. 

Ada (a'da), n. [NL., appar. from the feminine 
name Ada.} A genus containing two species 
of epiphytal orchids native to northern South 
America, sometimes grown in choice collec- 
tions under the same conditions as Odontoglos- 
sum. 

adactylia (a-dak-til'i-a), n. [NL., < Gr. d- priv. 
-f- dd/cTU/lof, finger or toe: see dactyl.'] In tera- 
fol., a congenital lack of some or all of the 
fingers or toes 

Same as *a«toc- 



or prickle. 

acuminate, a. (c) In ichth., drawn out in a adactylism (a-dak'til-izm) 
long point: said of the fins. 

acupunctuate (ak-u-pungk'tu-at), V. t.; pret. 
and pp. acupuHctuated) ppr. acupunetuaUng. 
[L. acus, needle, + punctuare, prick : see punc- 
tuate.'] To prick with a needle ; acupuncture. 

acupunctuation (ak'''u-pungk-Ju-a'shon), n. 
Same as acupuneturaiion. 



adagio, adv. and a. Special varieties of movement 
or style are indicated by adding other terms, as : adagio 
assai or TnoltOj very slow ; adagio non troppo, slow, but 
not too much so ; adagio camtaMle or sostenuto, slow, with 
a flowing or sustained movement ; adagio patetico, slow 
and with pathos ; adagio pesante, slow, with heavy ac- 
cents ; adagio religioso, slow and in the church style ; etc. 



acuta (a-kii'ta), n. [NL.: see acute, a.] In adalid (ad-a-led'), n. [Sp., a chief or com- 



organ-building, an unusually shrill mixture 
stop. 
Acutalis (ak-u-ta'lis), n. [NL. (Fairmaire, 
1846), < L. acutus, pointed.] A genus of tree- 
hoppers of the homopterous family Membra- 
cidx. A. dorsalin is found in considerable numbers on 
grape-vines in the northern United States in July. It is 
known as the black-backed tree-hopper. 

acUteneSSf n. {e) in musical acoustics, relative ele- 



mander, < Ar. aUdaUl, < al, the, -f- dalil, leader, 
guide.] A leader or guide. Miss Tonge, 
Christians and Moors in Spain, p. 206. 
Adam, n.— Adam and Eve. (b) a colloquial name for 
Sempermoum tectorwm, the houseleek. — Adam's apple. 
{d) A name given to the crape jasmine or East Indian 
rosebay, Tabemtemontana c&rtmaria. See crape Jas- 
mine, under -^jasmine.— Adam's fig. Sec fig^. 

Adamantine layer or substance, the enamel of the 

teeth. 



vation of pitch in a sound or tone, produced by greater adamautoblast (ad-a-mau'to-blast), n. [G 

t'!;t'SthVSr"i?K1?te'Ser'''^- '^'''''''"'' f"/'"^. adamant -^ ••/3j^..rdc, germ.] In er, 

bryol., one of the cells which produce the 



the pitch, the greater 

acutilingual (a-ku-ti-ling'gwal), a. [L. acutus, 
sharp, + lingua, tongue.] Having a sharp- 
pointed tongue. 

acutiplantar (a-ku-ti-plan'tar), a. [L. acutus, 
sharp, -hplantd, sole.] In ornith., having the 
tarsus sharply ridged on its posterior face. 
Eidgway, Birds of North and Middle America, 
I. 24. 

acutish (a-ku'tish), a. [acute + -ish^.] Rather 
acute; specifically, in bot., barely acute or 
verging toward an acute form, 

acutorsion (ak-u-t6r'shon), n. 
+ torsio(,n-), twisting.] In surg., an opera- 
tion for arresting hemorrhage from a wounded 
artery by passing a needle beneath the vessel, 
twisting it, and passing it out over the vessel. 



r. 

ern- 



enamel of the teeth. Same as '^ameloblast, 
adamellite (ad-a-mel'it), », [(Monte) Ada- 
mello, in the middle Alps, -I- -ite^.] Inpetrog., 
a name proposed by Cathrein (1890) as a sub- 
stitute for tonalite, and described as a granu- 
lar igneous rock of the group intermediate 
between granite and diorite, containing ortho- 
clase and plagioclase feldspars with hornblende 
and biotite. Brogger uses the term for highly 
quartzose monzonites. 

ri /,/.„<, „^^m^ Adam Kadmon (ad 'am kad'mon). [Heb. 

Lu. acMS, neeaie, >g^^m Ipadmon, 'ddam"ha-i:adm6m, 'the first 
man.'] In cabalistic doctrine, the primordial 
man, the image of God, emanating from the En- 
soph, the Infinite, and representing the Eser 
Sephiroth, the ten attributes of the deity. See 
'*'Sephiroih and *Jfachash Hakadmoni. 



acutospinous (a-kii-to-spi'nus), a. [h. acutus, .„.„„,„„„ ^,„. . „ 

sharp, + SiJma; spine.] Having sharp spines. AdamkiCTrtc^^S react^^^^^ "8ee*rea'ction. 
acyanoblejpsia (a-si'a-no-blep si-a), n. Same Adams-Stokes disease. Same as Stokes-Ad- 
ams ^disease. 

adanal (ad-a'nal), a. [L. ad, to, -I- anus, anus.] 
Extending to fhe anus: as, the adanal plate, 
in Arachnida, a plate-like sclerite reaching, to 
the anus. 



acyclic, a. 2. In dynam., not having the prop- 
erty of whirling or moving in circles. 

The system now behaves, as regards the co-ordinates 
qi, qg, . . • qm, exactly like thj acyclic type^ there con- 



templated. 

3. Irregular in course; not occurring with 

normal periodicity. — 4. In ohem., containing 

no cycle or ring: said of organic compounds 

which contain no ring of atoms — Acyclic sur- Adapisoricidse (ad'''a-pi-so-ris'i-de), n. pi 



Hrwyc. Bru., xxvil. 670. adaugle (a-dang'gl), adv. [a3 + dangle.] 
-i ■ .i.^ Hanging loosely; in a dangling position or 

condition ; dangling. Browning, Men and Wo- 
men, i. 37. N. E. D. 



face, a surface such that any closed curve upon it can 
contract to a point without leaving the suiface. 

acyesis (a-si-e'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. d- priv. -t- 
Kvriaig, conception, < Kvelv, conceive.] 1. In- 
ability to conceive; barrenness. — 3. The con- 
dition of non-pregnancy. 

acyl (as'il), ». [ae{id) + ^l.] Anameintro- 

duced by Liebermann to designate an acid adapoid (ad'a-poi'd), a 
radical such as acetyl, C2H3O. lated to the 'Adapidx. 

acylate (as'i-lat), v. t. ; pret. and pp. acylated, adapt, v. t. 4. Same as *immunize. 
ppr. acylating. [acyl + -ate\] To introduce 
an acyi-group into ; especially, to prepare an 
acyl derivative of an organic compound con- 
taining a hydroxyl- or amino-group. 

acyrology (a-si-rol'o-ji), n. [L. acprologia, < 
Gr. aKvpo^yia, < "amipoMyog, adj., < aicvpoTioyelv, adaptation, n. 



[NL., ( Adapisorex \( Adapis, a genus of 
monkeys, + Sorex, a genus of insectivores) + 
-idsB.] A family of extinct insectivorous mam- 
mals related to the moles, but more highly 
specialized. The type genus, Adapisorex, about 
the size of a hedgehog, is from the Lower 
Eocene of Eeims, Prance. 

[Adap-is + -oid.] Ee- 



Bordet heated for half an hour to 56° C. some of the 
lytic serum secured by adapting the guinea-pig through 
subcutaneous injections to the red blood cells of the rab- 
bit. He found that it had completely lost its new lytic 
power. Med. Eecard, Feb. 14, 1903, p. 246. 

4. Same as *immunigation. — 



adding-madiine 

Adaptation product. See *adaptatimn,product,~ 
Constitutional adaptation constitutional impregna- 
tion. See *impr€g7iation. — Fimctlonal adaptation, 
in biol., the adjustment of an organism by its own activity 
to changed conditions, considered as a cause of change 
in its structure. The notion of functional adaptation as 
prior to and the cause of structure rests upon the belief 
that an organism can do things for which it has no adap- 
tive machinery. H. E. Crampton, Biometrika, March- 
July, 1904, p. 114.— Law of adaptation, in social., the 
assumption that social groups acting upon one another 
universally adapt themselves to a certain end, namely, 
further social development.— Ontogenetic adaptation, 
an adaptive change which is produced in an organism by 
its own activity and is not transmitted to descendants, as 
contrasted with a change which is congenita and is 
transmitted to descendants ; a useful acquired character. 
H. F. Osborn, Science, Oct. 16, 1897.- Visual adapta- 
tion, the adjustment of the eye, by the pupilary mecha- 
nism and by retinal changes, to a change in the color or 
brightness of its surroundings. The eye may become 
adapted either to a change of the total field of vision 
(general adaptation) or to local and partial changes 
within a given field {local adaptation). Adaptation itself 
may be partial or complete. 

adaptationist (ad-ap-ta'shon-ist), n. One who 
believes that social phenomena must be ex- 
plained as adaptations to environment and 
accounted for by collective causes rather than 
by individual efforts. 

adaptation-product (ad-ap-ta'shon-prod'''ukt), 
«. A substance produced in the body of an 
animal of one species by immunization with 
cells or cellular products derived from the 
body of an animal of an alien species. Also 
called reacUon^substance. it has a specific eftect 
upon the body used in immunization which, generally 
speaking, is antagonistic to the immunizing substance. 
In this relation also called antibody or antisubstancc. 
Examples are the various antitoxins, cytotoxins, agglu- 
tinins, and precipitins. See idmrrmnity. 

adapted (a-dap'ted),p. a. Specifically, result- 
ing from immunization: as, an adapted sermn. 

adapter, n. 6. laphotog., an attachment to a 
camera by means of which plates of sizes 
other than those for which the camera is de- 
signed may be used. 

adaxial (ad-ak'si-al), a. [L. ad, to, -I- axial.] 
In bot, in a plane facing the axis. See the 
extract. 

The ovaries [in Gasuarina] are flattened laterally, in 

contrast to the adaxial flattening of the wings in Finns. 

Bot. Gazette, XXXVI. 104. 

A. D. B. .An abbreviation of Artium Domesti- 
carum Baccalaurea,BacheloT of Domestic Arts, 
a degree conferred by some institutions upon 
women. 

A. D. C. 1. An abbreviation of Aide-de-camp. 
— 2. An abbreviation of Anodic Duration Cori- 
traction : used in electrotherapy. 

add, V. f.— Added part or voice, in music, a part or 
voice supplementary to the principal melody or to 
the essential harmony. Thus in polyphonic writing a 
counterpoint may be called the added part or voice, in 
distinction from the cantus ; or when a solo part is com- 
bined with a chorus it may be called the ai&d part or 
voice. 

addental (a-den'tal), re. [ad- -H dental.] In 
ichth., one of the bones of the upper jaw, 
joined to the premaxillary in front: synony- 
mous with maxillary. 

adder^, n — Banded adder, Bungarus fasciatm of 
southern Asia. — Berg adder, Clotho (or Vipera) atropos 
of South Africa.— Blowing-adder, a harmless hog-nosed 
snake of North America belonging to the genus Hetero- 
doTC.- Homed adder, Clotho cornuta of North Africa: 
not to be confounded with the horned viper, Cerastes 
cornuta, also of North Africa, but more abundant and 
more deadly. 

adder's-tongue, «• 2. A name sometimes 
given to the hart's-tongue, Phylliiis Scolopen- 
drium. See Scolopendrium. — 3, Any of the 
eastern species of Erythronium or dog-tooth 
violet. The white adder's-tongue is E. albidum. 
— Adder's-tongue family, the Ophi^glossaceie, includ- 
ing Ophioglossum, the adder's-tongue fera. 

Addie's process. See '''process. 

addigital (a-dij'i-tal), a. and n . [ad- + digital.] 

I. a. In ornith., attached to a digit (the third). 

— Addigital remez, the primary attached to the first 

phalanx of the third digit of a bird's wing. 
II. n. Same as ^addigital remex. 
addiment (ad'i-ment), n. [NL. *addimentum, 

< L. addere, add.]" A thing added; an addita- 

ment; a complement; specifically, same as 

*complement, 8. See *alexin. 

Dr. Longcope gives a study of the bacteriolytic action 
of human blood in disease, and Dr. Walker surveys the 
various factors in bacteriolytic action, from which he 
deduces the fact that the complement or addiment is a 
product of disintegration of leucocytes. 

Nature, Feb. 19, 1903, p. 373. 

adding-machine, n. its different forms depend 
either on the totalizing principle, on the principle of a 
train of gears whose ratio is 10 to 1, or on both. In a 
convenient form the figures ore arranged like the keys of 
a type-writer in vertical rows from 1 to 9. By depressing 
the key for the proper figure in the row of units, tens. 



adding-machine 

hundreds, etc., the result of the addition appears in fig- 
ures. Such machines are much used in banks, offices, 
and factories. 
addition, n — Algebraic addition, addition in which 
the signs (+ and — ) of the quantities to be added are 
considered. The result is the difference between the 
Bums of the positive and of the negative quantities, with 
the sign of the greater.— Relative addition, such a 
combination of two relative terms as will produce a third 
term expressing the relation in which any relate, A, of 
the first term added would stand to any correlate, C, of 
the second term added if, and only if, every object in the 
universe, say X, were either such that A was in the first 
relation to X, or such that X was in the second rela- 
tion to C. For example, in the universe of whole num- 
bers, the number 4 stands to the number 2 in the relation 
which results from the relative addition of "is prime to " 
to " is a multiple of," since 4 is prime to every number 
unless to a multiple of 2. This operation was introduced 
into logical algebra in 1882 by C. S. Peirce, and has gen- 
erally been employed, although Whitehead and others 
hold it to be of little utility. 

addition-compound (a-dish'on-kom"pound), 
n. Same as * addition-product. 

addition-product (a-dish'qn-prod''ukt), n. In 
chem., a compound formed by the direct addi- 
tion of one element or compound to another. 
It is contrasted with mbstitution-product, in which one 
element or group is substituted for another. Also called 
addUion-e(ympound. 

Additltious force, in astron.^ the radial component of a 
disturbing force when it increases the attraction of a sat- 
ellite toward its primary, especially of the moon toward 
the earth ; opposed to dblatitwus forces which diminishes 
the attraction. The force is iZdditUiQV^ when the satel- 
lite is in quadrature with the disturbing body (usually 
the sun), ablaUtious when in syzygy. 

addograph (ad'o-graf), n. [L. addere, add, -I- 
Gr. ypdifiecv, write.] An adding-maehine with 
a device for recording results on a type-writer. 

address, n — Forms of address. See irfarm. 

addressing-machine, n. These machines are of 
several kinds : (a) A small apparatus, operated by hand, 
for cutting from a prepared paper ribbon of printed ad- 
dresses one address at a time and pasting it on the wrap- 
per, (b) A machine for stenciling addresses, etc., on wrap- 
pers or cards. The stencils, made on parchment and 
reinforced by a cardboard frame, are prepared by a per- 
forating-device attached to a type-writer. When ready, 
the stencils are placed in alphabetical order in the hop- 
per of a special form of stenciling-press and automati- 
cally fed to the inking-roller and then passed to the press, 
which forces enough ink through the stencil to make a 
clear impression on the wrapper. The stencils are then 
relieved of surplus ink and delivered to another hopper, 
which retains them in regular order ready for use again. 
The machine stencils the .iddresses on a continuous roll of 
paper, and cuts off, counts, and delivers the wrappers in 
the same order as that of the stencils, (c) A press for print- 
ing addresses, etc., from embossed type. The addresses 
are embossed in a special form of power type- writer on rib- 
bons of type-metal, and are then, in a special machine, 
cut apart and fitted with locking hinges, and made up 
by hand into chains or ribbons. A ribbon on a spool is 
placed in a power printing-press and automatically fed 
to the inking-rollers and to the press ; each addressed 
type-plate is printed in turn, and the chain is rewound 
on another spool. The addresses are printed on a con- 
tinuous roll, cut, and counted in regular order. A smaller 
'machine of this type is fed by hand and operated by loot- 
power. 

addreSSOgraph (a-dres'o-grat), n. [address + 
Cti. ypdtpeiv, write,] A special form of foot- 
power addressing-machine employing endless 
chains of embossed metal type or chains of 
movable rubber type. See *addressing-ma- 
chine. 

ade (ad), n, [Detached from lemonade, lime- 
ade, orangeade.'] A drink of the lemonade or 
orangeade class, [Colloq.] 

They make a superior ade which rivals lemon or lime 
■,ade. Science, Feb. 13, 1903, p. 263. 

Adelaide ruby, sovereign. See ■''ruby, ■''sov- 
ereign. 

Adelea (ad-e-le'a), n. [NL. (A. Schneider, 
1875), appaf. (irireg,) < Gr. aSriT^o^, not mani- 
fest, unseen,] A genus of Cocddia, of the fam- 
ily PolysporocystidsB, having the dizoic spores 
spherical or compressed and the sporoeysts 
smooth. The various species are parasitic in 
myriapods and insects. 

adelite (ad'e-lit), n. [Gr. aSrihig, not manifest, 
+ 4te^. Tie allusion is to the indistinct crys- 
tallization,] A basic arseniate of calcium and 
magnesium, of a grayish color, occurring in 
embedded grains and rarely m monoclinic 
crystals : found in Sweden, 

adeloceratous (ad"e-lo-ser'a-tus), a. Same as 
■^adelocerous. 

adelocerous (ad-e-los'e-rus), a. Having con- 
cealed antennsB, Same as eryptocerous. 

Adelochprda (ad"e-16-k6r'da), n. pi. [NL,, 
< Gr, aSriTtog, not evident, -(- xop^, chord,] A 
subphylum and class of Chordata including 
the genera Balanoglossus, Ehdbdopleura, and 
Cephalodiscus. The distinctive features of the group 
are the presence of the presumed rudimentary represen- 
tative of a notochord and of the gill-slits. The group is 
not homogeneous, and the affinities of its members to 
Chordata are denied by some zoologists. 



14 

adelomorphic (ad^f-lo-mdr'Ak), a. [Gr, a6^^o(, 
not manifest, + ftoptp^, form,] A term applied 
to the so-caUed chief or central cells of the 
gSstric mucosa, which supposedly furnish the 
pepsin and chymosin. W. D. Halliburton, 
Chemical Physiology and Pathology, p. 633. 

Adelops (ad'f-lops), n. [NL. (Tellkampf, 
1844), < Gr. adri'AoQ, not evident, 4 iy\p, eye.] A 
genus of beetles of the family Silphidse. Xhey 
mhabit caves, where their larves feed upon the dung of 
bats and other cave-inhabiting animals. About 30 spe- 
cies are known, maiiily from European caves. Adelops 
hirtus lives in the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky. 

Adelosipbonia (ad"e-16-si-f6'ni-a), n.pl. [NL., 
< Gr. adrjhii, not evident, -I- clipuv, pipe.] A 
group or section of anomalodesmaceous pe- 
leoypod moUusks, or Acephala. They constitute 
a subdivision of the superfamily Anatinacea and comprise 
those mollusks which have short siphons and a well-de- 
fined lithodesma. The genus Paiidora is an example. 

adelphiarchal (a-del'fi-ar-kal), «. [Irreg. < 
Gr. d6eXil>6;, brother, -I- dpxog, ruler, -H -al.] 
Eclating to a form of government exercised by 
the men assembled in council, the members of 
the council being considered as brothers. See 
the extract. ^ 

In this way the women sitting in clan council consti- 
tuted the primary legislative body, while their brothers 
Bitting in tribal council formed a senate or final legisla- 
tive body whose decisions were binding on the executives 
of clans and tiibes ; so that the social organization may 
be classed as adelphiarchal (like that of the Seri Indians 
described in earlier reports) in principle, though largely 
patriarchal in detail, Smithsonian Rep,, 1901, p, 77, 

adelphic (a-del'fik), a. [Gr. ade^iicdg, brotherly 
or sisterly) < d6e/Sl>di, brother, ddefiipi!, sister.] 
In math., pertaining to the connectivity of a 
surface.— Adelphic order, in math., the connectivity, 

adelphogamy (a-del-fog'a-mi), n. [Gr. aHeh^d^, 
brother, + ya/wf, marriage.] That form of 
polyandry in which a number of brothers have 
a wife in common. J. W. Powell. 

Among other privileges bestowed on the bride during 
the probationary period are those of receiving the most 
intimate attentions from the clanfellowsof thegi'oom; 
and these are noteworthy as suggestions of a vestigial 
polyandry or adelpkogamy. 

Rep. Bur. Am. Ethnol., 1896-96, p. 281. 

adelphotaxy (a-del'fo-tak-si), ». [Gr. dSshpdi, 
brother, -I- rafif, disposition, order.] In biol., 
the movement of certain motile cells in rela- 
tion to each other: a term proposed byHartog 
in 1888. 

adempted (a-demp ' ted), p. a. Same as 
adeemed. See adeem. 

adenase (ad'e-nas), n. An autolytic ferment 
found in certain glands which transforms 
adenin into hypoxanthin. 

adendric (a-den'drik), a. [a-i8 -|- dendron -l- 
-jc.-] Same as ■''adendntie. 

adendritic (a-den-drit'ik), a. [a-18 -I- den- 
dritic.'] In neurol., having no dendrites: said 
of nerve-cells which have only the neuraxon 
or axis-cylinder process. 

adenin (ad'e-nin), n. [Gr. dcS^v, gland, -I- -in^.] 
One of the purin or xanthin bases, C5H5N5. 
It has been obtained from the lymph glands, 
spleen, thymus gland, kidneys, etc. 

adenocheirus (ad^'e-no-ki'ms), «.; pi. adeno- 
cheiri (-ri), [NL., < Gr, aiip}, gland, -I- x^^Pi 
hand.] In Turbellaria, one of the outgrowths 
from the atrial walls in the genvia ArtAoposthia . 
which serve as accessory copulatory organs. 
See ■''adenodactylus. 

adenochondrosarcoma (ad"e-n6-kon*dro-sar- 
ko'ma), >i.;pl. adenochondrosarcomata(-Ta2j-t&). 
A mixed tumor containing the elements of 
adenoma, chondroma, and sarcoma. 

adenocyst (ad'e-no-sist), n. Same as '''adeno- 
cystoma. 

aclenocystic (ad'e-no-sis'tik), a. Same as*ade- 
nocystomaUms. 

adenocystoma (ad"e-n6-sis-t6'ma), ».; pi. ade- 
nocystomata (-ma-ta). [NL., < Gr. dtf^v, gland, 
-I- KvoTiQ, bladder "(see oyst), -i- -omaT] An 
adenoma containing cystic cavities. 

adenocystomatous (ad'e-no-sis-to'ma-tus), a. 
Relating to or of the nature of adenocystoma. 

adenodactylus(ad'''e-n6-dak'ti-lus), n.; pi, 
adenodactyli (-li). [NL., < Gr. aii/v, gland, -I- 
dd/crulloc, finger.] In Turbellaria, one of the 
outgrowths from the atrial walls in the genus 
Artioposthia which serve as accessory copula- 
tory organs. See '''adenocheirus. 

adenofibroma (ad"e-n6-fi-br6'ma), n.; pi. ade- 
noflbromata (-ma-ta). A glandular tumor con- 
sisting largely of an overgrowth of fibrous 
tissue. 

adenoid, a.— Adenoid disease, pseudoleucocythemia. 
— Adenoid ttimor. Same as adenoma. — Adenoid vege- 
tations, masses of lymphoid tissue, similar in structure 



adharma 

to the tonsila, situated at the posterior wall of the upper 
end of the phai'ynx. When hypertrophied, as they often 
are in children, these vegetations may obstruct the pas- 
sage of air through the posterior nares and so necessitate 
mouth-breathing. Also called pharyngeal tonsil and 
Luschka's tonsil. 

11. n. An adenoid growth ; specifically, an 
adenoid vegetation. 

adenolipoma (ad"e-n6-li-p6'ma), ».; pi. adenoli- 
pomata (-ma-ta). [NL., < Gr. ad^v, gland, -I- 
Alnog, animal f at, + -om<i.] A glandular tumor 
consisting largely of fatty substance. 

adenolympboma (ad"e-n6-lim-f6'ma), n.j pi. 
adenolymphomata (-ma-ta). [NL., < Gr. adT/v, 
gland, -I- L. lympha, lymph, -)- -oma.] Same ■ 
as lymphadenoma. 

Adenoma destruens. [L,, destructive adenoma.) An 
adenoma, usually of the stomach, intestines, or uterus, 
which has taken on malignant characteristics. Also 
called adenxicarcinoma. 

adenomalacia (ad*e-n6-ma-la'si-a), n. [NL,, 

< Gr, dS^, gland, -I- /ia?Micia, softness, < /ia'AoKd;, 
soft.] Pathological softening of glands, 

adenomatome (ad-e-nom'a-tom ), n. [Gr. ddr/v, 
gland, -I- -To/iog, < rafielv, cut.] An instrument 
employed in the removal of adenoid growths. 

adenomyxoma (ad"e-n6-mik-s6'ma), ».; pi. 
adenomyxomata (-ma-ta), [NL,, < Gr. ddi/v, 
gland, -H fiij^a, mucus',' -I- -oma.] A tumor 
composed of glandular and mucous tissue. 

adenomjTXOsarcoma (ad^e-no-mik'so-sar-ko'- 
ma), n.; pi. adenomyxosarcomata (-ma-ta). 
[IvfL., < Gr. dSv", gland, -1- /lii^a, mucus, -f' irdpf 
(ffo/j/c-), flesh, + -oma.] A tumor composed of 
glandular, mucous, and sarcomatous elements. 

adenopetaly (ad*e-n6-pet'a-li), n. [Gr. dd^, 
a gland (nectary), -(- nirahiv, leaf (.petal).] 
The transformation of nectaries into petals. 
Morren. 

adenophlegmon (ad'e-no-fleg'mon), n. [Gr. 
di^, gland, -t- ip^-y/iov^, inflammation,] Acute 
inflammation of a gland. 

adenopodous (ad-e-nop'o-dus), a. [Gr. dd^v, 
gland, -I- ffodf (to(J-), foot, + -oiis.] In bat., 
having the petiole or peduncle glandular. 

adenoscirrhus (ad*e-n6-sir'us), n. ; pi, adeno- 
scirrhi (-ri). [NL., < Gr. dS^v, gland, -I- scir- 
rhus.] A hsird cancer which involves a gland. 

adenosclerosis (ad^e-no-sklf-ro'sis), n. [NL., 

< Gr. dSiiv, gland, + OKJi^puaig, a hardening: see 
sclerosis.] Induration of a gland. 

adenostemonous (ad'^e-nd-ste'mo-nus), a. [Gr. 
dSfft), gland, -I- (rriiixav, taken for ' stamen,' + 
-ous.] In iot., having glandular stamens, 

adenyl (ad'e-nil), n. [aden(in) ■+■ -yl.] The 
group C5H4Ni, formerly assumed to be present 
in adenin and nypoxanthin. Thisnameis nolonger 
used, but these and related compounds are spoken of as 
derivatives of -^purin (which see), 

adenylic (ad-e-nil'ik), a. \_adenyl -I- -ic] Re- 
lating to adenyl — Adenylic acid, a nucleinic acid 
obtained from the thymus gland. On decomposition it 
yields guanine, adenin, cytosin, and thyminic acid. 

Adeps lanse, purified fat of sheep's wool, containing not 
over 30 per cent, of water. 

adermia (a-d6r'mi-a), n. [NL., < Gr. aSepftoi, 
without skin, < d-priv, -1- Sip/ia, skin,] Partial 
pr complete congenital absence of the skin, 

adessive (ad-es'iv), ». [L. ad, at, -I- esse, be, 
+ -ive. Cf. abessive.] In gram., a syntactic 
ease expressing position at some spot or lo- 
cality. A. S. Gatschet, Grammar of the Klamath 
Language, p. 486, 

Adetopneusia (ad"e-top-nu'si-S.), «. pi. [NL., 

< (?) Gr, aSsToc, unbound, loose, -t- Trvevaig, a 
blowing, < nvEiv, blow, breathe,] An order 
of StelleroiSea, the Cryptoeonia. 

adetopneustic (ad"e-top-nu'stik), a. [Gr. dSe- 
TOf, unbound, loose, -1- 7n>evaTiK6g, < irvelv, 
breathe.] Bearing papulee or dermal branchis 
beyond the abactinal surface, 

ad eund. An abbreviation of the Latin ad 
eundem gradum, to the same degree, 

adevism (a'da-vizm), n. [Skt. ddeva, hostile 
to the gods, < d-priv. + deva, a god (see deva), 
-I- -4sm.] Hindu 'atheism' in the sense of a 
denial of the old 'devas': a proposed term 
distinguished from atheism. 

ad fin. An abbreviation .of ad finem (which 
see). 

adgustal (ad-gus'tal), n. [L. ad, to, -t- gustos, 
taste (suggesting 'palate'), ■+■ -al.] In ichth., 
a name given by Geoffroy to the pterygoid bone 
which forms part of the palatoquadrate arch. 

adha (ad'ha), V. [Nepalese ddhd, half,] A 
silver coin of Nepal equal to half a muhr or 
one fourth of a rupee. 

adharma (a-dar'ma), n. [Skt.] Unrighteous- 
ness ; injustice : personified in Hindu jnythol- 
ogy as the destroyer of all things. 



adbeat 

adheat (ad-hef), »• *. [ad- + heaf] To su- 
perheat (a quantity of steam) by adding to it a 
quantity of very highly superheated steam. 

adherence, n. 6. In the theory of aggregates, 
the aggregate of all those points of a point- 
aggregate which are not limiting points (that 
is, limits of endless series of points) : called 
the adherence of the point-aggregate ; the ag- 
gregate of all the remaining points is called 
its coherence. 

adhesion, «. 10. An expression of, or the act 
by which one expresses, acquiescence in, ad- 
herence to, and support of some statement, de- 
claration, or proposal; assent; concurrence. 

Up to June 30, 1,7S7 adlusions to the congreBS had been 
received. Scimee, July 29, 1904, p. 167. 

Adhesion weight, the weight which is producing fric- 
tion ; speciflcally, the weight on the driving-wheels of a 
locomotive.— Primary adhesion, secondary adhe- 
sion. Baine as bunion by first intention and -kunion &y 
tecond intention.— 'Cia.eiiO'n. of adhesion. Same as 
friction of rolling (which see, under /ricCion). 

adhesional (ad-he'zhon-al), a. [adhesion + 
-aZ.] Of the nature of or depending upoii ad- 
hesion: applied specifically to the action of 
locomotives when the smooth driving-wheel, 
running on a plane rail, is prevented, through, 
the weight of the engine, from slipping on the 
rail by its adhesion thereto, when the power of 
the cylinder applied to turn the wheel exceeds this ef- 
fect of adhesion, and friction of motion ensues by the 
slipping of the wheel on the rail, the tractive power 
becomes less. When the gi'ades become too steep for 
adhesional traction because the cylinder-diameter neces- 
sary to overcome the resistance will cause the wheels 
to slii^ the tractive effort must be exerted through 
toothed gears meshing into a rack or toothed rail, while 
the weight may be still carried on smooth rails by ordi- 
nary wheels. 

adhesion-rail (ad-he'zhqn-ral), n. In rail- 
roading, a traotion-rail as distinguished from 
a guard-rail or a third rail; the ordinary rail 
of a track. Sometimes called service^ail and 
stock-rail. 

adhesiv, a. A simplified spelling of adhesive. 

Adhesive papilla. See ■'•papilla. 

adhvaryu (ad-var'ye), n. [Skt. adhvaryii, < 
adhvara, religious ceremony.] A Brahman 
priest who assists in recitiug the prayers of 
the Yajur-Veda and performs manual labor 
at sacrifices. 

adiabat (ad'i-a-bat), n. [Gr. a(!«2/3arof, not to 
be passed over : see adiabatic.'\ An adiabatic 
curve or line. 

Adiabatic compression, compresBion exerted or occur- 
ring under conditions in which heat neither leaves nor 
enters the substance compressed. — Adiabatic dia- 
gram, a graphic method of representing by adiabats 
the changes as to temperature, pressure, and condition 
experienced by a unit mass of gas by virtue of any pos- 




15 

adiantiform (ad-i-an'ti-f6rm), a. [NL. Adian- 
tum, genus of ferns, 4- li.forma, form.] In 
bot., having the form or character of Adian- 
tum or maidenhair. Encyc. Brit., XXXI. 417. 

adiaphanous (ad-i-af a-nus), a. [a-is + di- 
aphanom.'] Not transparent; opaque. 

adiaphon (ad'i-a-fon), n. [G:.,<.adiaphonon.'\ 
A form of pianoforte (patented in 1882) in 
whioli the sound is produced from tuning- 
forks instead of from strings : essentially simi- 
lar to the older adiaphonon. 

adiaphonon (ad-i-af 'o-non),». [G., <Gr. a-priv. 
+ Staifiuvog, dissonant: see diaphony.'\ A form 
of pianoforte, invented by Schuster in 1819, in 
which the sound is produced from steel bars 
instead of from strings. 

adiaphoretic (ad"i-af-o-ret'ik), a. and n. [a-i8 
-I- diaphoretic.'] I. a. Relating to, produced 
by, or causing diminution or suppression of 
perspiration. 

II. n. An agent which diminishes or sup- 
presses perspiration. 

adiathermancy (a-dl-a-thfer'man-si), n. [0-18 
+ diathermancy.] The character of being 
adiathermanous ; the property by virtue of 
which a substance absorbs the invisible heat- 
rays of the spectrum: opposed to diather- 
manm/. 

adiatnernianic(a-di-a-th6r'maTi-ik), a. [a-'^S+ 
diathermanic] Same as adidihermic. 

adiathetic(a-di-a-thet'ik), a. [a-'^^+ diathetic.] 
In pathol., occurring without reference to a 
preexisting constitutional tendency or diath- 
esis. 

Adibuddha (a-di-bo'da), n. [Modern Skt,, < 
Skt. ddi, the beginning, -I- Buddha, Buddha.] 
The first Buddha. 

adillah (a-dil'a), n. A money of Malwa, equal 
to half a pice. 

AdimeridTse (ad"i-mer'i-de), re.jpZ. [NL., < 
Adimerus + -idee.] A family of clavicorn 
beetles, in these beetles the tarsi appear to have but 
two joints, a broad first and a long tei-minal one, but 
they have in fact two minute joints between, hidden by 
the broad basal joint. This structure is unique among 
the Coleoptera and is found only in the American genus 
Adivwrus. 

Adimerus (a-dim'e-rus), n. [NL. (Sharp, 
1894), < Gr. a- priv. -i- ((i//e/o^?,two-parted, two- 
jointed.] The typical and sole genus of beetles 
of the family Adimeridse, consisting of several 
Central and South American species. 

Adlnia (a-din'i-a), n. [NL., < Gr. b.Siv6g, 
crowded, loud.]" A genus of killifishes of 
the family PcecUiidsB, found in the Rio (5rande 
region. 

adipogenic (ad"i-po-jen'ik), a. [L. adeps 
(adip-), fat, + Gr. -yev^q, -producing.] Hav- 
ing the property of producing or of storing fat : 
as, the adipogenic function of the digestive 
gland in invertebrates. Jour. Roy. Micros. Soc, 
Feb., 1905, p. 47. 

adipogenous (ad-i-poj'e-nus), a. [L. adeps 
{amp-), fat, + Gr. -yeviig, -jjroducing.] Pat- 
producing ; productive of adipose. 

adipohepatic (ad"i-p6-he-pat'ik), a. [L. adeps 
(adip-), fat, -I- Gr. ^7raTiK6g, of the liver : see 
hepatic] Same as *adipogenic. Jour. Soy. 
Micros. Soc, June, 1904, p. 303.. 

adipolytic (ad"i-p6-lit'ik), a. [L. adeps (adip-). 
fat, -I- (Jr. \vT6g, i Iveiv, dissolve.] See *toj)o- 
lyUc. 

adipomatous (ad-i-pom'a-tus), a. [adipoma(t-) 
+ -om.] Same as Kj 



Adiabatic Diagram, the curve a a' showing a lower pressure at 
the end of expansion than given for the isothermal diagram i i' 
illustrates the typical relations of pressure and volume. Horizontal 
abscissas proportional to volumes (V, w); vertical ordinates propor- 
tional to pressures (P, /); O, origin. 

sible adiabatic change. The adiabatic diagrams for 
moist air by Hertz (1884) and Neuhoff (1903), and Cla- 
peyron's indicator-curve of the steam-engine, are famil- 
iar examples. 

adiagnostic (a-di-ag-nos'tik), a. [o-ib + diag- 
nostic] Not diagnostic ; specifically, inpetrog., 
a term, proposed by Zirkel (1893), applied to the 
phaneroerystalline texture of rocks when the 
mineral particles, though recognizable, are 
not specifically determinable without special 
test : onposed to -^reudiagnostic 

Adiantllidae(ad-i-an'thi-de), n.pl. [NL., <Ad- 
ianthus, a genus (toT*Adiantu£,<GT. adiavTog, 
xmwetted : see Adiantum), + 4dse.] A family 
of extinct ungulate mammals of the suborder 
TAopterna; found in the Eocene of Patagonia. 



Adipose degeneration. See *ifeff«nera(io)i.— Adipose 
looe, a small appendage springing from the base of the 
ventral fin of some fishes, as the salmon and the trout. 
Usually known as an auayiliary scale. 

Adiposis dolorosa, a disease of the nervous system 
marked by the formation of irregular masses of fat be- 
neath the skin, especially that of the arms and legs, 
which are the seat of considerable pain. Also called 
Dercum's disease. 

Adiposorex (ad^'i-po-sc'reks), n. [L. adeps 
(adip-), fat, + sorex, a shrew-mole.] A genus 
of small shrew-moles from the Lower Eocene. 

Adiscota (ad-is-ko'ta), n.pl. [NL., < Gr. a- 
priv. -^■ Siaicog, disk, -I- -ota (see -ote).] A group 
of dipterous insects, it was based by Weismann 
upon developmental characters, and includes those forms 
in which the parts of the fly's head are developed in 
close relation to those of the larva. 

aditus (ad'i-tus), n.; pi. aditus. [NL., < L. 
aditus, approach : see adit.] An approach ; an 
adit. Speciflcally : (a) In sponges, same as prosodus. 
(6) In anat, an opening leading into a cavity.— Aditus 
ad antrum, the communication between the tympanum 
and the mastoid cells.— Aditus ad Infundlhulum, the 
opening between the infundibulum and the third ven- 
tricle of the brain.— Aditus laryngis, the superior 
opening of the larynx, or rima glottidis. 



adjustment 

adj. An abbreviation of Adjudged, Adjourned.^ 
adjectiv, a.,n., and v. t. A simplified' spelling 

of adjective. 
Adjectival phrase, a phrase that is or may be used with 

the force of an adjective : as. a much to be desired result; 

a never to be forgotten occasion. 

adjective, n — Participial adjective, a participleused 
in an adjective relation, as in the phrases a running 
stream, a cultivated Held, a practised hand, molten iron. 
-Proper adjective, an adjective derived from aproper- 
name, as American from America, Calvinistic from Cal- 
■vin, Newtonian from Neivton. 

adjectivism (ad'jek-tiv-izm), n. Tendency to- 
an excessive use of adjectives. G. S. Hall, 
Adolescence, II. 467. 

adjectivity (ad-jek-tiv'i-ti), n. [adjective +■ 
-ity.] Tendency to a free use of adjectives. 
Athenseum, April 14, 1894, p. 469. 

Ai^oint curve. Same as adjunct •''curve. 

adjudicative (a-jo'di-ka-tiv), a. That adjudi- 
cates or adjudges; that embodies the award, 
decision, or decree in an adjudication or ad- 
judgment: as, the adjudicative part of a seu- 
tence. [Rare.] N. E. D. 

Adjunct curve. See *curve. 

adjunction, n. 4. In math., the process of ob- 
taining the domain S2(a) from the domain B 
by adding to it the number a which does not 
already belong to it, and adding also all num- 
bers arising from a finite number of additions, 
subtractions, multiplications^ and divisions, 
involving a and all numbers in the domain S2. 
See the extract. 

By the adjunction of i to the domain of rational num- 
bers £2(x) we obtain the domain of complex numbers. 
n(i, i). P. Cajori, Theory of Eciuatious, p. 136, 

adjum, V. A simplified spelling of adjourn. 

Ai^usted drainage. See ^drainage. 

adjuster, n. 2. In hardware, any appliance 
used to regulate the movemeut of a blind, 
sash, hitching-strap, shaft, or other moving 
object in a wagon, house, etc.: as, a casement 
adjuster, a i^tole-adjiister, a window-stop ad- 
juster. — 3. In insurance, an officer of an insur- 
ance company whose duty is to determine the 
amount to be paid under a policy of insurance 
when a partial loss has been sustained. 

In Great Britain they are for the most part members of 
the Average Adjusters' Association, a body which has 
done and is doing much caieful work with a view to 
making and keeping the practice uniform and in accord 
with right principles. Encyc. Brit., XXVI. 32. 

adjustment, n. 6. In an exacter sense than 2^ 
the operation of modifying the relations be- 
tween a set of things or other objects so as to 
make these relations conform to some require- 
ment^ especially so as to bring them into con- 
formity with relations between elements of a. 
plan or purpose. Thus the adjustment of a transit, 
mstrnment consists, first, in turning it romid a vertical axis 
until its axis of rotation (in using it) is nearly enough ini 
the plane of the prime vertical ; second, in raising or- 
lowering one end of the latter axis until it is nearly 
enough in the plane of the horizon ; and, third, in shift- 
ing the wires until the coUimation is near enough to zero. 

7. Specifically, the modification of a set of 
stateinents so as to bring them into harmony 
with one aiiother and with some proposition 
treated as absolutely true. Thus in geodesy, after 
an extensive triangulation is complete it will be found, 
that the observed values of the angles do not exactly 
agree with the principles of geometry and the assumed 
figure of the earth, which would give rise to much in- 
convenience. Accordingly by an elaborate series of 
modifications skilful computers modify the values so- 
that the sum of the squares of all the changes shall be 
tile least possible required to bring the values into agree- 
ment with the requirements; and this operation is- 
termed the adjustment of the triangulation. Owing to the 
fact that the rules are deriveil from th* calculus of prob- 
abilities, and that the adjusted values are the most 
probable that can be assigned, it might be supposed that 
the purpose was merely to ascertain the most probable 
values; but the superiority of the adjusted values in that 
respect is very small and the major consideration is con- 
sistency. 

8. In biol., a change which is brought about in 
a living being by its own activity and is not 
transmitted to descendants, as contrasted with 
a change which is congenital and hereditary ; 
an acquired character. J. M. Baldwin, Devel- 
opment and Evolution, p. 142 Methods of ad- 
justment, in psychophys., a group of methods employed 
for the determination of the relation between stimulua 
and sensation. The term is used in two senses : (a) for 
methods in which the observer himself varies a given 
stimulus until it appears equal to a second, constant 
stimulua, for example, Fechner's method of average er- 
ror (see irmethod) ; (6) for methods in which a variable 
stimulus is adjusted, whether by experimenter or ob- 
server, to the required relation to a constant stimulus, 
for example, Wundt's method of minimal changes (see 
•mctAod).— Processes of adjustment, in physiog., 
changes in the courses of streams by means of which they 
come to sustain definite and stable relations to the rock- 



adjustment 16 advance 

^^<=*»''«''')eneath.— TopograpMc adjustment See noBe : see nasal.'i In tcfttfe.. a name given by kidney; specifically, noting the adrenal or su- 

e ex raot. Geofcoy to the premaxillary bone. prarenal glands.— Adrenal extract, a medicinal 

A tributary is in (ojwjTi-opAic a(?;u«t7n«»twlienite era- adnatum (ad-na'tum), n.; pi. adnata (-ta). preparation made from tlie Buprarenal glands and be- 

dient is harmonious with its main; TOL^ -^r /7rf««/.^ 1 Tr, hnr^tirultm-e a. smsMor lieved to be the internal secretion of these bodies. It 

Cluanterlin and Salulmry, Geol., I. 154. '■^^- 'j*®® v ii? l-"- v * "■'^^f'^f'^ small or i„„eaae8 blood-pressure and constncts the vessels, and 

"' • secondary bulb which forms from the old bulb jj employed to arrest hemorrhage and to diminish mu- 

Adjutant's call, in mU. muHc, a signal on the drum and eventually supplants it : a clove. cous secretion. See*o<Jr«noiM>.— Adrenal gland. Same 

directing the band to pass to the right of the line. adnephrin (ad-nef'rin), «. Same as *a<irena- as odr«7.<rf. ».-Adr8nal rests. See Marchand; *ad. 

adlea (ad-la'a), n. A billon coin of Tripoli, Un ''*"""' ^ " renals. 

issued inl827 plated with gold a,nd forced into adnexa(ad-nek'sa), ».jpi. [L., neut. pi. of ad- adrenalin (ad-ren'a.lin) «. |adrei»aZ + -<n2 ] 

currency at the value of one dollar. ^^^ ^ of adriictere, annectere : see annex.-] The active prmciple of the adrenal glands, first 

adlerglas (ad'ler-glas), n. [G., 'eagle-glass.'] Connected or associated things; specifically, i?°'^*?\,^? ,.?;,i^P?;"T wo^ o ni^™°« 

A large drinMng-glass having on it enameled in anat., appendages or strucfu^es accessed J^l,ri^rtlca\°™trAb\?J°e?fnfpfet?lnd is"apoS 

paintings ot tne aoubie-headed eagle of the to a main organ Adneza ocull, the lids, muscles, heartrstimulant and hemostatic See -kadrenal extract. 

Holy Roman Empire and armorial bearings of and other parts in relation with the globe of the eye.— _j___„i__g /„j ren'a-lon) n [adrenal + 
56 principalities and towns : common in Ger- Adnexa uteri, the Fallopian tubes and ovaries .IJ^T A ketone, (H(5)3C6H3CbCH2NBCH,, 

many m the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- adnexal (ad-nek'sal), o. Kelating to adnexa, ^^ed by the Oxidation of a derivative of 

tunes. See *wzederkom. especially to the uterine adnexa. adrenalin 

adlumidine (ad-15'mi-din), n. lAdlumia (see adnominally (ad-nom'i-nal-i), adv. ladnomi- ^drianist (a'dri-an-ist), n. Same as Adrian- 
def.) + -«Be2.] An alkaloid, CgoHgoOoN, found nal +-ly2.] As an adnoun or adjective: as, a •*^J^*|""»'' ^ 

in Adlumiafungosa. It melts at 234° C. ^^erb ^^f^^^^'^^^^i^M^^^^ Adriatic, a. 2. In anthrop., of or pertaining 

adlomine (ad-lo min), n. lAdlumia + -ine^.] broken stone with adobe clay before it is dried or flred.— to the racial type represented by Albanians 
A dextrorotatory alkaloid, C39Hg90i2N, found Adobe mortar, adobe mud prepared specially to serve and Serbo-Croatians, characterized by tall 
in Adlumiafungosa. ' as mortar in laying adobe brick. Stature, elongated face, and short head. Derii- 

A. D.M. An abbreviation of Latin JriiMwiiJo- adoccipital (ad-ok-sip'i-tal), a. Noting one fer, Eaees of Man, p. 285. 
mestiearum Magister, Master of the Domestic of the fissures of the brain near the occipital adsmith (ad'smith) n One whose business is 
.-Af ts. in the caudal portion of the precuneus. ^^^ writing of advertisements : as, the art of 

Adm. An abbreviation of admiral. adolescence, n.— TopograpMc adolescence. In the adsmith. W. D. Sowells, Lit. and Life 

admedial (ad-me'di-al), a. lad- + medial] pAj/'-JW., a stage in the development of relief which is ogs rHumorous slane 1 
Qov,^ oo „)i^^M^^ .. /I L J marked by well-estahlished nver-drainage. P- ^"Y\ L-Liumoioii» Bid,iig.j 

„^t^™L * ? • vfi .;! 11- 4. .7 adolescent, a. 2. In phys. geog., noting that adsmithing (ad'smith-mg), n. The trade of 

admezure,^). *. A simplified speUmg of atimea- stage of land-sculpture, between yout£ and an 'adsmith.' [Humorous slang.] 
oj™^'„jc+,.,4.i„„ „ .„ x^ ™ ...... ^ maturity, in which some rapids still remain adsorb (ad-s6rb'), v. t. [L. ad, to, + sorlere, 

*&n'Jo^^J??^rg^n*??-S?^U'S?^?J even in'the larger streams.-rAdolescent river. f}><=kin. Cf. a6.or6.] . To gather (a gas or 
S^, S aU^iS^to ?hrdMiiiSifhed abUlty o7lte See*rimr. hquid) on the surface in a condensed layer 

members.— Limited administration, administration adolescential (ad-o-le-sen'shal), a. Of or per- Thus solids, such as glass, gather gases and 
otapersonal estate in which the powers of the adminis- taining to the period of adolescence. liquids with which they are in contact. 

i?,SLTud^oa'eS'L\KStr;^rt\Ufin"s;etJS'S fen^iiliv of 1' ^ih^ow^r" teT^^fot—MnT adsorption, n. 2. The mechanical imbibition 
limited letters of administration. sentially ot a tugn-power telepnoto combma- of fluids or gases. 

Administrative county. See*coM«««i. *'°?.®°/^! ^? *° tp^smit parallel rays. When adsorptive (ad-s6rp'tiv), a. ladsoi-b(-sorj>-) + 

^^ittn-™it_^ 1 /jTn ^ 1 <^»"^a • used in front of an ordinary lensm a 'flxed-focus' camera .tjvfi Of nhonrntitw 1 ranaWn nf nr ohara/. 

admiralty, n. 1. (6) The members of this bodyare it gives an enlarged image without disturbing the focal -^'^f. <JC. aosorpme.i ^.apaDle Ot or cnarac- 
officially designated as the Commissioners for Executing adjustment. . The elements of the adon are, however, tenzea DV adsorption. 

the Office of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom adjustable so that it can be used with varying effect when adstemal (ad-stfer'nal), a. [L. ad, to, + ster- 
of Great Bntam and Ireland. The commissioners include the camera permits of focusing. Used by itself it acts mm. sternum! Situated near or in relation 
(hvd Lords, Naval or Sea Lmd>, and Secretariet. The as a high-power telephotograpMc lens. ^TT' +i:;^„™ ,-|^ oimaieu near or in relation 

First Lard of the Admiralty is a civilian and the respon- „ j„„iL„. ,„ j„„/^ ^iJ\ „ r j^™,-,, / ,-.7 ^ /„ ^."° *"® sternum. 

Bible political head of the organization. Absolute power adOHldin (a-doni-din), ». [-4doMJS (-«*■) (see a duC (a dS'e). [It.] By twos : in OTM«c, em- 
withiu the Admiralty, subject only to the King and Par- def.) + -IW'^.J A glucoside of uncertain com- ployed when two voices or instruments use the 
liament, is vested in him. The Sea iords, four in num- position obtained from .4do»is Berrea/Js; said samp staff f n \j\riipatp that fhp t-arn avo tn r^rr. 
her, are naval officers, usually admirals. The J^Yrst Sea fo resemble diiritali's in its T.hvsiolo(H(.al aption s^^/.^Tatt, to inmcate tnat the two are to pro- 
Lord makes preparation for war and advises on all large j resem Die digitalis initspnysiological action, eeed m umson : opposed to dtvist. 
questions of naval policy. He is responsible for the effl- 3^0J"1 (ao 9-nin), n. lAOoms (see del.) + adularescence(ad-ii-la-res'ens), «. ladular(ia) 
ciencyof the fleet and the distribution of ships. He controls -in'.] A very bitter non-crystaUine glucoside, + -escencel The chatovanev of the adularia- 
the Intelligence Hydrographical, and Naval Ordnance C24H40O9, found in Adonis Amurensis. varietv of feldsnar ■ the mooii like Rhpen nf thp 

departments. The Second Sea Lord is responsible for all -jtf_,-f" rad'o-nif> n T Adnnix Irpp flpfl -1- ™"<^i^y "^ i^i^spar, tnemoon-liKesneen ot the 
questions relating to the personnel of the navy, including *'*°5'-^^ }**" 9 W'''^- . L'='o?«»« ^^..^^A^xV moonstone, best visible when the stone is cut 
manning of the fleet and appointment of officers. The -«te''-J An optically inactive pentite, C5H7 with a convex dome, 
rfttrd Sea ioTui a»id CoTrfroiier has charge of the materiel (0H)5, found in Adonis vemalis and also oHnlt. « Q Snpoifinnllv in\ In ^mi 7«.„ o 

itt::^^xt.T^^fn'^LT'z^/i£''rt^. irrdoc'^*'^^ ^^''"'^*^°" °'^'°^^- ""^"^ "^l^^iJ-^lr^t'^LiiK^e^^'o^Zn^. 

sible for the administration of the Royal Dockyards. The •"' ^"/^ }-'■ ,.,-,, rA j -^ 1 .-1 teen, or a female infant who has attained the 

J-ourtA or ^«mor Sea tord deals with transport, coaling, aaomtol (a-don i-tol), TO. lAs adonite + -ol] age of twelve, (b) In common law one of the 
victuaUng, and stores, and with questions relating to pay. Same as ^adoMJte. full ae-e of twentv-onp Rnmiier T.awDiot 

medals, uniforms, prisons, collisions, ete. The dvU a<lonPTn,tp Cad-ou'e-ratt v t ■ nrpt and nn ail j ,i ^ . "twenty one. ^o«iiw, l^aw iJict. 
iord deals with public works, the civil staflf, etc. The ^°i^„:?f ® if, „5^^„i' !,' 'r^ „5 P^' " / adulterin, a. and TO. A simplified speUing of 
ParJiameTrfarj, aild iiVnonc-ai Secretary has charge of ^ated, VW. ad<^eratmg IML. adoperan,< adulterine. i- 6 

finances, accounts, and expenditures. The PermanerU Li. ad, to, + operan, work: see operate.] To adulterism(a-dul'ter-izm) n A name or word 

Admiralty ooeffldent See *e<.ejs««««. adoperation(ad-op-e-;a'shon), to. Application; ^;??3*5??f ^f^'^*^"^)',?- [«<«««•?■. + -^""^-i^ 

admission, TO. 8. Specifically, m engin. : (a) ^J ^^ ^f „iUns to"an end. Fea^ck, Melin- J'l^ ° ^/^ ?-'^"" °^^T?]^*^^/ ^^^^^- 

Entraneeotmotorfluid(assteam, air, or water) gourt H 56 N E D oped: as, m full vigor and adulthood. Cmc- 

into a cylinder for the Pypose of driving a adopter, 'to. ' 2. An' apparatus for the rapid t" ^''^- ;, ^^ f^ ^^ 

piston. (6) The portion of a full traverse of a leveling of a compass, consisting of a spindle, adpibra (ad-um'bra), to. ; pi. adumbrse (-bre). 
piston during which the motor fluid is allowed jj^jj 3^°^ ball-socket s f > fi^g penumbra, m an eclipse of the moon, 

to enter the cylinder (c) The point in the adorbital (ad-6r'bi-f.al), to. [L. ad, to, + or- adumbrella (ad-um-brel'a), to. [NL.,<L.ad, 
traverse at which such entrance of motor fluid Jj^, orbit: see orMi.T In icftk, the preorbital *°' + «»»6»-eHa, a little shade.] The upper 
begins. bone. surface of the velum in jelly-fishes : distin- 

admission-line (ad-mish'on-lin). TO. That line Adoxacese (ad-ok-sa'se-e), n.pl. [NL. (Fritseh, guished from exvmbrella. 
of an indicator-diagram which is made by the 1891), < Adoxa + -acese.] A family of dicot- aduncirostrate (ar^3un-si-ros'trat), a. [L. ad- 
pencil of the indicator while steam is being yledouous, sympetalous plants of the order ^?<'««; hooked, -f rostrum, beak, -I- -afel.] 
admitted to the cylinder. -B«6«ite. it contains only the genus ^Aaa, and is Having a hooked beak, as birds of prey. 

admiSSlon-port (ad-mish on -port), TO. The charaoteri2ed chiefly by the split or 2-parted stamens adUTOl (ad-ii'rol), to. A trade-name for two 
steam-portor-passagethroughwhiehtheenter- inserted on the tube of the corolla. compounds used as photographic developers 

ing steam gains access to an engine-cylinder, adoxaceous (ad-ok-sa'shius), a. [NL. Adaxa- Adurol "Schering " is bromhydroquinone Cr- 
In engines of ordinary construction, each port is alter- ee-ee + -ous.] In bot., having the characters HuBrfOH^o- nrfj/ro7 "H'/7»iyr"naohl>>»l.-.7H»An,ii 
nately supply and exhaust, though it is usual to apply of or belonging to the tajmilyAdoxacex. none ' •'' eniornyaroqui- 

the latter term only to the port which exhausts du'ectly „ J „i_„,-t„^ /JJi _i„o^;_4.,,—\'' rTirj isrr, 1 At „j_ . i-i. .i. , , 

into the atmosphere. {Lockwood.) In Corliss engines the aa piaciiunnaa pias 1 tum;. L^-, J->lJ-l. At adv. An abbreviation of adwcaW. 
admission- and exhaust-ports are separate. pleasure: m mustc, notmg a free part in a advaita (ad'vi-ta), to. ISkt. advaita, uon-dnal- 

admission-valve (ad-mish'on-valv), ». The contrapuntal work which is not bound by the ity.unity,<a-priv. + d«o»<d,dnality,<rfri-,two.] 
valve which controls the admission of steam, strict rules of imitation; especiaUy, in a canon. The pantheistic doctrine of the Vedanta 
gas, air, or water to a motor- or compression- noting a voice-part that does not follow the school of Hindu philosophy, taught especially 
cylinder. j" ■'I- i^^ J?'t> ^ • ■ 4. ;i .,■ in Shankara's commentary on the upanishads. 

admittance, to. 6. The reciprocal of the im- adradial,o. 2. Pertainmgto an adradius: as. The doctrine is that<J<mo«, self, is -BraAman, the 
pedance in an alternating-cWrent circuit or tbe«^''«*f'<>i'g_^n?.<'*af echmodera. Absolute. 

the ratio of alternating current divided by the Tijadius (ad-ra di-us), to.; pi adradu (-j^. advance, n. 13. The angular interval in ex- 
electromotive force consumed by the current. l?\'-' < ^.■. ««;.t°' ,7 ^f"*! I'ay-] One of the cess of 90° which the center-line of an engine- 
See impedance. The components of admit- eightradii which he between the perradii and eccentric makes with the center-line of the 
tancearethe*C0Bdactowceandthe*s«*c«ptoTOCe ^^^ "^^^Z ?■ "^ ^°™'''«. ^^"^ ^^J"}^^^ "^^l^^ engine-crank, it u given to enable a valve wUh 
(which see) symmetry. Compare i)CTTad«Ms and interra&JW. lap, which will work th? steam expansively, to bc^n 

ailmnfiTrA /ad-mo'tivl a \ad- + motive ^ adrenal, TO — Accessory adrenals. See Marchand's admission of steam at or before the dead-point of the 

aomocive laa mo nv;, a. \_att- -r ™»™«-J •odrenafo.-Marchand'B adrenals, islets of adrenal piston-traverse. See on^or advance of an eccentric, 
Characterized by motion toward : as, admolive ^^^^^^ ,o„„a ;„ ojjgp p^rts. Also called accessory adre- ""der angvlar. 
germination. Syd. Soc. Lex. nals and adrenal rests. 14. In fencing, a quick move of the right foot 

a^nasal (ad-na'zal), TO. [L. ad, to, + nasus, II. a. Situated near or in contact with the a few inches forward, followed instantly by 



advance 

the left foot, but so that the fencer keeps his 
eqmlibrium and is ready for parry, or the for- 
ward lunge of the right foot. 

advance-growth (ad-v&ns'groth"), n. Jnfor- 
estry, young trees which spring up in acciden- 
tal openings in the forest or under the forest 
cover, before reproduction cuttings are begun. 
See volunteer *growth. 

advancement, n. 6. In surg., an operation 
for strabismus, consisting in dividing the ten- 
don of the healthy muscle, bringing the end 
forward, and fastening it to the eyeball forward 
of its former point of insertion. 

advancing (ad-vS.n'slng), n. The act of tak- 
ing or of giving an advanced position: ad- 
vancement ; promotion ; furtherance. [Obso- 
lete or rare.] . 

Advent Sunday, the first Sunday in Advent, or that 
nearest St. AndrewB day (Nov. 30). ' 

adventitial (ad-ven-tish'al), a. Same as ad- 
ventitious. Jour. Exper. Med., VI. 69. 

adventitious, a. 4. in jpA^tosreo(7., naturalized 
from a distant formation : opposed to *vioine. 
A term proposed by Pound and Clements. 
Compare adventitious, 2. 

adventurism Cad-ven'tur-izm), n. The ways, 
habits, and schemes of the adventurer or ad- 
venturess; the practices, pretenses, or experi- 
ences of those who live by their wits. 

adventuresum, a. A simplified spelling of 




Ana a '-n' .^acid Shield on Coins 
name m of saiamts. tFrom " Jour- 



adverb, n,— Flat adverb, a substantive or an adjec- 
tive placed in an adverbial position (so called by J. Barle, 
Fhilol. Eng. Tongue, § 430) : as, /or«at wild; to look bad; 
to walk elaw; "with foreheads vUlairwue low," Shak., 
Tempest, iv. 1. 274. Some adverbs of this type are, how- 
ever, reduced forms of Middle English or Anglo-Saxon 
adverbs with an adverbial suffix (-e), from the adjective 
with which they have later become identical in form. 
— Flectional adverb, an adverb formed of a case of a 
formerly inflected noun, as mamingt, evenings, needs, 
dmlMng, upward (genitives), whilom, seldom (datives) : 
as, he is usually at home evenings; "he must needs go 
through Samaria," John iv. 4; "the wakeful bird sings 
darkUng," MU'un, P. L., iii. 38, 39.— Phrasal adverb, 
an adverb consisting of a phrase or clause ; an adverbial 
clause : as, of course, of a truth, at ramdom, in aninstant, 
litUe by 2tMe. — Relative adverb, an adverb which is 
derived from a relative pronoun, relates to an antecedent, 
and usually introduces an adverbial clause, as when, 
where, whence : as, at the place where the accident oc- 
curred ; at a time when he was not expected. 

adverbial, a.— Adverbial clause, in gram., a clause 
or phrase which serves as an adverb : as, he met with an 
accident on Ms way home. 

II. n. An adverbial word or clause, as truly, 
exceedingly, of course, to-day, as soon as lie 
arri/iies. 

adverbiation (ad-v6r-bi-a'shon), n. [NL. "ad- 
verinatio(n-), < L. a(J»er6mTO,' adverb.] An ex- 
tended phrasal adverb. See the quotation. 

Koom must be given to the term Adverb to let it take 
in all that appertains to the description of the condition 
and circumstances attendant upon the verbal predication 
of the sentence. ... I would propose that for such ex- 
tended phraseological adverbs we adopt the title of 
Adverbiation. J. JEarle, Philol. Eng. Tongue, p. 431. 

adverbism (ad'v6rb-izm), n. Tendency to an 
excessive use of adverbs. G. S. Ball, Adoles- 
cence, II. 467. 

advertisemental (ad-v6r-tiz-men'tal), a. [ad- 
vertisement + -al.'] Relating or pertaining to 
advertising or to advertisement. [Bare.] 

advisal (ad-vi'zal), n. [advise + -a?.] Ad- 
vice ; counsel. 3". S. BlaeUe, .^schylus, I. 197. 
[Bare.] 

advize, v. A simplified spelling of advise. 

advolution (ad-v6-lii'shon), n. [L. ad, to, + 
volvere, roll: formed on type of evolution.} An 
onward rolling or unfolding; progressive de- 
velopment ; the theory of evolution considered 
with regard to its trend or ultimate develop- 
ments. See the extract. 

Why should Evolution stop with the Organic? It is 
surely obvious that the complement oJ Evolution is 
Advolution, and the inquiry, Whence has all this system 
of things come, is, after all, of minor importance com- 
pared with the question. Whither does all this tend? 
H. Drummond, Nat. Law in Spiritual World, p. 401. 

adynamandry (a-din-a-man'dri), w. [Gr. 
adiivaiiog, without power, + avi/p (av6p-), man 
(male).] In hot., self-sterility; incapability of 
self-fertilization. Delpino. 

adynamical (a-di-nam'i-kal), a. Not dynami- 
cal. 

The properties of electric and magnetic force are ex- 
plicable upon dynamical principles; so far there is no 
known necessity for seeking for adynamical properties 
in ether. 
Jour. Tnst. Electric Engineers (Brit), 1889-1900, p. 396. 

adz-block (adz'blok), n. A solid oblong block 
of iron or steel, S(iuare in section, which carries 
S.— 2 



17 

the cutters or plane-irons of a wood-planing 

machine. Lockwood. 
Adzuki bean. See *bean\ 
iEacid (e'a-sid), n. [L. JSaddes, < Gr. AlaiciSric, 

< AloKog, Jfcacus.] A son or descendant of 

.^acus (who was a son of 

Zeus and .^gina, and after 

death a judge in the lower 

world), especially : (a) Pe- 

leus; (6) Achilles; (c) Te- 

lamon; (d) Aiax.— iEacid 

shield, the shield of the Tela- 

monian Ajax, which was repre- 
sented on the coins of ancient 

Salamis in Qreece. It assumed 

a peculiar form resembling 

types found in the Dipylon and 

Myceneeau periods. 
aeae (a-a-a'a), n. [Ha- 
waiian = Maori akeake, 

the name of a small tree 

(see *afce).] 

Hawaii of Lymim Sand- »»' °' Hellenic studies,' 

^ J. T, -u by permission of the Coun 

vncense, an erect shrub cii.) 

from two to three feet 

high, with stiff, smooth branches. It grows along 

the sea-coast, anci bears a red berry which is edible but 

not very palatable. Also called ohelo-kai. 

secial (e'shial), a. [< Gr. alda, an injurious 
effect.] Same as esddial. J. C. Arthur. 

.Scldial form, stElge. Same as secidiostage. 

seciospore (e'si-6-sp6r), ». [Gr. ahia, an in- 
jurious effect, 4- awopd, 'a spore.] Same as 
eeeidiospore. J. C. Arthur. 

secium (e'shium), n. [NL., < Gr. cuda, an in- 
jurious effect.] A term proposed by J. C. 
Arthur for the sscidial stage of the rust fungi, 
Vredinales. Same as ascimostage. 

Aedes (a-e'dez), n. [NL. (Meigen, 1818), < Gr. 
diid^g, unpleasant, odious, < a- priv. + ^Sfjg, 
pleasant.] A genus of small mosquitos of the 
dipterous family Culicidse. They have the palpi 
in Doth sex«s less than half as long as the proboscis (2- 
jointed In the male and 4-jointed in j;he female), and 
have no bluish scales on the upper side of the thorax and 
no bristles below the scutellum. Several species are 
known. ASdesfuscus inhabits the northern United States. 

segagropila, n. 2. [cap.'] pi. Marine algse 
which form more or less spherical masses and 
are freely driven from place to place. 

aegagropilous(e-ga-grop'i-lus),ffl. [Gr. alyaypoc, 
the wild goat,+ li.pila, aball,+ -o«s.] Noting 
the dense tufted condition assumed by certain 
algse, particularly the cladophoras. Athenaeum, 
IV. 363. 

segialosaur (e-ji-al'o-s&r), n. A reptile of the 
genus Mgialosaurus. 

aegicrania (e-ji-kra'ni-a),.TO.pZ. [NL., < Gr. rff 
(o'y-)i goat, + Kpaviov, skull.] In Bom. antiq., 
the heads of goats or rams used in the sculp- 
tured decoration of altars : suggested by the 
custom of hanging up the heads of victims. 




.^gicrania.— Altar in the Vatican, Rome. 

iEginidae, n.pl. 2. A family of Narcomedmse, 
having a circular canal communicating with 
the stomach by double peronial canals, with 
internemal gastral pouches, and without oto- 
porpse. It contains the genera ASgina, .Mgineta, 
Mginopsis, and others. 

Mglins, Ce-gli'na), n. [NL.,< Gr. Jiiy/l)?, anymph, 
-I- -ireoi.] A genus of asaphid trilobites. They 
are remarkable for their immense compound eyes, which 
give them a strikingly larval aspect : found in the Lower 
Silurian of Europe. . 

iGgOCera (e-gos'e-ra), n. [NL. (Latreille, 1809), 



aerage 

<oif {diy-), goat, -f idpag, horn.] An interesting 
genus of East Indian moths of the family Aga- 
ristidse. The male of.<4.triparti(itmakes apeculiarclick- 
ing noise wliile flying ; it is produced by a special struc- 
ture on the front wing, which is rubbed against the spinea 
of the front feet. 

iEgoceratidae (e-go-se-rat'i-de), n. pi. [NL.,< 
^JEgoceras,^ Gr. oif {aly6(), goat, -I- idpag (icipa- 
Tog), horn, + -idse.] A family of ammonoid 
cephalopods or ammonites. They have smooth, dis- 
coidal shells with broad umbilicus and highly specialized 
complicated septal sutures. The species occur' in the 
Triassic formation. 

iElurodon (e-lu'ro-don), n. [Gr. aiXovpoc, a cat 
or a weasel, + bSobc (-ovtoq), a tooth.] A genus 
of Canidse of the North American Miocene, 
with affiliations with the bears. 

selurophobia (e-lu-ro-fo'bi-a), n. [Gr. aWoupoc, 
eat, + -^0^8(0, Kijio^eiv, fear.]" A morbid dislike 
or fear of eats. 

aeneofuscous (a-e"ne-o-fus'kus), a. [L. aeneus, 
of brass, -f /itscMS, fuscous.] In entom., of the 
color of dirty brass. 

aeneolithic (a-e " ne-o-lith ' ik), a, [L. aeneits, 
brazen, + Gr. XiBog, stone.] Pertaining to the 
period in which both metal and stone imple- 
ments were used : a term introduced by Italian 
archaeologists. 

aeneous (a-e'ne-us), a. [L.oeraeMS, of brass.] In 
entom., havingbrassy or metallic reflections. 

senigmatite (e-nig'ma-tit), n. A rare triclinic 
member of tte amptibole ^oup. it occurs in 
black prismatic crystals in the sodalite-syenite of southei'n 
Greenland and similarly elsewhere. It is a titano-silicate 
of ferrous iron and sodium. 

.Solian, n. 2. Same as .^olic. 

iEoliC digamma, the digamma (which see) . 

seolidoid (e-ol'i-doid), a. [seolid -\- -old.'] Hav- 
ing the form or characters of the .Molididse. 

seolina, n. 2. An organ-stop of a thin, deli- 
cate tone. 

seolipile, n. 2. A form of blast-lamp for use in 
chemical laboratories, in which an alcohol 

.flame is deflected by a stream of alcohol vapor 
escaping from a jet, this vapor being produced 
from liquid alcohol in a little boiler over the 
original flame. 

SEiOlodicon (e-o-lod'i-kon), n. [Gr. AioAof, Mo- 
lus, + (jtS^, song, + -ieon, as in harmonicon.] 
A musical instrument, played from a key- 
board, the tone of which was produced in one 
variety by the blows of hammers upon steel 
springs, and in another from free reeds, as in 
the harmonium. Neither form attained artistic 
importance. 

seolodion (e-6-16'di-on), n. [Gr. Ajo^of, JEolus, 
4- Gr. i/>iii, song, + -ion, as in melodion.] Same 
as *SBOlodicon. 

seolomelodicon (e"o-lo-me-lod'i-kon), n. [Gr. 
AloXog, .^olus, -t- fieX(i>d6g, musical (see melo- 
dion), + -icon, as m harmonicon.] A musical 
instrument of the pipe-organ class, invented 
by Hoffmann of Warsaw about 1825. its chief 
peculiarity was that metal tubes were placed in front of 
the mouths of the pipes, to impart to them special quali- 
ties imitating various instruments and to strengthen the 
tone. The use of these resonators was under the control 
of the player. Also called choraleon. 

seolopantalon (e " o - lo - pan ' ta - ion), n. [Gr. 
AloXoq, .^olus ; second element uncertain.] An 
SBolomelodicon having a pianoforte attachment 
which could be used with or without the organ 
tones. 

seolophon (e'o-lg-fon), n. [Appar. G., < Molus 
+ Gr. -fuvoQ, < pav^, sound.] A form of sera- 
phine. 

eeolotropism (e-o-lot'ro-pizm), re. The state 
or condition of sBolotropy. 

eeonial, a. See *eonial. 

seonologe (e'on-9-loj), n. [Gr. alav, an age, -t- 
-Mytov, < Xeyeiv, tell: formed on type of horo- 
loge.'] An imagined clock that measures time 
by eons or ages. See the quotation. [Rare.] 

The horologe of earth ... is no measure for the 
geonologe of heaven. 

F. W. Farrar, Early Days of Christianity, p. 511. 

seaualis (e-kwa'lis), n. [L., equal.] In gram., 
the case which expresses similarity (like, simi- 
lar to). Also called simtoSue. BarMwm, Essen, 
of Iimuit, p. 17. 

JEquidens (e'kwi-denz), n. [NL., < L. sequus, 
equal, + dens, tooth.] A genus or subgenus 
of South American Cidhlidse: they resemble 
the sunflshes of the north. 

aerage (a'e-raj), re. [P. aSrage, < L. aer, < Gr. 
a^p, air.] Airing; ventilation. 



aerate 

aerate, v. t. — ASratlng plants, epiphytes.— Aerat- 
ing roots, roots which rise out of the water or mud, 
provided with a loose corky tissue with large cellular in- 
terspaces adapted to aeration, as the " knees " of the bald 
cypress. 

aSrenchyma (a-e-reng'ki-ma), n. [Nil., < 6r. 
d^p, air, + lyx>>fia, infusion.] A tissue con- 
sisting of thin-walled cells with large, inter- 
cellular spaces, adapted to aeration. It occurs 
in the stems of certain marsh plants. Schenk. 
aerialist (a-e'ri-al-ist), n. [aerial + -ist] An 
■ aerial navigator; one skilled in aeronautics. 
[Rare.] 

aerobia, n. pi — Facultative' aeroWa, bacteria, nor- 
mally anaerobic, which have acquired the capacity of 
living and growing in the presence of oxygen. 

aerobic (a-e-ro'bik), a. Same as aerobian. — 
Facnltatlveiy aerobic, having the ability to live either 
in the absence or in the presence of oxygen. 

aerobiont (a-e-ro-bi'ont), n. Same as aeroie. 

aerobioscope (a"e-r6-bi'o-sk6p), n. An appa- 
ratus for.coUecting bacteria from the air. 

aerobinm (a-e-ro'bi-um), n. Singular of aero- 
bia (which see). 

aero-club (a'c-ro-klub"), n. [Gr. a^p, air, + E. 
■club.] A cliib or association devoted to the 
promotion and practice of aeronautics or avia- 
tion. 

aSrocondenser (a*e-ro-kon-den's6r), n. [Gr. 
a^p, air, + E. condenser.'j A form of surface- 
condenser for changing the vapor of water, or 
any other vapor, back into a liquid by the with- 
drawal of heat by means of a rapid circulation 

. of air. It is much used as a means of cooling and con- 
4lensing in motor-vehicles. The vapor to be condensed 
is con^ned in a chamber throngh which pass a great 
number of tubes, the air being made to move at speed 
through the latter. 

aeroconlscope (a'e-ro-kon'i-skop), n. [Gr. 
a^p, air, + /cdvjf, dust, + ckowuv, view.] An 
apparatus for collecting dust for future exam- 
ination. Also aerokoniscope. B. E. Maddox. 

aerocurve (a'e-ro-kerv), n, [Gr. ar/p, air, + L. 
curBus, curve.] A curved surface intended for 
the support, in the air, of a gliding- or a flying- 
machine. See *aeroplane, 1. 

One of the most difiicult questions connected with the 
problem of aerial navigation is the longitudinal stability 
of a machine supported on aero- planes and aero-curves. 

Rep. Srit. Ass. Advaricement of Sci., 1902, p. 524. 

aerodrome (a'e-ro-drom), n. [Gr. ar/p, air, + 
-Spo/iog, <. Spa/i'elv, Ton.'] 1. A flying-machine 
supported by aeroplanes and having a motor 
and a rudder for navigjating the air; specifi- 
cally, a machine of this kind invented and 
named by S. P. Langley. — 2. A course for 
testing or practising with aeroplanes or other 
flying-machines. 

aerodromic (a"e-ro-drom'ik), a. [aerodrome + 
-ic] Of or pertaining to aerodromes or flying- 
machines. A. G. Bell, in Smithsonian Bep., 
1896, p. 6. 

aerodromics (a"e-ro-drom'iks), n. [As aero- 
drome + -Jc] The art of navigating the atmo- 
sphere by means of engines and balloons, but 
especially by means of aeroplanes or aero- 
curves driven by machinery. S. P. Langley, 
in The Aeronaut. An., 1897, p. 13. 

aerodyne (a'e-ro-din), n. [Gr. a^p, air, + 
dinia/iii, power.] See the extract. 

I use the word "aerodyne" in preference to "flying- 
machine," to denote an aeroplane-supported) machine, 
driven by mechanical power through the air. 

W. R. TurnbvM, in Phys. Hev., March, 1907, p. 286. 

aerogram (a'e-ro-gram), n. [Gr. df/p, air, + 
■ ypafi/ia, a writing.] A message transmitted 
through the air, especially one transmitted by 
wireless telegraphy. L. de Forest, in N. Y. 
Com. Advertiser, Jan. 31, 1903. 

aerograph (a'e-ro-graf), V. [Gr. dvp, air, -I- 
■ypd<j)eiv, write.] I. trans. To transmit or send 
through the air by wireless telegraphy: as, 
to aerograph the state of the money-market to 
Iiondon or Paris. N. Y. Com. Advertiser, Jan. 
31, 1903. 

II. intrans. To communicate by means of 
wireless telegraphy; use wireless telegraphy 
in communicating with others. 
[Eeeent in both uses. ] 

aerohydropathy (a"e-ro-hi-drop'a-thi),». [Gr. 
af,p, air, + E. hydropathy.'] Combined water- 
and air-cure. 

aerohypsometer (a'g-ro-hip-som'e-t^r), n. 
[Gr. a^p, air, + E. hypsometer.] A simple 
form of air-barometer devised by G. Govi of 
Turin in 1867 for measuring small differences 
of altitude by measuring the expansion under 



18 

varying pressures of a, short column of air 
whose temperature is constant or is known. 
Also aerypsometer. 

aSroides (a-e-roi'dez), n. A pale sky-blue va- 
riety of beryl. 

agroklinoscope, aerokoniscope, «. See aero- 
clinoseope, *aeroconiscope. 

aeromechanics (a'e-ro-me-kan'iks), n. [Gr. 
ar/p, air, -f- E. mechanic's.'] l"he mechanics of the 
atmosphere or, in general, of gases ; the science 
of the action of forces on gases ; pneumatics. 

aeromotor (a'e-ro-m6"tor), n. [L. aer, air, + 
motor, motor.]' 1. An'air-ship; a vehicle for 
navigating the air. — 3. A form of windmill 
using metalUc vanes or sails. 

aeronat (a'e-ro-nat), n. [aero- + L. nai(are), 
swim, float.] See the extract. [Rare.] 

Aeronat is a'dirigible, motor-driven balloon, or air-ship. 
Sci. Amer. Sup., Feb. 20, 1909. 

aeronef (a'e-ro-nef), n. [P. 'a&ronef, < L. aer, 
air, -t- P. lief, < L. navis, ship.] An air-ship. 
[Rare.] 

aerophagia (a^'e-ro-fa'ji-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
afjp, air, + -t^ayia, (. ^yelv, eat.] The swallow- 
ing of air sometimes observed in hysteria. 

aerophilous (a^e-rof'i-lusl, a. [Gr. d^p, air, 
-I- 0('/lof, loving.]' Air-loving: applied to bac- 
teria and other organisms which require air 
for their development. See aerobian. 

aerophobic (a^e-ro-fo'bik), a. Of or pertaining 
to aerophobia ; afraid of air ; having a morbid 
dread of currents of air. | 

aerophone, n. 2. An instrument having the 
functions of both an ear-trumpet and a speak- 
ing-trumpet. 

aerophore, ». 2. An instrument for filling with 
air the lungs of a stiU-bom child. — 3. In tex- 
tile spinning-rooms, a device used to diffuse 
moisture throughout the air. An excess of mois- 
ture is required both to make shrinkage-effect uniform 
and to counteract the electrifying action of the rapidly 
moving belts and other elements at the machines. 

aerophorus (a-e-rof'o-rus), a. [Gr. drip, air, 
-I- -^opoi, < ^kpziv, bear.] Containing or con- 
veying air : same as aeriferoiis. 

aerophysical (a"e-ro-fiz'i-kal), a. [Gr. d^p, air, 
-I- (jwauidg, physical.] Of or pertaining to aero- 
physios or the physics of the atmosphere ; spe- 
cifically, relating to the atmospheric condi- 
tions of heat and cold, dryness and humidity. 

aerophysics (a'e-ro-fiz'iks), n. [Gr. d^p, air, 
+ a.physics.] The physics of the atmosphere. 

aeroplane (a'e-ro-plan), n. [Gr. d^p (dep-), air, 
+ E. plane.] "1. A plane or curved (see *aero- 



sthokirrin 

machines, by means of the lifting-power of aeroplanes 
(surfaces) were made during the second half of the nine- 
teenth century. Models of flying-machines of this type, 
more or less successful, were constructed by StringfeUow 
in 1847 and 1868 and by Moy in 1874 and Tatin in 1879. 
But the most important advances toward the solution of 
the problem were made in the aerodynamical investiga- 
tions of S. F. Langley and Sir Hiram Maxim, and in the ex- 
periments of 0. Cilienthal, 0. Cbannte, and others with 
gliding-machines. Langley perfected a model of an aero- 
plane (his "aerodrome") propelled by a steam-engine 
(burning naphtha), which in November, 1896,- flew about 
three quarters of a mile. Experiments with gliding- 
machines were begun by Orville and Wilbur Wright in 
1900, and on December 17, 1903, an aeroplane constructed 
by them and propelled by a gasolene motor rose from the 

f round and made a flight of 260 meters in 59 seconds — the 
rst instance of successful mechanical flight by man. From 
that time the development of the aeroplane by the Wrights 
and others (Voisin, Farman, Curtiss, Bleriot, Latham, etc.) 
has been rapid and extraordinary results have been at- 
tained. The machines in successful use are of two general 
types: 'biplanes' (Wright, Curtiss, Voisin, Breguet, etc.) 
having two aeroplanes (surfaces) placed one above the 
other, and * monoplanes ' (Antoinette, Bleriot, etc.) having 
one aeroplane (surface) or two laterally disposed. On Dec. 
31, 1908, Wilbur Wright made, in France, a flight of 2 
hours and 20 minutes, a period surpassed on August 7, 
1909, by Sommer (2 hrs. 27J min.) and on Aug. 27, 1909, at 
Kheims, by Farman (3 hrs. 4 min. S6| sec. : 111.848 miles ; 
his flight was continued (unofiQcially) for about seven 
miles more). On July 27, 1909, Orville Wright, at Fort 
Meyer, made a cross-country flight of ten miles, with a pas- 
senger, at the rate of over 42 miles an hour. A record for 
speed was made by Curtiss, in a biplane, at Rheims on 
August 28, 1909, when be made 12.42 miles in 15 min. 60^ 
sec. On July 25, 1909, Bleriot crossed the English Chan- 
nel from Calais to Dover in a monoplane, in about 40 
minutes. 

aeropleustic (a"e-ro-pl6s'tik), a. [Gr. di/p, air, 
+ j^varcK6;, adj., C tt^-cIv, sail.] Of or per- 
taining to aerialnavigation or the art of sailing 
in the air. N. E. D. [Rare.] 

aerorthometer (a"er-6r-thom'e-ter),?i. [Gr. 
d^p, air, -t- opdog, straight, + pirpov, measure.] 
An instrument in which an air-thermometer 
and a barometer are combined. 

aerosphere, n. 2. The spherical mass of any 
gas surrounding a molecule or atom and tem- 
porarily constituting a unit with it. 

aerostat, n. 3. In entom., a tracheal dilata- 
tion forming an air-sac, as in the abdomen 
of the honey-bee and certain other insects. 
[Rare.] 

Aerostatic setae. See *seta. 

aerotaxis (a'c-ro-tak'sis), n. [Gr. d^p, air, + 
rafif, disposition, order.] The movement of 
cells or organisms in relation to a source or 
supply of air. 

aerotherapy (a,"e-ro-ther'a-pi), n. [Gr. d^p,, 
air, + depaireia, medical treatment.] Same as 
aerotherapeutics. 




Wright Brothers' Aeroplane (biplane). 
^, rudder; B, dippio^.planes. 




Bleriot's Aiiroplane (monoplane). 
j4, engine: S, rudder; C. dipping-plane. 

curve) surface, used to sustain a flying-machine 
or a glid i n g-m achine in the air, or in aerodynam- 
ical experiments. As the machine moves through 
the air, the aeroplane (commonly a light framework cov- 
ered with a fabric), set at a small angle above the horizon- 
tal, tends to support it by its lifting-power. Flying- 
machines in which aeroplanes are so useil are also called 
* aeroplanes ' (see det 2) : those in which support in the 
air has been sought by the movement ('flapping') of such 
surfaces in imitation of the action of the wings of birds 
are called 'omithopters.' 

2. A flying-machine driven by an engine and 
supported by the pressure of the air upon the 
under side of plane or curved surfaces known 
as 'aeroplanes' or ' aerocurves.' (See def. 1.) 
Various attempts to attain flighty in "heavier-than-air" 



aerotropism, n. 2. In general, the bending 

or grovrth of organisms in relation to a source 

or supply of air. 
aerypsometer (a'e-rip-som'e-ter), n. Same as 

•''aerohypsometer. " 
sesaloid (e'sa-loid), a. [NL. .^salus, a genus of 

beetles, + -oid.] Related to or resembling a 

beetle'of the family Msalidse. ' 
seschrolalia (es"kro-la'li-a), n. [NL. , < a'taxpk, 

shameful, + 'KaXia,' <. TiaTisiv, talk.] Indecency 

of speech in the insane. 
.Ssculaceae (es-ku-la'sf -e), n. pi. [NL. (Lind- . 

ley, 1841), < ^sculus 4- -acese.] A family of 

dicotyledonous choripetalous plants of the 

order SapindaUs, typified by the genus Msew- 

lus. See Hippocastamaeeee. 
ssculetic, a. See *esculetic. 
sesculotannic, a. See '*'esculotannic. 
iffisopic(e-s6'pik), a. [L. JEsopicus, < Gr.Atffu- 

vuidg, < AiffUTTOf, w3Esop.] Same as JEsopian. 

Jour. Hel. Studies, XIII. 300. 
sesthacyte, n. See esthacyte. 
sesthesia, n. 2. In bot., the capacity of an 

or^n to respond to physical stimuli. Czapek. 
sesthesin (es-the'sin), n. [Gr. aloBijaii, feeUng, 

+ -Jn2.] A compound, C35H69O3N, formecJ by 

the hydrolysis of phreuosin. 
sesthesiomania, n. See *esthesiomania. 
aesthetal (es-tbe'tal), a. [Gr. aladriTdg, percep- 
tible (see esthete, "esthetic), + -aV-.] Sensory. 
I propose to call the sensory cells, or sense-centres, 

aesthetal cells. Haeekel (trans.), Wonders of Life, p. 14. 

sstivo-autumnal, a. See *estwo-autumnal. 

sethochroi (e-thok'ro-i), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. aiflcic, 
burnt (see Ethiop), '+ xp^a, color.] Races of 
black color; the negroes of Africa, the Me- 
lanesians, iPapuans, and Australians. Also 
ethochroi. 

aethokirrin (e-tho-kir'in), ». [Gr. aWof, ftre 
(see ether), + Kippdg, tavniy, yellow.] The 
yeUow coloring matter of Linaria lAnaria, the 
common toad-flax. 



aetiatic 19 after-image 

setiatic (e-ti-at'ik), a. [Also aitiatic, < Gr. of a base between two acids or of an acid between two fever, Aftican fever. See */everi.— Atricaa green. 

alnaTiiiOC <. alria r-aiisp- kpb wtinlnm/ and an. bases can be computed.— Clang affinity or relation- See *ffree»i. 

cmdtZ\ cZsVt^whPn a nnlwvls su^ «?^P- **'" *rfa«j?-ft:ediBPOBijDLg aAnity, in early AMcanistics (af'ri-kan-is'tiks), n. That de- 

Citsame.J yausai, as Wflen a quality is sup- cftem.,atermeniployed to signify the cause of a chemical TiartrnpntofTiynlolotrvpnTipevTiBH with )-linstii<1i>- 

posed to exist in an object which is suggested change produced by a substence having an affinity or at- Partment ol pmiology eoncemea with the study 

by its name; accusative traction, not for a second substance itself, but for some- ot tne languages 01 Alnca. 

, J .. ,'. . ^, ! .. .„ , ^. .... thing producible aa a result of the change. Thus, using AfncanOld (afri-kan-oid), a. r4/W«<l»* + -0*<*-] 

thfs i^onfyTnsSuDon to t^' naS'slLe of°He"svch£^s 'i« lan^^ge of the time it was said that soda, by its In anthrop., resembling African types of man. 

una 18 ouiy insisiea upon in tne passage oi aesycnius, affinity for phosphoric acid, enables phosphorus to de- -nr ,7 i?»w«„ -Oanaa n*Ti'„T.^T>o t. &n 

and 18 evidently due to an m«m«« exposition of the ter- compose carbonic acid (whiih without the soda it would .V •^■^'9^, ^aces of Europe, p. 397. 

mination. „„.„.,. ^^„ „» not do) and form phosphoric acid. This idea has long Afro-Amencan (af"ro-a-mer'i-kan), a. and re. 

Ceca SmMh, Jour. Hellenic Studies, XIH. 117. been discarded. [L. Afer (pi. Afri), an African, -1- E. Ameri- 

iEtiologlcal myth, a myth accounting for the origin of a Affirmance day general in the English Court of Ex- canA I. a. Of, pertaining to, or composed of 

phenomenon. chequer, a day appointed by the judges of the common ^iprsons of African despent hnrn in Amprnpa. 

AetobatiniP f a^e to bat'i ne^ n til ^Aetoha- Pl«as »"<> Karons of the exchequer, to be held a few days Persons, ot Aincan aesoent Dorn in Amenca 

/„« + y^ 1 ^^^-t^O-oat l-ue), n.JJt. \Aemow- ^£ter the beginning of every term, for the general afflr- (specifically in the United States) : as, an J/ro- 

2j iT^ A suDiamily 01 sting-rays typi- mance or reversal of judgments. Boitmer, Law Diet. .4merjcam church: Afro-American <ak\7^w&. 

fled by the genus ^etofia to. Afltenative pregnant. &ee *pregnant. II. re. A native of America (specifically of 

AetObatlS (a-e-tob a-tis), ». mh., < Gr. asrdc, afSx, n. 4. In math., the complex number x + the United States) who is of African descent. 

^J*^7- j.^""^' ^ ^^^ (fisn).] A later variant iy is denoted by a single letter, a; the point Afro-EuTOpean (af'ro-ii-ro-pe'an), a. [h. Afer 

ot*^eto6nte. rxrr ^^ . . P, (a;, 2/), is then called the aja; of the valuer; (pi. J/n), an African, -I- fi. £«ropeaw.] Afri- 

AetObatUB (a-e-tob a-tus), re. [NL., < far. aerdf, the number « is also spoken of as the opr of can and European; European with African 

eagle, -1- ISdrog, a ray (fish).] A genus of sting- the point P. relations. 

rays of the family MyUobaUd^. A. narinariia afflxment (a-fiks'ment), n. [oj^-l- -meref.] Same Afrogsea (af-ro-ie'a), re. [NL., < L. J/«r(J/»-), 

the common species and 18 widely diffused. Itisbrown, aa nttni-hmenf if^^o« j. /^« , »7„ ^„«+i, n t„ jLx^^ J. 

with many laiieyeUow spots. as attachm^t. . ^ , African, + Gr. yam, earth.] In zoogeog., a. 

aetosaur (a'e-to-sar), re. A reptUe belonging affixt.^p. A simplified spelling of <#a;ed. (proposed) division or realm comprising the 

to the genus Aetosaurus aflttictionless (a-flik'shon-les), a. laffiiction + part of Afnca that lies south of the equator. 

aetosaurian (a"e-to-sa'ri-an), a. and re. I, a. :;?**-l^'"^\^°™^f .^''*^?f ortrouble. T. mr%. Correlated with Aretogsm. See Afrogiean. 

Pertaining to or having iiLe characters of Ae- ^J'''ti°^^^^, Madding Crowd. N. E. D. Afrogaeic (af-ro-je'ik), a. Same as Afrogsean. 

tosaurus affrettando (a-fret-tau'do), a. [It., 'hurrying,' afrown (a-froun'), arfJ^. ia^ + frown.'] In a 

II »."Sameas*aefo«aMr ppr. of ajrcitere, hurry.] In wusic, hastening frown; frowning: as, "with brows a/rowre,» 

afain't (a-fanf), ads. [a3+faint.2 In a faint- the pace : virtually the same as acceZeraredo Joaquin MiOer. N. E. D. 

ing state or on the point of fainting. ^ smngendo. rr^ < i, • j ,-, afrunt, prep. phr. as adv. and jw-ep. A simpli- 

affect^.re. 3. Inp««cfeoZ.: (a) Thefeltor af- S'frettato (a-fret-ta to), a. [It., 'hurried.'] fied spelling of a/roret. 

fectivecomponentof a motive to action; the °?™* ^'^ *«^«**«"i^,''-., „, .^, , , a frutti (a frSt'ti). [It.] With fruits: said of 

incentive, as opposed to the inducement, to attrettoso (a-tret-to so), o. [it., 'with hurry. J a characteristic style of ma.iolica decoration 

act. See the extract. ^me as *affreUando. , ^ ^ ., ^^^ consisting of foliage and fruits. 

Affects. . . are the feeling antecedents of involuntary affricate (af ri-kat), re. [= G. affrtkata, <NL. aft^ a. and odt'.- To haul aft a head-sheet (»«««,), 

movements ; as motives, including affeats [and ends], are "affrzcata, < L. ad, to, -I- fncare, rub : see/nc- to puU on the rope secured to the clue of a staysail, jib, 

the inner antecedents of acts of wUl. atioe.] In »feoreo%«, an intimate combination or flying 31b, so as to flatten the sail m a fore-and-aft di- 

J.M. Baiaunn, Handbook of Psychol., II. 3U. of a stop With a spirant or ft^icative of thesame ZIt^L^II "^^r^^^^^^i^-^^ZX^r^iA^^ 

(6) Emotion. — 4. In Spinoza's philosophy, a position, as German j3/(ongmaliy^)inj>/ere»4S', main-boom, so as to bringthat spar more fore-and-aft, or 

modification at once of the psychic and the ^/e;^er, etc., or German « or te (originally i) in in line with the keel.— Fore-and-aft rig. Seefme-and- 

physical condition, the former element being zinn, tin, kaize, cat, etc. ^i^i'??^ J?*'"" /'"■«-'"f^-"i^«-- To have the starboard 

called an idea and the latter an a/ec*io». affricate (af'ri-kat),«.t.;pret.andpp.aJncofed, S? ^'iLTto s^S«nhanheTon tt?^^^^^ 

affection, re. 10. In recent psychol., the ele- p'pi. affricating. {affricate, a.] In phonology, vice versa. 

mentary feeling-process; the pure or quali- to utter as an affricate. .Scnptore, Exper. Pho- after, prep. 10. In mineral., derived from; 

tatively simple feeling, in which there is no neties, p. 307. having the form of: said of pseudomorphs, 

admixture of sensation. See the extract. affricative (a-frik'a-tiv), re. Same as affricate, which retain only the form of the original 

They [the mental elements] are very numerous :.. . ^aj^ce, Introd. Sci. Lang., I. 270. mineral: as, malachite pseudomorph after 

but they may all be grouped into two great classes, as affirightfully (a-frit'ftll-i), adi). [affrightful cuprite ; cassiterite pseudomorph after f eld- 

8ensationsand^#|cfa|m +iy.^ In a manner to affrighten, terrify or spar. See i,*e«<iomorpft.- After one's own heart, 

■ "^'""""^' ^"""51 oi rsycuoi., p. ii.. alarm ■ temfyingly : as, to dream affnghtfully. that comes up to one's ideas or likmg; entirely worthy 

11. In trigon., relation to J. in right-angled [Bare] of one's admiration and approval : as, he is a man i^fter 
spherical triangles, angle A and side a are either both affnint, v. t and re. A simplified spelling of ,!KT,™1-„„ /6f '^p„ i.* ,/ ■ ^ t 
greater or both less than J. This is expressed by saymg affront ir o alter- DUming (at ter-ber"ning), re. In gr«s- 
thatAandaareofthesameo/ecKore. afitomen faf-i-ko'menl re THeb T)rob<Gr erefl-jrees, combustion or burning of the gases 

12. In >«;, the making over, pawning, or XSt ikderstood as 'tn ifler mf a^^ ^^^' ^^^ explosion has taken place which 
niortgaging of a thing to assure the payment o^Ztim™ neuterof L^^^rofT fo^ «^°^* ^^^« ""^^ ^^1 1^® g^« ^°"e at once with 
of a sum of money or the discharge of some °J^ pastime, neuter or emica/w{, oi or tor a res- ^j^ oxygen present. 

other duty or service. Bouvier Law Diet. g^^^l' < ^^^ru'tt QTl^^J^Jo^MllZ^i after-Sfome (af'tSr-krom), v. t. ; pret. and 

affective, a 3. In j,«2,cfeo«., relating to, char- X Se^rSen o/^^^^ w after-chromed, ^^v. after-chro^ng. To 

acterized by, or consisting of affection: as, arelThta oakefof ZeaveneHreTd called ^''^^^ (textiles, after they are dyed or panted) 

the affectime side of the mental life; affeeUve *eZcfcivelv^Cohen "lilvFand ' Wel'Tthus '^t^ ^ «°l^*io° "^ some chromium compound, 

experienee.-ASfective curve, in vmM,., a graphic ™!,?®"ilti^ fhp wholp Tpwfl Ti«tfnS> ,,=b^ ™ o^^der to fix, or render more fast, the colors 

expression of the correlation of some attribute (intensity, lepresentmg the whole Jewish nation), . used j^ ^ ^jj j^j^ Sometimes the chromium 

quality) of affection with some attribute of stimulus or bythe JewsatthesederservieeonPassovereve. impound aVaf a CrdkntiSeScinle^^^^ 

Sensation. E. B. TitcJuner, Exper. Psychol., I. i. 106.- It is broken off at the beginning of the service, and hidden aSThe dmositton o?a di °om"um Sant ^ich com 

Affective memory, the revival, in afltective terms, ol by the head of the family, who presides at the seder table, ggje" vJith the dv^t^ • in ShT ^es ttie DotMshim 

past affective experience. Ribot. Psychol, of Emotions, until the conclusion of the meal After the two whole Somate SmZnlv^s'ed acts as aToric^taSSt 

p. IBS.- Affective process, in psychol.: {a) An affec- cakes and the unhidden part of the broken cake have "looromate commonly useu acts as an oxidizing agent, 

tion. (6) A mental complex of which affection is char- been partaken of, with all the proper ceremonies, the aiter-COlOr (at ter-kul"or), re. A colored atter- 

acterlstic or in which it is dominant.— Affective tone, aflkomen is eaten. Seeitseder. image. See afterimage. 

in psychol, afiection considered with reference to the g, fi^ji (a fi-6'ri). [It.] "With flowers : said of after-COOler (af 'ter-k8"ler), n. A chamber in 

sort'im°eVa"ff?cHon co^^^^^^^ a style of pottery decoration which consists of which air or a gas is cooled after it has been 

tion. intertwined flowers and birds, characteristic compressed. See compressor. 

affectivity (a-fek-tiv'i-ti), n. [affective + -ity.] of certain Italian majolica. after-cure (af 'ter-kur), re. A course of treat- 

The mental faculty concerned in the emotions, aflicker (a-flik'er), adi;. [a^ -i- JUcker.'] In a ment pursued after convalescence is estab- 

affections, and sentiments ; the affective power flickeringstate or condition; flickering. .Browre- lished in order to insure the permanency of 

of the mind. ing, Aristoph. Apol., p. 225. the cure. 

The frequency of delusions in their multiform charac- aflower (a-flou'er) adv. [a3 -f flower.^ In after-dorken (af'ter-dar"kn) v t. In texUle- 

ters of degenerative characteristics, of the loss of a/fec- flower; abloom; flowering. Swinburne, £jreeh- coloring, to deepen (a color) by subsequent 

tivity, of heredity, more particularly in the children of theus, 1. 1147. N. E. D. dyeing or by oxidation with a chemical solu- 

inebiiate imbecile, idiotic, or epUeptic parents, and g^gygjjl (a.fl„gjj/) ^^,y [o3 -(- ^jfel.] In a tion. 

aaTgen'iiis ist f^Z.^fv^e^o^'^Zf^ieXi^ flushed 6v blushing state ; aglow; ablush. after-dinner (af'to-din"6r), «. and a [after + 

group. c. iomiiroso (trans.), Manof Genius, p. 359. aflush^ (a-flush'), atii'- [a^ + flusW.} On a dinner.] I.t «. The portion of the day which 

„«'.„.4..«««+/>^ Co fpV//+s Tr,n'tn^^ n Tn ■nminhni Icvel ; iu'the Same plane: as, aflvsh yjith. the follows dinner or the dinner-hour. 

^cSf4°'n^S;onal\iX "aL'e wuSs^ul sea ^»ire6«rre«. Stupes in Son^,|. 169. i^.^.D. II. a, Following dinner; postprandial: as, 

LrapHv^^- for Pxamtile the iovousness and aflutter (a-flut'er), o.i». [a^ + flutter.] In a after-dtnner eoSee; a.n after-dtnner na,v; a.n 

f.,,t?ial a Jt;v;?v of tZnhaseofXXtfon^n AT^tter or commotion; agitated: fluttering, a/ter-dmreer anecdote or speech. 

PrrpfiWr fnsrnftv constWute anlffec^ZtZ drowning. Men and Women, ii. lil. aftergrowth, ». 2. In forestry, young trees 

stite "^^'''^y ''°"®*'*'''® ^"^ "■*'*''*'""''*'"^afoglie(af61'ye). [It.] With leaves: said of which spring up as the result of reproduction- 

offlijoV^ /o «!') 5f> /J and M T n OppimTritiCT a Style of decorativo treatment in which leaves cuttings. 

*j^i nositf^n of or recoffidzed as'an St^ »* t^ee« f"™ ^^^ principal motive, seen fre- after-heat (af'ter-het), re. The autumnal or 

PTm^ot^I Rrmn^ruh^ir^r^d^i^lf quently on the majolica of Genoa, Venice, and after-summer warm weather which usually 

son ; affiliated. Browmng, Rmg and Book, <i^^^^ ^^^^^^ pottery-centers.- A foglie da doz- prevails in the northern United States duiing 

^■„ • . -.,. .„, „„„„„„ „„ j„„+u„K„« zina. [It., 'with leaves of the dozen,' that is, 'in ordi- the period known as 'Indian summer' Monthly 

II. re. An affliated person or insti^tion, nary or common style/] Said of a coarse style of decora- TTedther Bev., Jan., 1902. 

etc. Tojwg'ee, Fool's Hirrand, p. 12b. JSI.Ji.lt. tion found on certaininfenor majolica wares (particularly ~, ' o in nsi/z^lnZ ati^ .masfi of 

aflanitv n 9 In iorojeci/woeorei., a perspective those of Venice), consisting of painted foli^e. alter-image, re. «J. in psychoC.,any paase ot 

"™"Wv"li, • f-'.„r„„ ;„«„;*„ ^ . - fa'framl « The A-shaned sunnort sensation which persists after the withdrawal 
of which the center is at an infinite distance ^-^^\^^ J^^^l^^J^^l^ and cross-CdSes of the exciting stimulus: as, a visual after- 
itfo6jM«. -Affinity constants, inM!/«.«A«m..numencal lor tne cyimaer-Deam. ana cross neaa guiaes anditorv ofter-imaap ■ an offer- 
constants by means of which the relative strength ol acids of a vertical engine ; the housing. image, an anaitoiy ajter-zmage, an ajter 
or ol bases can be expressed, or with which the partition AfUcan bread&ult. See *6ieiKyrMJt.— African Coast image ot pressure. 



after-impression 

after-impression (M'Wr-im-presh«'oii), n. A 
sensation which persists after the stimulus 
that originally caused it is withdrawn. 

after-leech (af tfer-lech), n. The roping on the 
after edge of a fore-and-aft sail. The roping 
on the forward edge is called by American sea- 
men the luff and by English seamen the for- 
ward leech. See leech^. 

after-mast (af 't6r-mast), n. The mast nearest 
to the stem of the ship. On a one- or two-masted 
vessel it is the mainmast ; on a tliree-masted vessel, the 
mizzenmast; on a four-masted vessel, the jiggei^mast; 
on a flve-masted vessel, the spanker-mast ; on a six- 
masted vessel, the driver-mast ; and on a seven-masted 
vessel the pusher-mast. The last three names have been 
recently coined by the captains of many-masted vessels 
as a convenience when giving orders concerning the 
ngglng and sails belonging to the masts in question. 

after-milk (after-milk), ». Strippings. 

afternoony (af-tfer-nou'i), n. Like a (sum- 
mer) afternoon ; languid ; enervating ; inclin- 
ing to a siesta, as if in the heat of the day. 

There is something idle and afternoony about the air 
which whittles away one's resolution. Huxley, Life, IL 96. 

after-nose (af't6r-n6z), n. In entom., a trian- 
gular piece below the antennae and above the 
nasus. Stand. Diet. 

after-sensation (af'tfir-sen-sa'shon), n. In 
psyehol.: {a) An after-image. (6) A secon- 
dary or consequent sensation: as, the after- 
sensaUon of pain which follows the sensation 
of pressure when the sMn is lightly tapped 
wila a needle. 

after-shock (af 'tfer-shok), n. A shock follow- 
ing a primary shock; a succeeding shock. 

The periodicity of the aftershocks of the great Indian 
earthquake of June 12, 1897, is treated by' Mr. S. D. 
Oldham in vol. xxxv. of the Memoirs of the Geological 
Survey of India. Nature, April U, 1901, p. 671. 

after-sound (af't6r-sound), n. A subjective 
sensation of sound which remains after the 
soumd itself has ceased. 

after-stain (af'ter-stan), n. A stain or dye 
■employed after another stain, for the purpose 
of still further differentiating details of cell or 
tissue structure. 

after-stain (af 't6r-stau), v. t. [after + stain.'] 
To treat with an after-stain. 

after-strain (af 'tSr-stran), ». In elastimty, a 
strain which develops gradually after the ap- 
plication of the stress to which it is due and 
which persists after the stress has ceased. 
Also called elastic faUgue. 

after-stretch (af 't6r-streoh), n. In wool-manuf., 
the elongation of the roving on the spinning- 
mule after the delivery-rolls have stopped. 

after-taste (af 't6r-tast), n. A gustatory sensa- 
tion which persists after the stimulus that 
originally excited it has ceased to act. 

after-vision {kt'tiiT--nzh"on), n. An impres- 
sion of an object that remains in the retina 
after the object itself is removed from sight. 

after-world (af't6r-werld), n. The people of 
succeeding generations; future ages. 

The language ... in which Shakespeare and Milton 
have garnered for the after-world the rich treasures of 
their mind. Trench, Eng. Past and Present, iL 

after-wort (af't6r-w6rt), n. In brewing, the 
second run of wort. 

afu (a-fS'). <*• and n. [Perhaps from the Poly- 
nesian taipu, tabu: see taboo.] Same as taboo. 
[Torres Strait.] Geog. Jour. (E. G. S.), XVI. 
420. 

afunction (a-fungk'shon), n. [o-i8 + func- 
tion.'] In pathol., loss of function or function- 
ating power. Alien, and Neurol., Aug., 1904. 

afylloilS, a. A simplified spelling of aphyllous. 

Afzelia (af-ze'U-a), n. [NL. (Gmelin. 1791), 
named in honor of Adam Afzelms, a Swedish 
naturalist.] A genus of scrophulariaceous 
plants improperly called Seymeria by many 
authors. See Seymeria. 

A. G. An abbreviation of Attorney-General. 

agada^ (a'ga-da), TO. [Abyssinian?] An Egyp- 
tian or Abyssinian pipe sounded by means of 
a reed mouthpiece somewhat like that of a 
clarinet. 

agalactous, a. 2. Not nursed, as a hand-fed 
infant. — 3. Serving to check the secretion of 
milk; lactifugal. 

agalenoid (ag-a-le'noid), a. [NL., Agalena + 
-oid.] Of, belon^ng to, or resembling the 
spiders of the family Agalenidse. 

agalite (ag'a-lit), m. [Appar. < Gr. ayv, wonder, 
+ Xidoc, stone.] A fibrous variety of talc, pseu- 
domorphous in origin, from St. Lawrence 
County, New York: used in the manufacture 
of paper. Sometimes written agalith. 



20 

agalith (ag'a-lith), n. Same as *agalite. 

agamobium' (ag-a-mo'bi-um), «.; pi. agamo- 
bia (-a). [NL., < &r. a-priv. + yd/iof, marriage, 
-I- /3ioV, life.] The asexual generation of a 
hydroid jellyfish, as contrasted with the sexual 
generation or gamobium. 

agamogenetical (ag"a-m6-jf-net'i-kal), a, 
Same as agamogenetic. 

agamospore (ag ' a -mo - spor), n. [Gr. ayaixof, 
without marriage, + mropa, seed (spore).] A 
spore produced asexually. 

Agaon (a-ga'on), n. [NL. (Dalman, 1818), 
said to be < Gr. oyduv, ppr. of ayaeiv, var. of 
ayaaOat, adore.] A remarkable genus of hymen- 
opterous insects of the superfamily Ghalci- 
doidea, giving name to the family Agaonidse. 
It contains the single species A. paradoxum, 
which lives in figs in Sierra Leone. 

Agaonidse (ag-a-on'i-de)j n.pl. [NL., < Agaon 
+ -idx.] Aji extraordinary family of chal- 
cidoid hymenopterous insects. It comprises spe- 
cies of small size, distributed in 2 subfamilies and 12 
genera, all living in figs and accomplishing the fertiliza- 
tion of the flowers of this fruit. Other genera containing 
true parasites have been hitherto placed in this family, 
but are now separated into other distinctly parasitic 
groups. See itBlastophaga. 

Agapetidae (ag-a-pet'i-de), n.pl. [NL., < Aga- 

petes + -idee.] A family of butterflies contain- 
ing the forms known in the United States as 
mea.dow-'browns and their allies. Prominent 
American genera are Cercyoriis, Erebia, Cceno- 
nympha, and (Eneis. 

agar! (S'gar), TO. [Hind, agar, < Skt.aguru: 
see agaUochum.] The aloes-wood or calambac, 
Aquilaria Agalloeha. in India it is used for making 
jewel-cases, rosaries, and ornaments of various kinds. 
The chips are sold in bazaars and are burned in Hindu 
temples. See agaUochum and eaglewood. Also aggur. 

agar^ (a'gar), TO. Same as agar-agar Glucose 

agar. See itagar-agar, 2.— Hydrocele agar, a cultm'e 
medium suggested tor the growth of the gonococcus, in 
which hydrocele fluid is used as the nutrient medium, 
the agar being added to solidify the medium.— Litmus 
lactose agar, a culture medium used in bacteriological 
work. It is ormnary ^ar containing J per cent, of lactose, 
with enough litmus tincture added to give the solution a 
light-blue color.— Feptone^agar, a bacteriological cul- 
ture medium ; it contains a certain amount of peptone. 
Also called nutrient agar. — Slant agar, agar that has 
been solidified so as to present a slanting surface : used 
in bacteriological work. Sderwe, March 14, 1902, p. 406. 

agar-agar, to. 2. A gelatinous product from 
certain seaweeds often combined with vaKous 
nutrient substances to form a solid medium 
for the artificial cultivation of bacteria and 
other organisms. 

agaric, I. n — Deadly agazlc, Amanita ptiaUoides, 
a very poisonous fungus. — Ivory agaric, the mushroom, 
Hygrophorus ebumetis.—'lltan.eA agaric. Same as 
*hor8etail-<maric.— 'Royal agaric, alarge and elegant 
edible mushroom, Amanita eeesarea. It has a bright 
orange-colored pileus, an annulus, and a large, thick, 
leathery volva. It is sometimes contused with the 
poisonous fly-agaric, Anmnita muscaria. — Sugar-cane 
agaric, Schizophyllum cffmnmne, which is reported to 
be sometimes parasitic on sugar-cane. 

II. a — Agaric acid, a compound, CxeHsoOs + HoO, 
obtained from agaric in the form of a white powder. 
Also called agaridc and agarunnicacid. — Agaric resin, 
a red amorphous solid obtained from the larch-fungus. 
It is slightly bitter, and melts at 90° C. 

Agaricacese (a-gar-i-ka'se-e), to. pi. [Agdri- 
cus -h -acese.] The name now adopted for the 
family Agaricini. 

agaricaceous (a-gar-i-ka'shius), a. [Agariea- 
cese.] Having the characteristics of the fam- 
ily Agaricaeese, the agarics. 

Agaricales (a-gar-i-ka'lez), TO. pi. [NL., < 
Agaricus + -ales.] A large order of fungi in- 
cluding the greater 
part of the Uymeno- 
mycetes, as the fam- 
ilies Thelephoracese, 
Clavariaceee, Hyd- 
■nacesB,Polyporacese, 
and Aparicaceee. 

agaricic (ag-a-ris'- 

ik), a. [agajric + 

-ic.] Same as ag- 
aric 
agaricinic (a-gar-i- 

sin'ik),a. [agaricin 

+ -ic] Belated to 

agaricin. — Agail- 

cinlc add. Same as 

-kagaric acid. 

Aganun (ag'a- 
rum), TO. [NL. 
(Postels and Bu- 
precht, 1840), < Ma- 
lay agar-agar: see 
agar-agar!] A ge- 
nus of brown algsB 




Agarum Tumeri; expanded 
blade of a frond. 



age-fraternity 

{Phxophyceee) inhabiting the Arctic and colder 
waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The 
frond consists of a stipe attached by a branching hold- 
fast, and a broadly expanded blade which is perforated 
with numerous holes. Popularly called sea-colander. 

agasp (a-gasp'), adv. [/fi + gasp.] In a gasp- 
ing state or condition ; panting ; eager. Cole- 
ridge, Own Times, II. 395. N. E. D. 

Agassizocrinidae (ag-a-siz-6-krin'i-de), to. pi. 
lAgassizocrinus + -idse.] A family of fistu- 
late Crinmdea characterized by the elongate 
dorsal cup composed of thick solid plates, and 
by the absence of a column, it is believed that 
in early stages these forms were attached by a stem, but 
that they subsequently became tree-swimming. They 
have been found only in the Easkaskia limestone of the 
Lower Carboniferous formation in the United States. 

Agassizocrinus (ag-a-siz-6'kri'nus), n. [NL., 

< Agassis + Gr. Kpivov, lily.] The typical ge- 
nus of the family Agassizocrinidie. 

agast.i). or a. A simplified spelling of aghast. 

agate-*, n. 6. Naut., the jewel cup in the cen- . 
ter of the compass-card, which rests upon the 
upright pivot in the eeliter of the compass- 
bowl.— Eye-agate, a variety of agate having the layera 
in concentric circles.— Iceland agate, a fine variety of 
obsidian (volcanic glass) found in Iceland. 

agate-ware (ag'at- war), TO. 1. Pottery mottled 
and veined in imitation of agate. — 2, A variety 
of enameled iron or steel household ware. 

Agathanmas (ag-a-tha'mas), TO. [NL., irreg. 

< (?) Gr. ayav, much, + 0av/iaaia, wonder.] A 
genus of dinosaurian reptiles from the Laramie 
beds of the Bocky Mountains. 

agathin (ag'a-thin), TO. [Gr. aya66g, good, -I- 
-jto2.] a trade-name for the (2-methylphenylhy- 
drazone of salicylic aldehyde, CgHsCHsNN: 
CHCQH4OH. It crystallizes in white needles which 
melt at 71° C. It has been used as a remedy for rheu- 
matism. 

agathodsemon, to. 2. In astroh, the eleventh 
house of the heavens. 

agathology (ag - a - thol'o - ji), TO. [Gr. ayaddg, 
good, -t- -koyia, iMyeiv, speak.] The ethical 
doctrine of the summum bonum, or that which 
is good apart from any ulterior reason. 

aigatoid (ag'a-toid), a. Resembling an agate 
in structure or appearance. 

Agau (a'gou),TO. aftei'*'Ahyssinian'languages(Jb). 

agave, n. 2. [2. c] A plant of this genus. 
—Soap agave, a name applied to several species of 
Agave, the roots or other portions of which, called amoU 
by the Mexicans, are used in place of soap for washing. 
The principal Boai>-producing species is Agave Lecm- 
puiZ2a of northern Mexico. SeeoTno^e. 

agavose (a-ga'voz), ». [Agave+-ose.] A sugar, 
C12H22O1I) obtained from the stalks of Agave 
Americana. 

A. G. 0. In astron., an abbreviation of Argen- 
tine General Catalogue (of stars). 

Age class. See -kdass.— Age coating, the carbonaceous 
layer or deposit which gradually accumulates upon the 
interior surface of incandescent-lamp bulbs in consen 
quence of the disintegration of the filament —Age of the 
tide. Same as retard <if the tide (which see, under retard) . 
— Copper age, in prehistoric a/rchaol., the period during 
which copperwasusedfor the manufacture of implements. 
In some parts of the world the stone age was followed by a 
copper age, while in other regions the stone age was fol- 
lowed by the bronze age.— Flint age. Same as stone 
age. See archaologUsal ages, under o^e.- Heroic age, 
the age of heroes and demigods.— Lacustrine age, in 
arcJueol., the period of lake-dwellings ; especially, the 
period of lake-dwellings in central Europe. — Topo- 
graphic old age, the stage which is produced by long- 
continued subjection of a region to the processes of ero- 
sion In its present relation to base-level. 

age^^, «f. t. Z. To expose (mordanted or dyed 
cloth) to the air in order to fix the mordant or 
dye in insoluble form. 

age2 (a'ha), TO. [Mex. (?). Of. *axin.] The fat 
obtained from the Coccus axin of Mexico. Also 
called axin. 

&^ed,p.a. 4. In geol., approaching peneplana- 
tion : said of the topography of a greatly de- 
nuded region.— 5. Of a horse, arrived at the age 
when the ' pit ' or ' mark ' on the front teeth has 
been obliterated by the gradual wearing away 
of the crowii . This change usually occurs in the eighth 
or ninth year ; but under racing rules a ' running ' horse 
(as distinct from a trotting horse) is said to be aged when 
he IS more than seven years old. 

age-distribution (aj'dis-tri-bu"shgn), TO. In 
social statistics, the number of occurrences, 
conditions, or relations (as births, marriages, 
or deaths) in a given population in each year 
or in each five- or ten-year period of life : as, 
50 deaths annually in each 1,000 children under 
five years ; 10 deaths annually in each 1,000 
males 25 to 30 years of age. 

age-fraternity (aj'fra-t6r"ni-ti), to. a frater- 
nity of individuals of the same or similar age. 
This is a form of social organization found frequently 
among primitive tribes, boys, youths, young men, men 



age-fraternity 

in their prime, and old men being organized each in a 
society by themselves. Societies of women of similar 
character are rarer than those of men. 

On superficial examination various tribes appear to be 
organized according to identical principles, but fuller 
knowledge generally reveals differences among the simi- 
larities. From this it was concluded that such terms as 
gens, band, age-fraiernity and dance-society have no 
stable or exact meaning and hence little descriptive value, 
detailed information being the great desideratum. 

Science, May 31, 1901, p. 864. 

Agelacrinites (a/e-lak-ri-ni'tez), «. [NL., 
< Gr. dyeTiJi, herd, -I- Kplvov, lily, + -itea.'] A 
name introduced by Vanuxem in 1842 for a 
Devonian cys- 
tidian found in 
the Hamilton 
rooks of New 
York, but also 
represented by 
species in both 
Silurian and 
Carboniferous 
rocks : typical 
of the family 
Agelacrinitidse. 
Also improperly 
written Agela- 
crinus. 




Agelacrinites kamittonensis. 
A group of individuals attacliedto a shell. 

Agelacrinitidse (aj*e-lak-ri-nit'i-de), n.^il. 
[NL., < Agelacrimtes + -»<?«.] A family of 
extinct oystid echinoderms, discoid in form, 
sometimes with a short stem, but usually at- 
tached to other objects by the entire abaetinal 
surface, in typical species the ambulacral arms are 
long and curved and the spaces between are filled with 
irregular and often scaly plates. 

■ Agelacrinus (aj-e-lak'ri-nus), n. See *Agelac- 
rinitea. 

agelong (aj'long), a. \_age + lmg.'\ Long as 
an age ; that lasts or has lasted for an age ; 
unending: as, agelong strife. 

agency, n — commercial agency. See mercantUe 
fageney.— Mercantile agency, an institution or com- 
pany formed for the fiurpose of obtaining, by careful in- 
quiry and investigation, and supplying in confidence to 
subscribers for their own special use, accurate informa- 
tion regarding the character, personal responsibility, and 
commercial and financial standing of individuals, firms, 
and corporations engaged in mercantile, financial, or in- 
dustrial enterpiises, either throughout the country or, 
in the case of the larger associations, throughout the 
world. Full revised lists and reports giving the ' commer- 
cial rating' of each of these individuals, firms, and cor- 
porations are issued quarterly in book form, but special 
reports with regard to particular cases are made to sub- 
scribers on request. Also sometimes called commercial 
agency and credit bureau. 
agent, n, — Fixing agent, in textile-coloring, any sub- 
stance used to fix a mordant or render fast and perma- 
nent colors which would otherwise be more or less fugi- 
tive. — Insurance agent. See Atruurance.— Reducing 
agent, in chem., a substance capable of removing the 
electronegative constituent from a compound, setting free 
the electropositive constituent, as a metal from one of 
its oxids. 
agentialis (a-jen-ti-a'lis), a. [NL. : see agen- 
tial.'} In gram., noting the case which ex- 
presses the subject of a sentence and some- 
times the owner of an object. Also called 
sulyective. Barnum, Innuit Lang., p. 12. 
agentive (a-jen'tlv), a. [agent + -ive.] In 
gram., noting the case which expresses the sub- 
ject of the transitive verb in languages in which 
its form differs from that expressing the sub- 
ject of the intransitive verb. This case is 
found in many American languages, for in- 
stance, in Eskimo. Also called subjective. 
Amer. Anthropologist, Jan.-Mareh, 1903, p. 26. 
ager^ (a'j6r), n. [age, v. t. + -eyi.] One who 
or that which ages; specifically, a chamber in 
which mordanted or dyed cloth is submitted 
to the process of aging. A steain-ager is such 
a chamber to which both air and steam are 
admitted. 
agger, ».— Agger nasi, a projection at the anterior ex- 
tremity of the middle turbinate bone, being a vestige of 
the nasal turbinate bone in certain of the lower animals. 
agglomerant (a-glom'e-rant), ». [agglomer- 
(ate) + -ant.'] That which causes agglomera- 
tion; a material which may be added to a mix- 
ture in order to cause the particles of the 
latter, when in a fine state of division or in 
small lumps, to adhere together and form 
I larger lumps or agglomerations. This is necessary 
* in some systems of treating ores, and in making artificial 
briquets from pulverized fuel. Lime mixed with water 
to form a paste is a suitable agglomerant in the first case, 
and tar or pitch in the second. 

agglomerative, a. 2. In sodol., tending to 
combine small social groups into larger organ- 
izations. ,.,,...< 

agglutinability (a-glS'ti-na-bil'i-ti), n. [ag- 
glutinable {-UI-) + -ity.'\ Susceptibility to ag- 



21 

glutination.in any sense. Jour. Exper. Med., 
V. 361. 

agglutinable (a-glo'ti-na-bl), a. Capable of 
agglutination — Agglutinable substance, a sub- 
stance present in bacteria and red blood-corpuscles to 
the union with which, on the part of the agglutinins, the 
specifi.c agglutination is due. 

agglutinant, n. 2. In bacterial., same as *ag- 
ghitinating substance. 

agglutinate, v. t. 2. In bacteriol., to cause the 
coalescence or clumping of (bacteria or red 
blood-corpuscles). 

If the blood agglutinates a paratyphoid bacillus in 
high dilution, and fails to agglutinate the typhoid bacillus 
or agglutinates it only in very low dilutions. 

Med. Record, Feb. 14, 1903, p. 267. 

agglutinating, p. a.— Agglutinating substance, 
in bacterial., the substance which causes agglutination. 
Also called -kaggliMrvi/n (which see). 

agglutination, n. 3. In Wundt's psychology, 
the simplest type of apjjeroeptive connection 
of ideas: a connection in which one is still 
clearly conscious of the constituent ideas, 
while the total idea aroused by their Conjunc- 
tion is nevertheless unitary: for example, 
watch-tower, steamboat. — 4. In bacteriol., the 
clumping or coalescence of red blood-corpus- 
cles or bacteria brought about by the action 
of special agglutinating substances (aggluti- 
nins). 

Careful observation of this phenomenon has shown 
that^ in many cases, a state of coalescence of the cor- 
puscles to which the name 'agglutination' is applied, 
precedes that of solution ; and, further, that while these 
changes are often associated, yet one may occur in the 
absence of the other. Science, July 3, 1903, p. 4. 

Agglutination test, a test based upon the principle that 
specific agglutinins appear in the blood-serum of in- 
fected animals or patients which will cause the agglu- 
tination of the specific bacteria concerned in the infec- 
tion. In this manner it is sometimes possible not only 
to identify bacteria, but also to determine whether or 
not infection with a given organism exists. Diagnosis 
bjr such means is spoken of as serum diagnosis, and con- 
stitutes a most important method of recognizing certain 
infections. In typhoid fever especially the agglutination 
test, or' fFidaZ reaction, as it is also termed, is extensively 
utilized in the diagnosis of the disease. Generally speak- 
ing, the examination is carried out by^ mixing some 
bacilli of the kind under investigation with some of the 
diluted blood-serum, when a drop is observed under 
the microscope, in order to ascertain whether or not the 
bacilli, which at first are evenly scattered through the 
field, will gather in clumps, and, if previously motile, 
will lose their motility. See serwm irdiagnosis. 

agglutinative, a — Agglutinative reaction. Same 
as rkagglvtiTiatum, 4. 

agglutinator (a-glo'ti-na-tor), n. He who or 
that which agglutinates ; specifically, same as 
*agglutinin, in contradistinction to *aggluUna- 
ble substance. 

Thus, if ricin, a strong agglutinator, is permitted to 
act upon red corpuscles for periods under thirty minutes, 
then upon the addition of venom lysis ensues in about the 
average time and proceeds normally. 

Jour. Exper. Med., Mar. 17, 1902, p. 289. 

agglutinin (a-glo'ti-nin), n. lagglutin(ate) + 
■4,n'^.i An adaptation-product produced by 
immunization with the corresponmng cells (red 
blood-corpuscles or bacteria), which causes 
the clumping or coalescence of the cells used 
in immunization. The agglutinins are receptors of 
the second order (Ehrlich), being composed of a special 
zymophoric group and a baptophoric group, which lat- 
ter effects the union with the cell. The bacillary iiggluti- 
nins in their action upon motile bacteria cause arrest 
of motility. See also -kagglutinaiiim test.— HageUaX 
agglutinin, an agglutinin resulting on immunization 
with a motile bacillus and supposedly referable to the 
specific action of the flagellar substance. As the body 
of the organism gives rise to special somatic agglutinins, 
the two will coexist in the serum of an animal immunized 
with motile bacilli, while the latter only will be found 
if a nonmotile organism has been used. Jour, of Med, 
Seseareh, Oct., 1904, p. 313.— Somatic agglutinin, an 
agglutinin resulting on immunization, which in contra- 
distinction to the flagellar type is referable to the special 
immunizing effect of the bodies of the bacilli, and is thus 
obtained not only with motile but also with non-motile 
organisms. Jour, of Med. Research, Oct., 1904, p. 314. 

agglutinogen (a-gl6'ti-no-jen), n. A substance 
present in bacteria, immimization with which 
gives rise to the production of agglutinins. 
Jour, of Med. Research, Oct., 1904, p. 314. 

agglutinogenous (a-glo*ti-noj'e-nus), a. [Ir- 
reg. < agglutin(ation) + -genous, producing.] 
Producing agglutination or agglutinins. 

NicoUe and Trenel find that agglutinative and aggluti- 
nogenous functions are subject to the greatest variations. 
Jour. Ray. Micros. Soc, Feb., 1903, p. 78. 



aggur 

lecular complex of the agglutinins to which 
their agglutinating property supposedly is due. 

agglutinophoric (a-gl6"ti-D6-for'ik), a. Not- 
ing that molecular group of the agglutinins to 
which the agglutinating properties are due. 

aggradation (ag-ra-da'sbon), n. [aggrade + 
-ation.'} The act or process of aggrading, or 
the state of being aggraded; in geol., the act 
of aggrading, as in depositing detritus upon 
a valley floor, the slope of the depositing 
stream being maintained at an almost constant 
value — Aggradation plain, a plain formed by the 
accumulation of clastic material in arid districts under 
conditions unfavorable to distant transportation and 
where overloading of streams is habitual. . The alluvial 
fan and the flood-plain are initial stages. 

aggradational (ag-ra-da'shon-al), a. 1. Per- 
taining to or effected by means of aggradation. 
— 2. Effecting an upbuilding of sediments: 
contrasted with degradational agencies or those 
which remove material. 

aggrade (a-gi'ad'), «■ *• [L. ad, to, + gradus, 
step. Cf. degrade."] In geol., to grade up; fill 
up: the opposite of degrade or wear away. 




agglutinoid (a-gl6'tin-oid), n. [agglutin(ate) 
+ -oid.'] An agglutinin which has lost its 
agglntinophoric group, but retains the bapto- 
phoric group for the cell. Lancet, April 4, 
1903, p. 946. 

agglutinophore (a-gl8'ti-no-f6r), n. [agglu- 
Un(ate) + (Jr. -fopo^, < ptpeiv, bear.] A mo- 



Diagrammatic cross-section of an aggraded valley. 



A river aggrades its valley when, owing to an increase in 
the load of detritus or to a decrease of carrying power of 
its current (as a result of diminution in volume or of 
tilting of the land), some of its load has to be laid down 
along its course. 

aggraded (a-gra'ded), p. a. In geol., more or 
less filled vrith detritus by a stream: said of a 
valley, basin, or bay. 

aggregate, n. 4. In logic, a whole of aggre- 
gants which is universally predicable of every 
one of its aggregants and is not predicable of 
any individual of which none of its aggregants 
is predicable . So, likewise, a proposition which would 
be true under any circumstances whatsoever under 
which anyone of a collection of propositions would be true, 
but which would under no circumstances be true when 
none of the propositions of that collection weretrue, would 
be the aggregate of those propositions as its aggregants. 
— Social aggregate, any group or class of animate 
creatures, human beings or animals, dwelling together 
or working together and leading a social life. — Theory 
Of aggregates, in demography, the theory of the group- 
ing of population about centers of density ; in sodol., the 
theory of the combination of hordes into tribes, tribes 
into nations, and nations into federal empires ; in biol.^ 
the theory that units of structure were once independent 
organisms. 

aggregation, n. 6. In sodol., the phenom- 
enon of the physical concentration of popu- 
lation, of animals, and of plants. Giddings, 
Inductive Sociol., p. 40.- Aggregation theory, the 
theory that the passage of matter from an imperceptible 
to a perceptible condition is necessarily a process of 
aggregation. It was held by John Fiske.— Biological 
ag^egation, a term used by L. F. Ward to express his. 
belieftnatorganismswhich are morphologically separable 
into structural units, such as the Metazoa and metamer- 
ized animals, have arisen through the aggregation of 
units which were at one time independent. — Genetic 
aggregation, in sociol., a group of kinsmen who have 
lived together in one locality from their birth ; hence, also, 
a population perpetuated chiefly by its birth-rate rather 
than by immigration. Oiddings.—'LsiM of aggrega- 
tion, the universal tendency of particles and masses of 
matter to concentrate. See the extract. 

The great law of progress in the universe therefore is 
the law of aggregation, and evolution is due to the resis- 
tance which this law meets with from the opposite-law 
of dispersion. L. F. Ward, Dynamic Sociol., I. 249. 

Organic aggregation. Same as biological -kaggrega- 
tion.— Primary aggregation, the process by which the 
inorganic universe, as contracted with living beings and 
with society, has come to be what it is. L.F. Ward. — Sec- 
ondary aggregation, the process by which living 
beings, as contrasted with the inorganic universe and 
vrith society, have come to be what they are. L. F, 
Ward.— Tertiary aggregation, in socii)l., the aggre- 
gation of individuals into social groups or populations, a 
process which completes the sequence of integrations that 
constitutes one aspect of universal evolution. The aggre- 
gation of atoms in molecules and masses is called j»*imarj/ 
aggregation, that of molecules in living cells and organ- 
isms secondary aggregation. L. F. Ward. 

aggregative, a. 3. In sodol. : (a) Tending 
toward a center of density, as concentration 
of population. (&) Tending to combine small 
groups into large organizations, as hordes into 
tribes or small corporations into great corpora- 
tions and 'trusts.' 

Aggressive character. See *(!Aara(!«cr.— Aggressive 
coloring, coloring which serves to hide an animal from 
its prey.— Aggressiveresemblance. See*resernblance. 

aggri-beaas, ». pi. See aggry-beads. 

aggriev, v. A simpUfled spelling of aggrieve. 

aggur, n. See *agar^. 



aghastness 

aghastness (a-gast'nes), n. The state of being 
aghast or filled with amazement or horror : 
as, an expression of aghastness in the eyes. 
[Rare.] N. E. D. 

Agialid (aj-i-al'id), «. [NL. (Adansou, 1763), 
from an Egyptian name of the African species 
agihalid, nsed by Alpinus.] A genus of di- 
cotyledonous plants of the f amUy ZygophyUa- 
cese. 

agiasteriuni^ «. See *fiagiasterium. 

agil, a. A simplified spelling of agile. 

aging, n. 4. In the preparation of logwood 
for dyeing, the process of exposing the wood 
(usually in the form of chips) to the air, in 
order that the hematoxylin it contains may be 
oxidized or developed into hematein, the actual 
coloring agent. Also known as curing or ma- 
turing. — 5. In elect., the property, exhibited 
more or less by iron, of showing an increase of 
hysteresis loss when for a long time exposed to 
alternating magnetization, especially at a 
higher temperature. 

aging-macnine (a'jing-ma^shen''), n. In cal- 
ico-printing, a machine used in the process of 
aging or causing the mordant to decompose 
evenly on and in the fiber. 

aging-room (a'jing-rom), n. In calico-jyrinting, 
a room or chamber in which cloth is aged. 
The cloth is hong and eicposed for BereiiLl days to a 
temperature of about 80° F. and to a relative humidity 
of about 82 per cent., for the purpose of fixing the mor- 
dant evenly on and in the fiber. 

agitatriz (aj-i-ta'triks), «.; pi. agitatrixes 
(-fz) or a^itatrices (-tri-sez). [L. agitatrix, 
fein. of agitator, agitator.] A female agitator.- 
[Bare.] 

Aiglaonema (ag''la-o-ne'ma), n. [NL., < Gr. 
ay^adg, shining, -I- v^fia, thread.] A genus con- 
taining about fifteen species of the family 
Aroideae, two or three species of which are 
sometimes offered by plant-dealers. They are 
indoor subjects, in the manner of Arum, and 
are native to Asia and Africa. 

Aglaospora (ag-la-os'po-ra), n. [NL. (De No- 
taris, 1845), < Gif. a.yia6(j brilliant, -I- oTropa, 
spore.] A genus of pyrenomyeetous fungi 
having membranous beaked perithecia em- 
bedded in a valsoid stroma. The spores are brown 
and several-septate. A. pro/usa is the type. It occurs 
in Europe and America, and is said to cause the death 
of young twigs of the locust, Robinia Pseudacaeia. 

Aglaspis (a-glas'pis), n. 
[NL., < Gr. ayladQ, beauti- 
ful, -I- aairlc;, shield.] A 
genus of Cambrian arthro- 
pods described by Hall as 
a trilobite, but regarded by 
Clarke as a primitive mero- 
stome of the order Synxi- 
phositra. K "has a short trilobed 
ccphalothorax, 6 or 7 fiat abdomi- 
nal segments, and a long caudal 
spine or telson. It is the only rep- 
resentative of the family Agla- 
spidse. 

aglint (a-glinf), adv. [a3 
+ glint.'] In momentary 
glints or peeps ; glintingly. 

aglitter (a-glit'6r), adv. [aS 
+ glitter.] In a glitter; 
glittering. 

.£glossa, n. pi. 3. A group of MoUusca having 
no radula and no head: distinguished from 
Glossophora. The group includes only the 
Pelecypoda. Same as lApocephala. 
aglossi, n. Plural of *aglosstis. 

aglossia (a-glos'i-a), n. [NL., < Gr. ayhjaata, 
tonguelessness (used in fig. sense 'inelo- 
quence'), < ayXuaaoc, tongueless, < a- priv. -I- 
y/Mcaa, tongue.] Congenital defect marked 
bv absence of the tongue. 

aglossns (a-glos'us), n. ; pi. aglossi (-i). [NL., 
< Gr. ayAuaaoQ, tongueless: see *aglossia.'\ In 
teratol., a monster having no tongue. 

Agnatha, n. pi. 2. A class of fishes, or fish- 
Se vertebrates, characterized by the absence 
of jaws and shonlder-girdle. It contains the 
extinct ostracoderms and the existing lam- 
preys. 

agnathic (ag-nath'ik), a. Same as agnathous. 

agnathus (ag'na-thus), n. ; pi. agnathi (thi). 
[NL. : see agnaihous.] In teratol., a monster 
having no lower jaw. 

aendfication (ag*ni-fi-ka'shon), n. [L. agnus, 
lamb, + -Jicare, < facere, make.] The making 
or representing of persons as lambs or sheep. 
J. M^Neale, Liturgiol. [Rare.] ^V. E. D. 

agnosia (ag-no'si-a), n. [Gr. d- priv. + yDoaig, 
knowledge: see gnosis.] Same as a^najff. 




Aglasfiis Eatoni, 
Whitf. 
Upper CambriaQ ; 
Lodi, Wisconsin. 
(From Zittel's " Paleon- 
tology.") 



22 

agnosy (ag'no-si), «. [Gr. hyvaaia, ignorance 
(cf . ayvwcToq, unknown, unknowing, ignorant : 
see agnostic), < a- priv. -I- yviiais, knowing: see 
gnosis.] Ignorance; specifically, an ignorance 
common to all mankind. 

agnotozoic (ag-no-to-zo'ik), a. and n. [Gr. 
ayvuToc, unknown, + fu?, life.] I. a. Not 
known to contain fossils : applied to the early 
rocks and period of the earth in which definite 
evidence of organic life has not been found. 

n. n. The rocks and period not yet known 
to contain evidences of life : contrasted with 
eoeoic and paleozoic, and essentially equiva- 
lent, so far as the term has been applied, to 
the Huronian of Logan and the Algonhian of 
Walcott. Not in general use. 

agoge (a-go'je), n. [Gr. ayay^, a leading, 
course, mode, etc.] In anc. Greek music : («) 
Tempo or pace; rhythmical movement; (6) 
Melodic motion upward or downward by suc- 
cessive scale-steps : same as ductus in medieval 
music. The first use is the more proper. 

agogic (a-goj'ik), a. In music, pertaining to 
or emphasizing slight variations in rhythm for 
the sake of dynamic expression : as, agogic ac- 
cent. 

agogics (a-goj'iks), n. In musical theory, a 
term used by Hugo Riemann (from about 1884) 
for the general principle, in performance, that 
dynamic variations are, or should be, combined 
with slight variations in rhythmical regularity 
if the fuU expressiveness of a phrase is to be 
brought out. A^at is called tempo rubato 
(which see, under tempo) belongs to the field 
of agogics. 

agoho (a-go'ho), n. [Bisaya.] A name applied 
in the Philippines to the Polynesian ironwood, 
Casuarina equisetifolia, a strand tree with very 
hard, heavy wood of a reddish-brown color, 
much used by the Pacific islanders for spears. 
See swamp-oak, 2 (6), and *ironwood, 2. 

agoing (a-go'ing), adv. [cfi + going.] In mo- 
tion ; in'the act of going : used with set. 

agomphosis (a-gom-fd'sis), n. Same as agom- 
phiasis. 

agonal (ag'o-nal), a. [NL. *agonalis, < Gr. 
ay&v, a struggle: see agony.] Relating to or 
occurring during the agony or death-struggle. 
See the extract. 

The lower part of the ileum was of small calibre, a con- 
dition which, if not due solely to agonal contraction, 
might at least favor the production of diverticula in the 
upper part. Jour. Exper. Med., V. 344. 

Agoniada bark. See *bark^. 

agoniadin (a-go'ni-a-din), n. [agoniada + 
-»»2.] A gliicoside, CioHi ^Og, found in agoni- 
ada or agonia bark {Plumeria landfolia), which 
is used in Brazil as a remedy for. intermittent 
fevers. It is bitter, and crystallizes in needles 
which melt at 155° C. 

agoniatite (a-go'ni-a-tit), n. and a. I, n. A 
member of me genus Agoniatites. 

H. a. Containing or relating to Agoniatites. 
— Agoniatite limestone, a limestone stratum character- 
ized by an abundance of Agoniatites expansus, occurring 
in the Marcellns shales of Ifew York. 

Agoniatites (a-go^ni-arti'tez), n. [NL., < Gr. 
d-priv. -1- NL. GoniaUtes.] A genus of nauti- 
loid ammonoids or goniatites. They are of very 
primitive form, the septal sutures having no angles ex- 
cept on the ventral edge about the siphuncle. Agonia- 
tites is among the earliest forms of these cephalopods to 
appear. They are of Devonian age. 

agonism (ag'o-nizm), n. [Gr. ayomiaudc, < ayu- 
vi^eiv, contend: see agonize.] 1. Struggle or 
contest for a prize, especially at the ancient 
Grecian games. — 2. The prize itself. [Rare 
in both uses.] 

agonistic, a. II. ». The act of combating or 
struggling; combat; struggle. G. S. Ball, 
Adolescence, H. 251. 

agonizantj n. U, a. Being in the death-ag- 
ony; moribund. 

agonizedly (ag-o-ni'zed-li), adv. As one in 
agony; in toues of agonv or anguish. Thack- 
eray, _ Paris Sketch Book, p. 166. .V. E. D. 

agonizing (ag'o-ni-zing), p. a. [agonize + 
-ing^.] 1. That causes or produces agony or 
anguish ; characterized by extreme anguish 
or painful struggles: as, agonizing suspense; 
" agoniziog distress," Rushin, Fors Clavigera, 
i. 8. — 2. Indicative of or expressing agony or 
anguish: as, an agonizing cry. — 3. In the last 
agony; in the throes of death. See the ex- 
tract. 

An extraordinary Restorative and Cordial!, recovering 
frequently with it agonizing persons. 

Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), I. 249. N. E. D. 



agricolite 

Agonomalus (ag-o-nom'a-l"s), «. [NL., < Ag- 
onus + Gr. bim'Al;, even.] A genus of sea- 
poachers, of the family Agonidse, found in 
northern Japan. They are often dried in a dis- 
torted form and sold as dragon curiosities. 

^onopsis (ag-o-nop'sis), «. [NL., < Agonus 
+ d-ijiit, appearance.] A genus of sea-poachers 
of the family Agonidee. They are small sea- 
fishes found off the coast of southern Chile. 

Agonostoma (ag-o-nos'to-ma), «. See *Ago- 



Afonostominx (ag'o-nos-to-mi'ne), n. pi. 
[NL., < Agonostomus + -inx.] A subfamily of 
fresh-water mullets, typified by the genus Ago- 
nostomus. 

Agonostomus (ag-o-nos'to-mus), n. [NL., < 
(St. ayuvog, without angle, -I- ardfia, mouth.] A 

fenus of fresh-water mullets of the family 
fugilidse, found in the swift streams of the 
Bast and the West Indies. Also Agonostoma. 

Agonyclitse (ag-o-nik'li-te), n.pl. [NL., < 
IIGr. aycwKXlrai, '<. Gr. a- priv. + LGr. yomiO.i- 
veiv (ef . yovvk?UTelv), bend the knee, < y6vv, knee, 
-I- iMveiv, bend.] A sect who refused to kneel 
in prayer : condemned by a synod of Jerusalem 
A.D. 726. 

agoraphobe (ag'o-ra-fob), n. [A back-forma- 
tion tzom agoraphobia.] One who is subject 
to agoraphobia. 

AgOSia (a-go'si-a), K. [NL., coinerdname.] A 
genus of small minnows found in the brooks 
of the Rocky Mountain region from British 
Columbia to Arizona. 

agradolce(a'grad61'ehe),». [It., 'sour sweet'; 
agra, fern, of agro, < L. acer, sharp, sour ; dolce, 

< L. duleis, sweet.] A well-known Italian 
sauce used with venison, calf's head, etc. It 
contains sugar, chocolate, lemon-peel, cur- 
rants, etc., and vinegar. It is poured over the 
cooked meat and served hot. 

agraffe, n. 4. An appliance used in operations 
for harelip to keep the two surfaces of the 
wound in apposition. — 5. An iron fastening 
used to hold in place the cork of a bottle con- 
taining champagne or other effervescing wine 
during the final fermentation. 

Agrania (a-gra'ni-a), n.pl. [Gr. 'Aypavia, also 
'Aypiavia, a festival in Argos (Hesychius) ; 
prob. equiv. to 'Aypiimia, a festival of Diony- 
sus, prob. < aypcog, rustic, wild : see agriology.] 
A festival of Thebes in ancient Greece, it 
was celebrated in the night by women, a priest, and an 
attendant. It consisted in tearing in pieces a figure made 
out of or covered with ivy, and then, like the Tiiyiades 
on Faniassus, running over the mountain to look for Di- 
onysus. 

agrapb (ag'raf), n. [Gr. aypaxjiog, unwritten, 

< d- priv. -I- ypa<j>eiv, write.] An unwritten 
word ; a word or saying preserved by oral tra- 
dition. 

agraphia, n — Acoustic or anditory aerapbla, ina- 
bility to write from dictation. — Amnemoidc agraphia, 
loss of ability to write connected sentences. — Ataxic 
agraphia, inability to write resulting from imperfect 
muscular coordination. — Literal agraphia, loss of 
ability to write the letters of the alphabet. — Musical 
agraphia, loss of ability to write musical notation. — Op- 
tical agraphia loss of ability to write from copy, while 
the power to write from dictation may remain.— Vefbal 
agraphia, loss of ability to write words, although the 
individual letters may be formed perfect]}'. 

Agrauleum (ag-ra-le'um), n. [NL., < NGr. 
*'Aypav^u)v, < Gr. 'AypavXoc (see def.).] In Gr. 
antiq., a modem name for a shrine of Agraulos 
or Aglauros, daughter of Ceerops, on the north- 
em slope of the Acropolis at Athens. About 
60 meters west of the Ereehtheum a staircase 
leads down to it. 

Agraulos (a-gra'los), n. [Gr. aypav?^^, living 
in the fields, < ayp6;, field, -1- avi.?/, court, hall.] 
A genus of Cambrian trilobites having a large 
cephalon, small eyes, 16 thoracic segments, 
and very small pygidium. Properly Agraulus. 

Agr. B. An abbreviation of L. Agriculture 
Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Agriculture. 

agreement, n — Frankfort agreement, a set of rules 
governing craniometry adopted by the Anthropological 
Congress at Frankfort in 1882. 

agreg^ (a-gra-zha'), a. [F., pp. of agrdger, < L. 
aggregare, collect, assemble : see aggregate, v.] 
Added; supernumerary: as, protessov agr^gi. 

agrestian (a-gres'ti-an), a. and n. I. a. Be- 
longing to the country ; rural ; rustic : as, the 
agrestian population. 
II. «. A rustic; a countryman. 

agricolite (a-grik'o-lit), n. iProm Georg Agri- 
cola, a Saxon mineralogist, 1490-1555.] A sili- 
cate of bismuth, having the same composition 
as eulytite, but believed to crystallize in the 
monoclinic system. 



agricultural 

Agricultural botany. See AMoni/.— Agricultural 
college, an institution for educatiun in agi'icultural sci- 
ence and other brauclies ol knowledge useful to agricul- 
turists ; specifically, iu the United States, one of a class 
of such institutions organized and maintained under the 
provisions of the Morrill Act (see *aet), usually accom- 
panied by an agricultural experiment station.— Agricul- 
tural engineering. See rwal *engineerinii.—Agriaal- 
tural experiment station, an establishment for the in- 
vestigation, by scientifically conducted experiments, of 
quebtions directly affecting agricultural practice, relating 
to varieties of plants and breeds of animals, fertilizers, 
methods of culture, insect pests, diet of animals^ etc. 
There are now about 800 such stations in 50 dinerent 
countries. In the United States there is one or more in 
each State and Territory, mostly organized under the 
provisions of the Hatch Act (see *act), but partly sup- 
ported by individual Stated. The results of investigations 
are diffused by means of an extensive free literature. 

a^iculturer (ag-ri-kul'tur-fer), n. ' One engaged 
in farming operations ;"a husbandman. Cole- 
ridge, Own Times, IH. 751. [Rare.] N.E.D. 

AgriochoeridSB (ag"ri-o-ke'ri-de), n. pi. [NL., 
Agriochmrus + -idle.'] A family of extinct ar- 
tiodaotyl mammals, whose members are inter- 
mediate in character between the pig and the 
deer. The type genus, Agrioehcerus, from the White 
River Ollgocene, has somewhat claw-shaped hoofs, no 
upper incisors, an open urbit, and complex last premolars, 

Agriochoerus (ag"ri-o-ke'rus), n. [NL., < Gr. 
aypioq, wild, + ;foi/)Of,'a pig.] A genus of im- 
perfectly known ungulate mammals from the 
Tertiary of North America. 

Agriotypidse (ag'^ri - o - tip'i - de), n. pi. [NL.; 
< Agriotypiis + -idee.'] A family of hymenop- 
terous parasites of the superfamily Ichneumon- 
Oidea, it contains the single genus Agriotypus and the 
single species A. armatuSt whose larva is parasitic on 
trichopterous larvae. 

Agriotypus (ag-ri-ot'i-pus), n. [NL. (Walker, 
1832), < Gr. aypiog, wild, -I- Tvnog, type.] A re- 
markable genus of ichneumon old parasites typ- 
ical of the family Agriotypidse. Only a sin- 
gle species, A. armatus, inhabiting Europe, is 
known. It descends under the water to lay its eggs in 
caddis-fly larvse. Vi& lai'va lives inside the cases of the 
caddis larvae, and undergoes a hypermetamorphosis, 
transformiug to pupa in a cocoon attached to the wall of 
the case of the host. To the cocoon is attached a long 
string-like process, the function of which is unknown. 

Agr. M. An abbreviation of L. Agriculturse 
Magister, Master of Agriculture. 

agromania (ag-ro-ma'ni-a), ». [NL., < Gr. aypoQ, 
open country, + fiavla, madness.] A morbid 
impulse to wander or dwell away from human 
habitations. 

Agromyza (ag-ro-mi'zS), n. [NL. (Fallen, 
1810), < Gr. aypSf, field, -I- 'fiv^ew, suck.] A genus 
of acalyptrate flies, typical of the family Ag- 




Ag-rotnyza trifoUU Burgess. 

a, larva: *, pupariuin ; c, fly; d, antenna of fly. Much enlarged. 

(Riley, U. S. D. A.) 

romyzidse, of wide distribution and containing 
species which in the larval state damage the 
stems of grasses and small grains. A. trifoUi is 
a leaf-miner which affects the leaves of clover. 

Agromyzida (ag-ro-miz'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Agromyza + -idee.'] A family of acalyptrate 
Diptera eomprisiog a series of small dull-col- 
ored flies whose larvae burrow in the leaves and 
stems of living plants or (as in the genus Leu- 
copis) feed on plant-lice and scale-insects. 

agronomy, n. 2. Specifically, a group of agri- 
cultural subjects, particularly when set off as 
a department of instruction in agriculture. 
In this use it has not yet acquired a definite meaning, al- 
though it is generally held to be limited, properly, to farm 
crops and methods of cropping. In this signification it 
Includes all forage; hay, cereals, and other general farm 
crops, but not fruits and other strictly horticultural crops. 
With the department of agronomy are often associated 
the subjects of farm-machinery, rural engineering, and 
rural architecture. [Eecent.] 

Agronomy as here used is restricted to the theory and 
practice of the production of farm crops. 

T. F. Hunt, The Cereals in America, p. 2. 



23 

Agropyron (ag-ro-pi'ron), n. [NL., < Gr. 
ayp6(, a field, -I- i^vp6g, wheat.] A genus 
of about 30 annual and perennial species of 
grasses in Europe and America. A. repens is a very 
common species in America, and is often a troublesome 
weed. It is known under many names, as couch-grass, 
witch-grass, quitch-grass, quack-grass, etc. It was in- 
troduced from Europe. Under certain conditions, it 
has merit as a forage-plant. 

agrotechny (ag'ro-tek-ni), n. [Gr. aypSs, 
field, -I- rexvv, art.] That branch of agricul- 
tural science which relates to the conversion 
of raw farm-products into manufactured com- 
modities as far as it is done on the farm or in 
immediate connection with it. This includes dai- 
rying, the drying and canning of fruits, and sugar-mak- 

, ing, but not milling nor the spinning and weaving of 
cotton, etc. 

.d^ofecAny or agricultural technology (including dairy- 
ing, sugar-making, etc.). Science, Nov. 27, 1903, p. 684. 

a grotesche (a gro-tes'ke). [It.] With g:ro- 
tesques : said of a style of decoration consist- 
ing of human figures with foliated limbs, in 
combination with animals, painted usually in 
yellow on darker grounds on majolica ware. 

agrypnode (a-grip'nod), a. [Gr. aypvKv&Stjg, 
< aypvwvog, seeking sleep, sleepless, < aypelv, 
seek, hunt, + inrvog, sleep.] That prevents 
sleep : as, agrypnode fever. Syd. Soc. Lex. 

aguacate (a-gwa-ka'ta), n. [Nahuatl, ahuacatl : 
the name became in colonial Sp. perverted 
to *avocate, avocato, avocado, aoogado, etc., 
and so to oHigra<o»'(-pear).] The alligator-pear. 
The tree yields a reddish-brown, soft, and 
very brittle wood. Also known as the hutter- 
pear aid vegetable marrow. 

aguacatillo (a"gwa-ka-tel'y6), n. [Sp., dim. 
of aguacate, the alligator-pear.] A name in 
Porto Rico of two trees, Meliosma obtusifolia 
and Jf. Herbertii, belonging to the family Sa- 
biaoese. They yield a soft white wood. Also 
called cacao hobo. 

aguaji (a-gwa'hi), n. [Cuban Sp., from a na- 
tive name.] A Cuban name for species of large 
bass-like fishes or groupers, especially for 
Mycteroperca bonaci. 

aguavina (a-gwa-ve'na), n. [Amer. Sp., of un- 
ascertained origin.] A serranoid fish, Diplec- 
trum fasciculare, found in tropical American 
waters. 

aguayo (a-gwa'yo), n. [AymarA of Bolivia.] 
A many-colored wrap or rectangular piece of 
woolen cloth used by the Indian women of Bo- 
livia for carrying their children on the back. 
Compare *atado. 

ague, « — Brass-founders' ague, symptoms of zinc- 
poisoning in brass-workers who are exposed to the fumes 
of this metal.— Irish ague, typhus fever.— Shaking 
ague, the worst form of the malarial paroxysm, begin- 
ning with a pronounced chill. 

aguilarite (a-gil'a-iit), ». [From Aguilar, a 
personal name.] A rare sulphoselenide of 
silver found at Guanajuato, Mexico. 

aguil-bociuil (a"gel-b6'kel), n. [Native name.] 
The Chilean name for the berries of Lardiza- 
bala biternata, a climbing plant belonging to 
the family Lardizabalacese, with enormously 
long stems, which, after the application of heat, 
are used in place of ropes. 

aguja (a-go'ha), n. [Sp., a needle: see ai- 
gmlle.] The Cuban name of the needle-fishes 
or garfishes of the genus Tylosurus, as T. ma- 
rimis and T. notatus. in Europe the name is also 
applied to species of Belone, as B. belone and B. acus. — 
Agvia, blanca, the lesser or common spear-fish, Tetrav- 
turus imperator. [Cuban.] — AgUja de casta, the great 
spear-fish, Tetrapturiis wmplvs, ararefish weighing some- 
times 800 pounds. [Cuban.] 

agujon (a-go-hon'), »• [Sp., < aguja, a needle.] 
The Cuban name of the great garfishes or 
houndfishes, as Tylosurus raphidoma and other 
species of large size. 

agulha (a-gol'ya), k. [Cuban.] A fish be- 
longing to the family Charadnidse found in 
fresh waters of South America. 

agurin (a'gu-rin), «. A trade-name for the 
mixture of sodium acetate and the sodium salt 
of theobromine. It is used as a febrifuge. 

agush (a-gush'), adv. [aS -I- gv^h.] In a gush- 
ing state ; gushing. N. Hawthorne, Fr. and 
Ital. Note-books, it. 149. N. E. D. 

Agynian(a-jin'i-an), n. [ML.* Agym,*Agynii,m 
DuCange Agynnij'pl. ;<.Gr. aywog, ayvvaiogj-with- 
out awife, < d- priv. + yw^, woman, wife.] A 
member of a sect of the 7th century who con- 
demned all intercourse with women. 

ahakea (a-ha-ka'a), n. [Hawaiian.] A name 
in Hawaii of several species of rubiaeeous trees 
belonging to the genus Bobea. They yield a yel- 
lowish wood used by the natives for the rims of canoes, 
and for making poi-boards, canoe-paddles, etc. 



aigues mortes 

ahed, prep. phr. as adv. or a. A simplified 
spelling of ahead. 

ahey (a-ha'), interj. [a-9 + hey'^.] An excla- 
mation used to attract attention or to express 
mild surprise ; O ! Oho ! hey ! Smollett, Pere- 
grine Pickle, II. Ixvi. 

angao (ach-ga-o'), n. [Given as the pron. in 
Guam ;= Bisaya abgao, Tagalog alagao : see 
*alagao.] The name in Guam of Premna Gaudi- 
chaudii, a tree with bitter leaves and elder- 
like flowers, which, like those of allied species 
in the Philippines, the East Indies, and Mada- 
gascar, are used medicinally by the natives. 
The wood, though often crooked and knotty, is very 
durable and is proof against the attacks of termites, so 
that it is used for posts of houses and for bridges. See 
headache-tree. 

ahia (a-he'a), n. [Tahitian.] In Tahiti, a 
tree, Caryophyllus Malaccensis, occurring on 
all the larger island groups of Polynesia and 
in the Malay Archipelago. It is everywhere 
valued for its fine crimson fruit. 

abinaMna (a-he"na-he'na), n. [Hawaiian, < 
a -V hima + hina, gray, hoary.] In Hawaii, a 
tall, robust composite plant, Argyroxiphium 
Sandwicense, with rose-purple flowers : named 
from the lustrous silver-gray down which 
thickly covers the leaves. Also called silver- 
sword. 

ahmedi (a-me-de'), ». [E. Ind.] A gold coin 
of Mysore, equal to 16 rupees. 

Abnfeltia (an-fel'ti-a), n. [NL. (Pries, 1835), 
named in honor oi N. O. Ahnfeli of Lund, 
Sweden.] A small genus of red algse (Eho- 
dophycese), widely distributed in the colder 
waters of both hemispheres : characterized by 
a stiff, wiry frond. 

ahuehuetl (a-ho-a-hwa'tl), n. [Also ahushuete ; 
Nahuatl (central Mexico).] The swamp-cy- 
press of Mexico, a tree frequently of very large 
size. The ahuehuetls in the former viceregal park of 
Ghapultepec, near the city of Mexico, are noted for their 
size _; but the most famous of all is the big tree at Santa 
Maria del Tule, in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. The cir- 
cumference of this tree exceeds 130 feet. 

alluhu(a-ho'h6), n. [Hawaiian.] A name in 
Hawaii of Cracca purpurea, a leguminous plant 
used by the natives for stupefying fish. 
It possesses a narcotic property affecting the action of the 
heart. The plant is spread over a great part of tropical 
Asia and Australia. Also called au'hola. 

ahum (a-hum'), adv. [a^ ■\- hum.] In a hum ; 
humming: as, the air is all ahum with the 
sound of bees. 

aliunt(a-hunt'),ad». [a^ -i- hunt.] On the hunt; 
hunting. Browning, Aristoph. Apol., p. 272. 

ahypnia (a-hip'ni-a), ». [NL., erroneously 
formed from Gr. a- priv. -I- vmiog, sleep. The 
properform would be *aMjpw'a, <NGr. *avmvia, 
< MGr. awTcvoq, sleepless, < Gr. dv-priv. + virvo;, 
sleep.] Same as insomnia. 

Aianteia (a-yan-te'ya), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. Amv- 
Tua, neut. pi. of Alavreiog, adj., < Aiaf (Alavr-), 
Ajax.] In Gr. antiq., a festival in honor of 
Ajax. Three of them were commonly cele- 
brated, one at Opus in Locris in honor of 
Ajax, son of Oileus ; one at Salamis in honor of 
Ajax, son of Teiamon ; and one at Athens in 
honor of Ajax, son of Teiamon. In these 
festivals a bed was prepared on which was 
placed an effigy of the hero, as in the Lecti- 
sternium at Rome. 

aianthous(a-i-an'thus), a. [Gr. aei (.^olic at), 
always, + avBog, flower.] Ever-blooming, that 
is, blossoming through a large part of the sea- 
son. F. E. Clements. 

aichmophobia (ak-mo-fo'bi-a), «. [NL.,more 
reg. seehmo-, < Gr. alxii'fi, point of a spear, etc., 
-I- -0oj3(a, <(pol3eiv, fear.] 1. A morbid fear of 
touching shai^-pointed objects, such as needles 
and pins. — 2. Amorbid fear of being touched 
by the finger or any slender object. 
aid^, n. 6. In the navy, an officer on the staff 
of an admiral whose duties are similar to 
those of an aide-de-camp to a general. — 
First aid, immediate attention given to the injured, 
with the object of arresting hemorrhage, relieving pain, 
and preserving life until the services of a physician can 
be obtained. 

aidant, a. II. n. A helper or aid ; an adjuvant 
or assistant. Hir B. Phillimore, Law Eeps. 
Aiden, Aidenn (a'den), n. A fanciful form of 
Eden. Poe, Raven. 
A. I. G. An abbreviation of Adjutant Inspector- 
General. 

aigialosaur, n. See *segialosaur. 
aigues mortes (ag m6rt). [F., dead wafers.] 
Stagnant waters left in an abandoned river- 
channel, as when an ox-bow is cut off from a 
river. Geihie. 



ailantery 

ailantery (a-lan't6r-i), «.; pi. ailanteries (-iz). 
[aiteniMs + -en/.] A grove of ailantus-trees. 
sdlantine, a. n. /,. Silk from the silkworm 
which feeds on the ailantus-tree. 
ailantus-worm (a-lan'tus-werm'), n. The 
larva of the bomtycid motb , Philosamia eynthia 
Drury, which feeds on the foliage of the ailantus. 
It is a native of Japan and Java, where its silk is utilized 
to some extent. It has been introduced for sericicul- 
tural purposes into Europe and the United States with- 
out practical result, and now occurs coranionly in the 
wild state in the coast cities of the United States. 
aile, n. A simplified spelling of aisle. 

aileron, n. 2. In 
arch., that piece of 
the end wall, as of 
nave or transept, 
which covers the 
end of the aisle- 
roof. It resembles 
a wing of the main 
or central struc- 
ture. 

ailurophobia (a- 
lu-ro-fo'bi-a), n. 
Same as *dluro- 
phobia. 

aim, n.— Point of 
aim, in archery, the 
point at which aim 
should be taken in 
order to hit the target : 
it varies with the dis- 
tance, and may be 
above or below the 
target. 

aimak (i'mak), n. 
[Mongol.] A group 
of families, proba- 
bly originally re- 
lated by blood, 
forming the prin- 
cipal poUtieal unit 
among the Mon- 
gols. Each aimak 
is governed by its 
own chieftain, 
aimara (i-ma-ra'), M. [Topi ainiard.'\ A Bra- 
zilian name of Macrodon malabaricus, a river 
fish of the family Erythrinidse. 
Aim^s nephoscope. See *nephoscope. 
aimworthiness (am'w6r-thi-nes), n. Excel- 
lence of aim. Blaekmore, Loma Doone, liv. 
■N. E. D. 

ain^ (in), n. [At. 'ai«, the letter ain, also an 
eye, a fountain, essence, = Heb. 'ayin, the 
letter, also an eye.] 1. The eighteenth letter 
of the Arabic alphabet, having a vibratory 
palatal sound without any equivalent in Eng- 
lish. — 2. A spring; a fountain. See the ex- 
tract. 

Most of the . . . artesian wells [in the oases of the 
Libyan desertt kuown locally as " ains" are ancient. 

Oeog. Jour. (&. G. 8.), XVI. 655. 

ainalite (a'nal-it), n. A variety of cassiterite 
containing afeout 9 per cent, of tantalum pen- 
toxid. 

Ainu (i'no), n. See Aino. 

aipim (a-i-pem'), n. [Also aypim, aypi. A 
(former) native name (Tupi?).] The name in 
Brazil of the sweet cassava. See cassava, 1, 
Manihot, and manioc. 




24 

ait^,n. 1. The air constituting the earth's atmosphere, 
in addition to the principal gases, nitrogen and oxygen, 
and the other gaseous substances long known to be 
present, contains in admixture five gases distinguished 
by their chemical inertness, viz.: helium, neon, argon, 
krypton, and xenon. All of these appear to be elemen- 
tary substances. Argon occura to the extent of nearly 1 
per cent, by volume or IJ per cent, by weight, the others 
in far smaller proportion. Free hydrogen, as well as 
methane and perhaps other hydrocarbons, is also prob- 
ably present. Within recent years apparatus has been 
constructed for the liquefaction of air on a large scale by 
compressmg it by means of powerful pumps, cooling it 
in the compressed state, and allowing it to expand again. 
The only commercial use which has been found for 
liquid air is as a source of oxygen gas in a fairly pure 
state, in demand mainly for medicinal purposes.— Com- 
plemental air. Same as complementary -kair.— Com- 
plementary air, the air which can be drawn into the 
lungs by an effort after the ordinary inspiration. is com- 
pleted.— Emp3Teal air (Scheele) and vital alr(Con- 
dorcet), names given to oxygen soon after it became 
known in the separate state. — Hampson's liauid-alr 
apparatus, an apparatus designed by W. Sampson 
for the liquefaction of air. It consists of a purifier (A) 
filled with trays spread with moist slaked lime, and a 
double-cylinder compression-pump (B and D) worked by 
a 5-horse- power electric motor, by which the air is com- 
pressed in B to 16 atmospheres, and after being cooled 
in the water-jacketed coil is again compressed to 160- 
180 atmospheres in D. Again cooled in the coil £, the air 
passes to Q, where water used for lubricating the pistons 
separates. The vessel H is filled with caustic potash, 
which removes the last traces of water and carbon dioxid. 
The liquefaction takes place in the next apparatus, known 
as the Hqvefier. It has either two or four copper coils 
wound coaxially about a spindle and joined at their lower 
ends to a vertical jet. The coils fill the whole space KK. 



Aileron, from facade of Chuith of 
Santa Maria in Via, Rome, 




Hampson's Liquid-air Apparatus. 
(From Travers's "Exper. Study of Gases.") 



The jet L can be closed by means of a rod which screws 
down on the top of it and which can be adjusted to form 
an annular opening by the milled screw-head M. The 
coils are inclosed by a cylinder of insulating material, 
except the lower part and the valve, which are contained 
in a vacuum vessel, N. The liquid air is run off through 
the tap 0. The air which escapes liquefaction passes 
upward over the coils and through P and B to A. The 
actual quantity of the air which is liquefied is 5 per cent, 
of the quantity which passes through the apparatus. The 
yield in an apparatus of this size is 1-1.5 liters of liquid 
air an hour. In a newer form of liquefier the liquid air 
collects in a metal reservoir placed within the insulation, 
its quantity being indicated by a glycerol-gage. — Liquid 
air. See liquefaction of gases, under liquefactimi. — 
Mephitlc air, a name early in use to signify an irrespira- 
ble gas or mixture of gases. It applied chiefly to carbon 
dioxid as in the choke-damp of coal-mines, hut was also 
used for the mixture of this gas with nitrogen in air in 
which a candle had ceased to bum or an animal to 
breathe. — Supplemental air. Same as residual air 
(which see, under airl). 
air-bag, n. 2. The presser of a pneumatic 
molding-machine, it consists of bags inflated with 



air-brake 

air, by which an elastic and equal pressure is imparted 
to the sand. Lockwood, Diet. Mech. Eng. Terms. Air- 
bags are also used in cases where a uniformly distributed 
pressure is desired, as in blue-printing frames. 
air-barometer (ar*ba-rom'e-t6r), n. An ap- 
paratus devised bj; F. H. King to detennine 
small oscillations in the level of well-water 
depending on small oscUlations of atmospheric 

Sressure. it consists of a large vesselfnll of air buried 
eep ill the soil in order to keep its temperature con- 
stant ; some mercury rests at the bottom of the vessel, 
and into this dips a tube extending vertically above the 
surface of the ground. The changes of air-pressure force 
the level of the mercury in the tube to change corre- 
■ipondingly, and these changes are recorded on a revolv- 
ing drum. 

air-beat (ar'bet), n. In acoustics, an individual 
pulse of air such as may be felt mechanically 
where the waves from a vibrating body are of 
very low frequency. For frequencies within 
the auditory range the air-beats cannot be 
separately (distinguished, but blend into a tone. 

air-bell (ar'bel), n. 1. In Auronectse, a large 
roundish gas-secreting organ, probably a mod- 
ified swimming-bell; an aurophore. — 2. A 
small bubble which appears on a photographic 
plate, sensitized paper, or film. 

air-belt (ar'belt), n. An annular space around 
the twyer zone of a cupola. The au- passes from 
this space into the twyers instead of going directly from 
the blast-pipe. 

air-billow (Sr'bil-o), n. An air-wave which is 
long and gentle; specifically, a wave produced 
at the boundary surface between two horizon- 
tal layers of air having different velocities and 
directions: analogous to the waves on the sur- 
face of water. 

air-bladder, n. 3. See *air-float. — 4. In entom., 
one of the numerous bladder-like endings of 
smaller trachese in the bodies of many insects, 
which, filled with air, greatly reduce the spe- 
cific ^avity of the insect. 

air-bound (ar'bound), a. Bound or stopped up 
so that the passage of air is prevented: in 
plumbing, said of a water- or drain-pipe so ob- 
structed. 

air-brake, n — Automatic alr-t>rake,aform of air- 
brake which automatically applies the brsJce-shoes to the 
wheels with maximum pressure on each car in a train, 
without the aid or knowledge of the engineer o^ train- 
crew, whenever, from any cause, a rupture occurs in the 
brake-pipe which runs throughout the length of the train 
— as, for example, when the train brealis in two. Com- 
pressed air is supplied from large main reservoirs on the 
locomotive, through the brake-pipe, to smaller auxiliary 
reservoirs on each car, and a 'triple valve' forms the 
connection between the brake-pipe, auxiliaiy reservoir, 
and brake-cylinder. Any fall in pressure in the brake- 
pipe causes the triple valve to connect the brake-cylinder 
with the auxiliary reservoir and to apply the brakes. 
When the brake-pipe pressure is reinstated, the triple 
valve connects the brake-cylinder with the atmosphere 
and the auxiliary reservoir with the brake-pijje. The 
automatic brake was invented by George Westinghouse 
in 1872.— Quick-action automatic air-brake, an un- 
proved form of air-brake by which the time required to 
apply the brakes in au emergency onatrain of fifty freight- 
cars was reduced one half. The improvement con- 
sisted in enlarging the brake-pipe and changing the triple 
valve {see*valveyby enlarging the ports and passage&and 
also by adding a secondary valve portion by which, in 
emergency application, a part of the brake-pipe pressure 
is vented into the brake-cylinder, thereby increasing the 
brake-cylinder pressure and hastening the fall of brake- 
pipe pressure, thus causing the successive application 
upon each car throughout i^e train to occur much more 
rapidly. In ordinary service applications the operation 
of the quick-action automatic air-brake does not differ 




a ' 




Quick-action Automatic Air-brake. 



/, driver 

coupling, £, Car Equipment 

aiy reservoir; J*, tiain-pipe; r, hose 



■, hose-conpliog-. The tender equipment (omitted) is similar to the car equipment. 



air-brake 

froiu that of the plain automatic above mentioned. This 
Improved form was Invented by George Westinghouse in 
1887.— Straight-air brake, the original form of air- 
brake, in which the brake-pipe connects the brake-cylin- 
der on each car to a valve on the locomotive, by means 
of which the engineer can allow air-pressure to flow from 
the large reservoirs on the locomotive directly to each 
brake-cylinder to apply the brakes, or he can connect the 
brake-pipe with the atmosphere to release the brakes. 
In this system the brake-pipe is under pressure only dur- 
ing an application of the brakes. This form of brake was 
first patented in England early in the nineteenth century, 
and was first applied to railway service in America by 
George Westinghouse in 1869. 

air-cataract (ar'kat^a-rakt), n. A device to 
cheek the vibrations or oscillations of a body, 
and also to cushion or soften the blow of a 
body brought suddenly to rest, it consists of an 
air-cylihder having a moving piston or disk attached to 
the body' whose motion is to be checked or damped. The 
confined air, being allowed to escape only through small 
openings in the end of the cylinder or through the piston 
or dislc, checlcs the vibration or the motion of the piston 
and the body to wliich it is attached. 

air-chamber, «. 4. A septal chamber in the 
nautilus and other chambered cephalopods 
like the ammonites, goniatites, and orthooera- 
tites. 'iTie name was commonly thus employed in the 
belief that these spaces, successively abandoned by the 
animal as the forward growth of the shell continues, 
were filled with air which facilitated the flotation of the 
shell when the animal chose to rise to the surface of the 
sea. It is now regarded as doubtful if gases ever enter 
these chambers during life. Verrill has pointed out that 
water has access to the elastic siphuncular tube, "but 
living, as the animal does, under pressure at considerable 
depths, the fluid in the chambers is saturated with the 
gases in solution. When the Nautilui is rapidly bronght 
to tlie surface, some of the gas is liberated in consequence 
of diminished pressure and must occupy part of the space 
within the chambers by forcing out some of the fluid. 
Hence the shell will float until the free gases within ttie 
chambers are absorbed or otherwise eliminated." Also 
termed camera and locvlus, 

5. In hot. : (a) One of the mostly prismatic 
interoellalar spaces occurring in aquatic 
plants. (6) The intercellular area beneath a 
stoma. 
air-channel (ar'chan'''el), n. 1. A channel 
for the passage of air. — 2. pi. Channels un- 
derneath the hearths or in the brickwork of the 
walls and fire-bridges of reverberatory fur- 
naces, designed to protect the foundations from 
the intense heat of the furnace as well as to 
preheat the air entering the furnace. 
air-compartment (ar'kom-part'''ment), n. An 
air-tight subdivision of "a shaft or other mine 
passage for the ventilating current. 

air-compressor, n. 3. A combined steam- 
engine and air-compressing cylinder, or a com- 
pressing-oylinder operated by a motor or by 
belting. A typical form has 4 horizontal cylinders ar- 
ranged in tandem pairs. One. pair is composed of the 
high-pressure cylinder of the engine and the first air- 
compressing cylinder; the other pair consists of the 
larger, low-pressure steam-cylinder and a second and 
larger cylinder which recompresses the air already com- 
pressed in the first cylinder. Each pair has one piston- 
rod which unites the pistons in each cylinder and extends 
beyond the steam-cylinder through a connecting-rod to a 
fly-wheel, the two rods thns being joined and moving to- 
gether through the fly-wheel. Bach air-cylinder is wa- 
ter-jacketed to keep it cool and to absorb and carry away 
the heat of compression. The air compressed In the first 
cylinder passes to the second cylinder through a group 
of pipes inclosed in a large pipe which carries a stream 
of cold water that absorbs more of the heat of compres- 
sion from the air, and is again compressed. From the 
second cylinder the compressed air may pass through a 
second cooler or be delivered direct to the air-receiver 
for storage and cooling, ready for use in rock-drills or 
other air-motors. Other types of air-compressors consist 
of single or compound vertical engines or of single-acting 
air-compressing cylinders operated by a crank from a 
belt-driven fiy-wheel. 

air-condenser (ar'kon-den''s6r), re. 1. An elec- 
tric condenser made by .having two thin metal 
plates separated by a layer of air, one plate 
being connected to a positive pole and the 
other to a negative pole from the same circuit. 
The action of such a condenser is exactly the same as 
that of a Leyden jar ; when there is sufllclent potential 
to overcome the resistance, the condenser discharges. 
2. A condenser for steam in which air is used 
for cooling the condensing surface instead of 
water : used on some motor-oars. 

air-cooled (ar'kSld), p. a. Cooled by a current 
of air; having its heat carried oS by passing 
cool air over its surface. 

air-cube (ar'lmb), n. The amount of air in a 
closed space available for respiratory purposes 
by each person occupying it. It is expressed 
by the cubic contents of the space divided by 
the number of persons. 

air-cure (ar'kiir), n. Same as aeroiherapeutics. 

air-cushion, n., 4. specifically, a volume of air im- 
prisoned behind a movable piston in a chamber which it 
fits The air, by its compression, gradually arrests the 




25 

motion of the piston. Used as a safety appliance at the 
foot of elevator-shafts to catch and stop the fall of the 
page in case of the brealdng of the hoisting-rope or other 
accident. 

air-cylinder, n. 2. Any cylinder in which air 

is used, as in an engine run by compressed 

air instead of by steam. 
air-door (ar'dor), n. A door for the regulation 

of currents of air through the workings of a 

mine. Coal and Metal Miners' PocTcet-book. 
air-drain, ». 3. A pipe or flue built into a 

fireplace to insure an ample supply of air. 
air-duct, n. 2. In building, same as *air- 

drainj 3. — 3. In the heating and ventilation of 

buildings, a large pipe, often built of wood or 

thin metal, used to transmit air, either cold or 

hot. 
air-embolism (ar'em"bo-lizm), n. Air-bubbles 

in a blood-vessel, causing obstruction of the 

flow of blood. 
air-extractor (ar ' eks - 

trak"tor),M. A device for 

separating air from a 

liquid, 
air-float (ar'flot), ». A 

bladder formed in the 

fronds of certain Fhsso- 

phyoeae, or brown algae 

XFucus,Ascophyllum,, Sar- 

gassvm, etc.), which 

serves to float the plant 

in the water and possi- 
bly assists fertilization. 

Also air-bladder and air- 
vesicle. 
air-funnel, n. 3. In eool., 

the lower, gas-secreting 

portion of the pneumato- 

cyst of physophorous si- 

phonophores. 
air-gap (ar'gap), n. In 

elect., the opening or space 

between the poles of a 

magnet or between the 

armatures andpole-pieces 

of a dynamo or motor; 

that portion of a magnetic 

circuit which contains 

no iron ; the space between the terminals 

of an electrostatic machine, induction-coil, or 

discharger. 

air-gas, n — Harcourt air-gas pentaae standard, a 
milture of 3 cubic feet of air andScubic inches of liquid 
pentane, a product of American petroleum distilling at a 
temperature below 50° C. and having a specific gravity 
between .6298 and .63, producing 4.05 cubic feet of stan- 
dard air-gas. This gas is burned at a burner with an 
orifice of | inch to produce a flame 2\ inches high, with 
a consumption of gas of .48-.52 cubic feet an hour. The 
light of this flame is equal to that of a British standard 
candle. First suggested by A. G. Vernon-Haroourt in 1877. 

air-hoist, n.- cylinder 
air-hoist, an air-hoist em- 
ploying a long cylinder 
fitted with a piston and 
piston-rod, the weight to 
be lifted being suspended 
from the lower end of the 
latter. The compressed air 
is delivered through hose 
to the lower end of the 
cylinder, forcing the piston 
upward and lifting the 
weight. To lower the load 
the air is released and the 
piston allowed to fall 
slowly. The load can be 
held at any point of the 
hoist and sadety appliances 
prevent the too sudden 
rise or fall of the piston 
through loss of load or loss 
of air-pressure. Cylinder- 
hoists are hung by a hook 
in fixed positions or at- 
tached to a trolley travel- 
ing on an overhead track, 
to the jib of a crane, or to 
a traveling-crane. Tele- 
scopic cylinders are used 
where head-room is lim- 
ited.— Motor aix-holst, 
a chain-hoist operated by 
an air-motor. It may be 
suspended in a fixed posi- 
tion or from a trolley trav- 
eling on an overhead track 
or on a traveling-crane. 

air-insulated (ar'in'''gu-la-ted), p. a. In elect. 
or heat, insulated by means of an intervening 
layer of air. 

air-jack (ar'jak), n. A lifting-jack operated 
by compressed air. it consists of an upright cylinder 
with a piston, the piston-rod acting as the lifting-arm of 
the jack. In one form the cylinder is telescopic. It is 



air-pump 




Fucvs vesiculasus. 

shbwin^ air-floats. 

{From Murray's " Introd. 

... to Seaweeds." 



<- 4-.' ft 
I ■ -I "■ 

' ■ ■ . ' 




Motor Air-hoist. 
A, trolley on flange of I -beam ; 
B, chain controlling trolley: C 
hoisting -block and chain; /?. 
motorfor hoist; Et chain control- 
ling D. 



Pair of Air-jacks. 

A, cylinder; B^ piston-rod used to lift the car; C, wheels, and D, 

handle, for moving the air-jack; E, air-hose from compressor. 

usually fitted with wheels for transportation, and is used 
in railroad car-shops. 

air-jacket, «. 2. A space surrounding a steam- 
cylinder or other vessel within which is circu- 
lated hot air or gas, or within which ordinary 
air is confined without circulation: used to 
diminish loss of heat by radiation through the 
walls of the cylinder and to lessen cylinder- 
condensation of steam back to water, its func- 
tion is the same as that of the steam-jacket. Since air is 
one of the best non-condnctors of heat when it is not 
allowed to circulate, an air-jacket may also be used to 
keep the cylinders of a refrigerating apparatus from be- 
ing warmed by the outside air. 
3. A closed space, usually annular, about some 
part of a machine or piece of apparatus, de- 
signed to secure uniformity of temperature. 

air-jacket (ar'jak"et), V. t. To provide with 
an air-jacket. See *air-jaScet, n., 2. 

air-jig (ar'jig), n. In mining, a machine which 
effects the separation of minerals according 
to their specific gravity by intermittent rising 
currents of air which lift the lighter particles 
of gangue and permit the heavier metallic 
minerals to settle. The light tailings fiow oif at the 
top and the concentrates are discharged from below by 
some mechanical device. The Faddock-Hooper pneumatic 
concentrator and the Vrom air-jig are the principal ma- 
chines of this cla£s. 

air-leak (ai^'lek), n,. In electrostatics, the loss 
of charge, in the case of an insulated body, 
due to the discharging action of the surround- 
ing air. 

air-level (ar'tev'^el), n. A level or airway of 
former workings made use of in subsequent 
deeper mining operations for ventilating pur- 
poses. Coal and Metal Miners Pocket-book. 

air-llft (ar'lift), n. ' A device for raising water 
from deep wells by means of compressed air. 
It comprises an air-compressor and two pipes open at the 
lower end and placed one within the other in the well. 
The compressed air passes down the inside pipe to the 
bottom of the well, where it rises through the larger 
pipe and thiough the water which fills the lower part of 
it, carrying the water upward with it and delivering it 
at the surface. The system can be so applied to a group 
of wells as to lift several million gallons a day. 

air-liq.uefier (ar'lik"we-fi-er), n. An apparatus 
for converting air under pressure into liquid 
air by the effect of cooling. 

air-meter, n — Blram's air-meter, a modification of 
the Casella air-meter in which a large light radial fan is 
kept in rotation by the current of air to be measured. 
The apparatus is usually graduated so as to show the vol- 
ume of fresh air that passes through the shaft leading to 
a mine or a room that needs ventilation. 

air-monger (ar'mung"ger), re. [air + monger.] 
One who is taken up with the pursuit of vi- 
sionary or impracticable projects. Felltham, 
Eesolves, I. xv. [Eare.] N. E. B. 

airol (ar'61), n. A greenish-gray, fine, volu- 
minous, odorless, and tasteless powder, said 
to be an oxyiodide of bismuth subgallate. It 
is absorbent and antiseptic. 

air-plate (ar'plat), n. A plate perforated to 
allow the passage of a limited amount of air; 
a perforated bafle. 

air-pressure (ar'presh"ur), n. The barometric 
pressure or elastic pressure of the atmosphere. 
It is expressed in pounds per square inch, or in dynes 
per square meter, or, more commonly, by the height of 
the mercurial column of the barometer, and sometimes 
in units of 'one standard atmosphere. 

air-proof (ar'prof), v. t. To protect from in- 
jurious action of the air or of some of its in- 
gredients, as by a suitable varnish applied to 
the material to be protected. 

air-pump, n — Duplex alr-piunp, a form of air- 
pump in yhich two air-pumping cylinders are placed 



air-pump 

side by side in pairs, the piston-rod of each being the 
prolongation of the piston of the steam-cylinders (also 
In pairs) which drive them ; speclflcally, a form of air- 



26 



m. The air-tap is placed at the highest point in the series 
of pipes. Air-taps in pumps and engines are called pet- 

niimn for aii- hi-oiro s<...»i«„ ;» ^.'i.-'H ".~iC 1"" j — cooljs. Lockwood, Dlct. Mech. Eng. Terms. 

pomp for air-bralce service m which one of the oylmders _i_ i„i__ /s-'I-bs tArl « An H-nTisrahis for 
18 twice the diameter of the otherbut of the same stroke. air-ieSTier (ar tes-ter;, M. AJa apparatus lor 
Both air-cylinders draw in air from without on the intalte testing the quality of air, as in innaDitea 



Btroke, but the lai>- 
ger delivers into 
the smaller on the 
completion of the 
intake stroke of the 
latter. Hence three 
volumes of fiee air 
are delivered ' in 
each double stroke. 
— GeiBslert mer- 
cury alr-painp,an 
apparatus used for 
producing a vacu- 
um, consisting es- 
sentially of a reser- 
voir which can be 
filled with or emp- 
tied of mercury by 
raising or lowering 
another containing 
mercury and con- 
nected with the for- 
mer by a flexible 
rubber hose. By the 
proper adjustment 
of stop-codes the air 
or gas exhausted 
from a vessel at- 
tached at a is dried 
by passing through 
a U-tube containing 
a desiccating ma- 
terial, usually phos- 
phorus pentoxid, 
and is either col- 




Geissler's Air-pump. 



apartments. 

air-trap, n. 3. A small funnel of glass fas- 
tened in the inside of a barometer-tube to catch 
any bubbles of air that would otherwise rise 
through the mercury into the vacuum-cham- 
ber. 

air-twist (ar'twist), 
n. A bubble of air 
which is sometimes 
contained in the 
stem of a vessel of 
glass, and which, in 
twisting, becomes a 
hollow spiral. 

The secret of the con- 
struction of two of the 
classes — namely, the 
brilliant, and the com- 
bined opaque and air- 
twist — seems to have 
been lost. 

Wynn Penny, English 
Eighteenth Centui*y 
Drlnldng Glasses. Bur- 
lington Mag., m. 68. 

air-twisted (ar '- 

twis'ted), jj. a. Hav- 
ingan air-twist. See 
*air-ivrist. 




Glass Vessel, showing Air-twist. 



lected over mercury held in a trough or is driven into air-Valve, 1. 3, In an engine-cylinder, and 



the air. A barometer-gage indicates the degree of eX' 
haustion. The raising and lowering of the reservoir 
holding the mercury are effected either by hand orbythe 
use of a simple mechanical device. — Toepler'S mercury 
air-pump, a modified form of tlie Geissler air-pump, in 
which a glass valve replaces the controlling stop-cock 
and a barometer-tube serves to permit the exhausted air. 
to escape. 

air-regenerator (ar'rf-jen"e-ra-tor), n. The 
regenerator through whicli atmospheric air 
passes to be heated on its way to a steel-melt- 
ing or reheating furnace, a zine furnace, a 
coke-oven, etc. It is larger than the corre- 
sponding gas-regenerators. 

air-register (ar'rej"is-ter), n. Same as regis- 
ter^, 8. 

air-sac, n. 3. In hot., a cavity in a pollen- 
grain of the genus Pinus. 

air-separator (ar'sep^a-ra-tor), n. In mining, 
a machine which effects the separation of min- 
erals according to size or density by air, either 
by pulsating rising currents (see *air.jig) ; or 
by a continuous blast, as in the Edison, Hoch- 
stedt, and other dust-separators ; or by pro- 
jecting the particles to be separated by me- 
chanical means into still or moving air, as in 
the centrifugal separators of the Pape-Hen- 
neberg and Clarkson-Stanfield types. 

air-ship (ar'ship), M. A buoyant balloon pro- 
vided with a motor, propellers, and rudders, 
so that it can navigate the air under the con- 
trol of an aeronaut ; a dirigible balloon. Such 
balloons are made in various elongated, more or less cigar- 
shaped, forms and have successfully traversed long dis- 



particularly on the locomotive engine, a valve 

which is held shut by steam-pressure when the Ajuga (a-jo'ga). 



aKasba 

axillary, solitary or cymose, yellow flowers. The ten 
species are natives of the warmer parts of the old world, 
six being found in South Africa and one in Australia, 
while the others occur mainly in the Mediterranean region. 
The most widely distributed species is A. Canarieme, 
which occurs in the Canary and Madeira Islands, in the 
Azores, South Africa, and through southern Asia to India. 
A. Sispanicum is a characteristic plant of southern Italy 
and Spain, also occurring in northern Africa and ex- 
tending eastward to Persia. 

2. Sometimes used as a specific name for 
plants of a lowand tufted, persistentcharacter, 
as Anthemis Aizoon, Saxifraga Aizoon. 

aja (3.'ya), n. A South-African Dutch form of 
the East Indian a^aA, a nurse; a lady's-maid. 

ajacol (a-jak'ol), n. An oleaginous fluid, con- 
gealing to a crystalline mass at low tempera- 
tures. It has the same properties as guaiaeol. 
Also called gitaeihol and thanatol. 

aji (a-he'), n. [Sp., formerly ax»; ofW. Ind. 
(Taino) origin.] A red pepper. See pepper, 

chilli, and pimento jy£ dulce, the sweet pepper, 

CapsUum annuum. — ^AJi picante, the fruits of Cap- 
sieumfrutescemi and C. baccatum, the pungent red pep- 
pers used in the preparation of Cayenne pepper. 

ajo (a'ho), n. [Sp., < L. allium, garlic] 1. The 
garlic, Allium sativum. — 3. A very large tree 
of Peru and Bolivia, Cordia alliodora, which 
when wounded gives forth from its bark and 
leaves a penetrating odor of garlic. See garlic. 

ajog (a-jog')' <^<f^- [«^ +JoS-^ On a jog; at 
a leisurely pace. G. Meredith, The Egoist, 11. 
100. 

ajonjoli (a-hon-ho-le'), n. [Sp., ajonjoU, aU 

jonjoU.'] The sesame, Sesamum orientale, the 
seed of which, also called benneseed, yields a 
bland oil. See sesame. 

[NL., < L. ajuga, name of 



a plant.] A genus of hardy, herbaceous, 
European perennials, members of the family 
Menthacese, creeping by stolons, and commonly 
known as *l)ugle-weed. Some of them are grown 
as garden plants, in rockeries and borders, although they 
are not generally known in America. Of the 30 known 
species, A. Genevennis, A.pyraTnidalis, A. repta-ns, and A, 
metalliea are most common in gardens. 

[a-^S + jugate.] Hav- 



throttle-valve is open, but which opens by a 
spring to admit atmospheric air when the 
throttle is closed and the pistons keep on mov- 
ing from the momentum of the mass of engine 

, and train. In the absence of such a valve the pistons 
reduce the pressure behind them, after a stroke or two, 
to a point at which the pressure in the cylinders is much 
less than that of the atmosphere ; and when the exhaust- . . . ...,_,, 

passage is opened a rush of air back through it will carry ajUgate (a-jo gat), a. 
into the cylinders the products of combustion from the ing no jugum. 
smoke-box,includingcindersandgrit,wliichareinjurious aiiit.mPTit. rn^iTit'mPTif^ « TTiTPir (n -1- ™/ 4- 
to the working-surfaces. Such air-valves are placed on *i?^f? „2.1?^SL^^* n A ■" S^?^" ^ «"+.?«« + 
the steam-chest or connect with the steam-passages. -^lent, after abutment.] A jutting out; a pro- 

air-vesicle, n. 3. Same as *air-float. jection. [Bare.] 

air- washer (ar'wosh-6r), TO. An appliance in The ajM«men«ofa hill toward the sea. 
whichacurrentof moving air maybe cleansed Jfarrj/a«, Peter Simple, III. 323. N. E. D^ 

from dust or other particles, and from some ak (ak), n. [Hind, die, < Skt. arkd, name of a 
polluting gases, by passing through water, tree or shrub, lit. ray, or sun.] The red- 
The cleansing watermayfall in a shower across the mov- fl^wofd tnyrr, nf r>ni!kL,^^^ ™,.„„v.,„ cs 
ing air by eicaping from perforated pipes or through ^o^ered form of Calotropis gzgantea. See 
perforated metal screens ; or the air may be compelled """tar and yercum. [Northern India.] 
to escape by pressure mider the lower edge of a plate aka (a'ka), n. [Maori aka, name of the plant, 
which is immersed an inch or two in the water. lit. long fibrous roots : see *aalii.'\ A climbing 

air-wave (ar'wav), n. A wave in the atmos- epiphyte of the myrtle family, Metrosideros 
phere. It may be either a wave of compression and scandens. It completely envelops the tree on which it 
rarefaction, like those of sound ; or a tidal effect like the grows, which ultimately dies, the wood decaying The 
ocean tides ; or a wave of progression like that produced epiphyte remaining forms a hollow cone [New Zealand 1 
by the outburst from Krakatua in 1883. In the case of akaakaaiirn Cii,"lr!i-a"ta a'wn^ « rTTowoiion 
the Krakatua outburst, the wave moved around the globe f „fr^„twiir„„,J \„tf ^^>' ^- [Hawaiian, 
several times at an average velocity of 700 miles an hour, ^ aKO^aKa (maori Kata), laugh at, -|- awa, 
and the accompanying sound-wave was heard several nne rain or mist. The plant is found in 
hondred miles away.^_ . _ greatest profusion in humid mountain ravines 



aiS (a-es'), n. [Native name.] A name in 
Ponape, Caroline Islands, of Parinari laurinum, 
a tall tree having oblong leathery leaves. 




Airship Zeppelin III. 
j^, ..^, eQ^ines; S, rudder; C, C, dipping-planes; V, D, propellers. 



tances under good control. The first notably successful Aitken's COke-OVen. See *coTce-oven. 
experiments with the dirigible balloon were made by AlZOaceSe (a" i-z6-a'se-e), n,. pi. [NL 

Gaston Tissandier, 1884-85 ; he attained a velocity of 13 ~-^ — "" toaA\' • .i.- — ^■.- 

miles an hour and was able (as a rule) to return to his 
starting-point. In 190O Count Zeppelin made short voy- 
ages over Lake Constance in a dirigible of his own design, 
which has been remodeled and improved until in 1909 it 
made voyages of several hundred miles. Other successful 
experimenters have been M. Santos-Dumont, whose air- 



(Alex- 



near the spray of waterfalls.] Hillebrandia 
Sandwicensis, a beautiful plant of the begonia 
family, bearing clusters of delicate pink-and- 
white flowers. [Hawaii.] 

akaakai (a-ka"a-ka'e), n. [Hawaiian.] In 
Hawaii, a bog-plant, Scirpus lacustris, the 
stems of which are used in making mats and 
bags. 

akahara (a-ka-ha'ra), n. [Jap., < aka, red, +■ 
hara, belly.] The Japanese name of a large 
chub of the family Cyprinidse, Zeueiseus bak- 
nensis, found in the waters of Japan. Also 
known as ugui. 

akala (a-ka'la), n. [Hawaiian.] In Hawaii, 
a native species of raspberry, Subug MacrsBi. 
The fi-uit often attains a diameter of nearly two inches, 
'!■ Si.,* deep-red color, is very Juicy, and, although 
slightly bitter, is agreeable to the taste. The name is 
also sometimes given to another raspberry, Rutmg Ha- 
wawrms, the fi-uitof which is not so large and is di-v and 
unpalatable. 

See *acanthion. 



ander Braun, 1864), < Aizoon + -acese.] A . 

family of dicotyledonous, archiehlamydeous akanthidn, «. 

(apetalous or choripetalous) plants, the carpet- akaroa-tree (a-ka-ro'a-tre), ji! [Maori.] The 

weed family, of the order CJienopodiales, New Zealand lace-bark or ribbon-tree See 

typified by the genus Aizoon. See Ficoideie. Plagiantlms. 



experimenters nave oeen m. aanios-ijuinoni, wnose air- „r„«««.*««« /n//T >.« s/„v.; \ « t-ktt ^. «i --_ x ^ , . -.. . 

shi>(successiveraodels) accomplished notable results, es-aiZOaceoUS (a 1-zo-a shius), a. [NL. ^j«o- akaryota (a^kar-i-o'ta), M. ^li. [Gr. a-priv. -I- 
pecial]^yin 1900 and 1901, M.Lebaudy and Thomas S.Bald- acese + -ous.] ^ Having the characters of or "apwov, nut (nucleus).] In 6»o?., non-nucleated 

cells, as opposed to nucleated cells or karyota. 
akasha (a-ka'sha), n. [Skt. dkagd, clear space, 
ether.] Ether; one of the five gross elements 
(the others being air, fire, water, and earth) 
which, according to the Saukhya system of 
Indian philosophy, make up the visible world ; 
the subtile fluid which fills and pervades infin- 
ity and is supposed to be the peculiar vehicle 



win. The dirigibles which have been constructed in Eng- 
land for military use are especially noteworthy. 

alr-stone(ar'st6n),». [air^ + stone.] Amete- 
orite. [Rare.] N. E. D. 

air-tap (ar'tap), n. A cock or valve fixed in 
the air-pipe in hot-water apparatus, to allow of 
the escape of air from the series, which with- 
out this means of exit would accumulate there- 



belonging to the family Aizoacese. 
Aizoon (ar-i-z6'on), n. [NL. (Linnseus, 1753, 
adopted from his "Genera Plantarum," 1737), 
< Gr. aeH^iMv, an evergreen plant, supposed to 
be the houseleek, < aei, ever, -I- fudf, living.] 1. 
A genus of dicotyledonous plants^ type of the 
family Aizoacese. They are evergreen spreading 
herbs or small shrubs, with fleshy, entire leaves, and 



akasha 

of life and sound. Unlike air (vdyu), which is 
always moving and penetrates only where it 
can find an entrance, akasha is perfectly im- 
movable and exists everywhere. 

itkcha (4kh'cha), n. [Also alcchek, aqcha; < 
Turk, akcha, aqcha, money, coin, cash, a 
monetary value, an asper ; as adj. rather white, 
whitish: see asper^.] A very small Turkish 
silver coin of the value of J para. 

jlke''' (a'ka), re. [Maori, < ake, onward, ake alee 
ake, for ever and ever. The allusion is to the 
durable qualities of the wood.] 1. In New 
Zealand, a small tree, Dodoneea viscosa, of the 
soapberry family, with very hard variegated 
wood. — 2. In the Chatham Islands, a small 
tree, Shaivia Traversii {Olearia Iraversii of 
Hooker), of the aster family. 

akea (a-ke'a), n. Same as *akia. 

akeratophorous (a-ker-a-tof'o-rus), a. Same 
as aeeratophorous. 

akerite (ak'e-rit), n. [Norw. Aker, a locality 
in Norway, "+ -jfe2.] In petrog., a term ap- 
plied by BrBgger (1890) to a syenite contain- 
ing much plagioclase, with biotite, augite, and 
some quartz. 

akermanite (ak'6r-man-it), n. [For Richard 
Akerman, a Swedish mineralogist.] An arti- 
ficial mineral species closely related to melilite : 
identified in certain slags. 

Akhmimic (aeh-mim'ik), a. and n. I. a. Of 
or pertaining to Akhmim or to its langiiage. 

II, n. One of the main divisions of Coptic, 
spoken in the neighborhood of Akhmim. 

akhter (ak'ter), n. [E. Ind.] A copper coin 
of Mysore, equal to one fourth of a paissa or 
pice. 

akhyana (S;-ki-a'na), n. [Skt. akhyana, tale 
(cf. akhyd, name), < a- + vkhya, call, name.] 
A tale : a story; a legend. Encyc. Brit., XXVI. 
431. 

akia (a-ke'a), n. [Hawaiian.] A name in 
Hawaii of several shrubs belonging to the 
genus Capura, of the family DapJmacese, par- 
ticularly of C. viridiflora (Wikstrcemia viridi- 
flora of Meissner), found also in the Society, 
Samoan, and Piji Islands. The bark contains an 
acrid narcotic principle, and is used by the natives for 
narcotizing flsh in fresh water. The stems yield a strong, 
flexible bast-flber. Also spelled akea. 

akiahala (a-ke"a-ha'la), n, [Hawaiian.] In 
Hawaii, a small shrub, Hibiscus Toungianus, 
with pink fiowers. 

Akinesia algera. [Gr. dXyitpos, painful.] Loss of the 
power of motion as a result oiE pain. 

akinesis (ak-i-ne'sis), n. In hiol., direct cell- 
division or the amitotic multiplication of cells. 

akinete (ak'i-net), «. [Gr. d- priv. -I- Ktvirrdg, 
movable : see kinetio.2 The resting-spore of 
certain algse formed directly from a vegetative 
cell by the simple thickening of the wall and 
without rejuvenescence. Same as hypnocyst. 
See *aplanospore. 

akinetic (ak-i-net'ik), a. [Gr. d-priv. + Kiv?iaig, 
change, movement.] 1. Same as akinesic. — 
2. In oytol., without perceptible internal 
movements: a term applied to that form of 
cell-division which is not karyokinetie. Same 
as *amitotic, *karyostenotic, or direct (cell- 
division). 

akkum (ak'kum'), »• [Heb. 'akkum, formed 
of the initials of a Hebrew phrase of three 
words meaning a worshiper of the stars and 
constellations.] A star-worshiper, originally 
a Chaldean star- worshiper: applied in the Tal- 
mud to heathen idolaters ; a pagan. Also 
akum. 

akolea (a-ko-la'a), ». [Native name.] A name 
in Hawaii of a large fern, Phegopteris Hille- 
brandi. 

akoulation, «• See *acoulation. 

akouphone (ak'o-fon), ». [Incorrectly formed 
from Gr. aKoieiv, hear, + f(M^, sound.] The 
trade-name of an appliance for enabling the 
deaf to hear, constructed on the analogy of 
the telephone. 

akra (ak'ra), n. [Hind, and Hindi akra.'] In 
India, a common name for the vetch or tare, 
Vicia satina. See Vida. 

akreophagist, n. Same as -^acreoplmgist. 

akreophagv, n. Same as *acreophagy. 
akrocephalic, a. See acrocephalic. 
akromegaly, n. See ■''acromegaly. 
akule (a-ko'le), n. [Hawaiian.] A Hawaiian 

name of the goggle-eyed scad, Trachurops cru- 

menophthalmus. Called atule in Samoa. 
akum, n. See *akkum. 



27 

akund (a'kund), n. [Hind., < Hindi akund, the 
tree.] The dried root-bark of Calotropis gi- 
gantea, extensively used in Indian medicine, 
especially as a substitute for ipecacuanha in 
dysentery. 

al^, n. The name is applied in India to several species 
of Morinda, especially to Morinda citrifolia and 3f . tine- 
taria, trees belonging to the madder family, which grow 
spontaneously and are also cultivated for the sake of the 
dye obtained from the bark of their roots and stem. The 
smallest roots yield the most valuable dye, the stem 
the most inferior. The al dye is gradually supplanting the 
more expensive red obtained from the Indian madder, or 
chaya root (OldAtitandia wmbelUUa), with which the 
celebrated Madras handkerchiefs and turbans were for- 
merly dyed. Morinda citrifolia, the principal al-tree, 
is widely spread throughout the East Indies, the west 
coast of Africa, and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, 
where its fruit is sometimes eaten by the natives. See 
•knonu. 

al-*. A nominal prefix, actually a reduction of 
alcohol in certain arbitrary formations, as al- 
dehyde (and its numerous recent derivatives), 
*aithionic, etc. Compare -aP. Compare alk- in 
words like *alkamine, etc. (where alk- repre- 
sents G. alkohol), and -ol, representing the 
last syllable of alcohol. 

-al^. In bridal, burial, etc., a nominal sufBx, 
associated with -aU, but actually of different 
origin, according to the history of each word. 
See the etymologies of the words cited. 

-al*. [al{cohol), al(dehyde). See *aZ-3.] In 
chem., a termination now recognized as signi- 
fying that the body named is an aldehyde, or 
derived from alcohol. Thus ordinary aldehyde 
is also called *ethanal, that is, the aldehyde of 
ethane. 

A. L. A. An abbreviation of American lAbrary 
Association. 

Ala magna sphenoldei, in ichth., same as prootic; a 
lateral cranialbone Just in front of the exoccipital. As 
used by Kallmann it is a synonym of the alisphenoid of 
Parker ; as used by Erdl it is a synonym of the sphenotic 
of Parker.— Ala orbitalis, in ichth., a term applied by 
Stannius to the alisphenoid bone.— Ala parva, in ichth., 
same as opisthotic. — Ala parva sphenoldei, in ichth., 
the basisphenoid bone.— iua temporalis, inichth., the 
proQtic bone. 

alaalawainui (a"la-a"la-wa'''e-no'e), n. [Ha- 
waiian, < alaala. soft, fiabby, -t- wai, water, + 
nui, be great. The name refers to the succu- 
lent nature of the plant.] In Hawaii, a plant 
of the genus Peperomia. 

Alabama (al-a-ba'ma), n. [NL. (Grote, 1895), 
< Alabama, tHe State.] A genus of noetuid 
moths containing one species, A. argiUacea 
Huebner. it is notorious as a destroyer of the cotton- 
plant in the southern United States, where its larva 
is known as the leaf-caterpillar or chenille. Formerly 
known as dletiaxyliTia.—Alaiba.TasiCiu.ua.. See*china. 
—Alabama shad. See irshad^. 

alabandite (al-a-ban'dit), n. See alabandine. 

alacreatine (al-'a-kre'a-tin), n. [L. ato, wing (?), 
-I- creatine.'] Aoompdund,NH: C(NH2)NHCH- 
(CH3)C02H, a combination of cyanamide with 
a-aminopropionic acid ; a-guaninopropionic 
acid. 

alacreatinine (al-a-kre-at'i-nin), n. lalaerea- 
tine + -ineK] The anhydrid, C4H7N3O, of ala- 
creatine, formed by heating the latter to 180° C. 

alagao (a-la-ga'o), n. [Tagalog alagao (also 
sahugo, < Sp. sauco) = Bisaya abgao, also 
adgao.^ A Philippine tree, Premnavestita, of 
the Verbena family, its bitter leaves and its flowers 
are used medicinally by the natives. The tree is gener- 
ally known to Spaniards living in the Philippines by the 
name of saAco (elder), owing to the resemblance of its 
flowers to those of Sambucus nigra. In its medicinal 
qualities it resembles the allied Premna GavdichoMdii of 
the island of Guam and P. integrifolia of the East In- 
dies and Madagascar. See headache-tree. 

alalonga (a-la-long'ga), re. [Appar. < L. ala 
longa,~ long wing.'] Same as long-finned alba- 
core. 

alang (a'lang), n. See *alang-alang. 

alang-alang (a"lang-a'lang), n. [Malay dlang- 
dlang.l A grass, Imperata arundinacea, widely 
spread in the tropics, growing on land which 
has gone out of cultivation. Also aailed. alang 
and, in the Philippines, cogon. [Malay Ar- 
chipelago.] 

alani (a-ia'ne), n. [Hawaiian.] In Hawaii, a 
timber-tree of the rutaeeous genus Ptelea. 
The wood is used in building canoes. 

alantic (a-lan'tik), a. [G. alanf, elecampane, 
-I- -ic] Obtained from elecampane.— Alantic 
acid, the hydroxyacid OH.C14H20CO2H, corresponding 
to alantolactone. It crystallizes in needles which melt 
at 9i° C. 

alantoic (al-an-to'ik), a. [G. alant, elecam- 
pane, + -o-jc] Derived from elecampane. — 
Alantoic acid, a colorless compound, Ci4H2o(OH)- 
COOH, found in the drug elecampane. 

alantol (a-lan'tol), n. [G. *alantol (?), < alant, 



Albion ware 

elecampane, -I- -ol.] Same as alant camphor 
(which see, under camphor). 

alantolactone (a-lau"t6-lak't6n), n. [G. alant, 
elecampane, + lactone.] Same as helenin. 

Alar membrane, the elongate triangular membrane 
lying on the anterior edge of a bird's wing and running 
from wrist to shoulder-joint; the prepatagium. — 
Alar septa, in the extmct Tetracoralla, the two 
prominent lateral septa or vertical plates in the calyx, 
one on each side, from which the adjoining septa branch 
pinnatoly: contrasted with the cardiwd and counter 
septa. 

Alaria, ». 2. A genus of platypodous gas- 
tropod moUusks of the family Aporrhaidse. 
They have a turreted spire, expanded and spinous outer 
lip, and long apertural canal. Shells of this genus are 
very abundant in the Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks. 

alarm, » stm alarm. see«(t22.i 

alarm-buov (a-iarm'boi), n. A buoy provided 
with a bell or a whistle to make its presence 
known at night or in a fog. 

Alaska cedar, dab. See *cedar, *dab^. 

alaskite (a-las'kit), n. 1. See alaskaite. — 2. 
In petrog.", a name proposed by Spurr (1900) 
for igneous rocks composed almost wholly of 
alkalic feldspar and quartz without other 
essential minerals, it is a group-term embracing 
many granular and porpliyritic rocks which have been 
called granite, rhyolite, haplite, elvan, graniditt, eurite, 
granita, eta. The distinct lava forms corresponding to 
alaskite in composition are called tordnUite by SpuiT. 

alastor, n. 2. [cap.] A genus of bats from 
the Upper Eocene phosphorites of France. 

Alaunian (a-lS,'ni-an), a. and n. [L. Alauni, 
Gr. 'ATmvvoi', a people of Noricum.] I. a. In 
geol., in the Triassic formation of the Medi- 
terranean province, noting a substage corre- 
sponding to the middle division of the Juvavic 
stage, which lies just below the Rhsetic and 
above the Carinthian stage. Tlie Juvavic appears 
to correspond to the lower Ehcetic of Germany, and^the 
Alaunian, therefore, is correlated with the lower part of 
that formation. 
II. m. The Alaunian substage. 

albacore, n — Great albacore, the tunny or tuna. 
ThunmiB hynnus. 

albabaca (al-ba-ha'ka), re. [Sp. albahaca, basil, 
< Ar. al, the, habaq, pennyroyal.] A name 
applied in Guain, the Philippines,' Peru, and 
Porto Rico to several aromatic plants of the 
mint family, especially to Ocimum Basilicum 
and 0. sanctum, which are cultivated for culi- 
nary and medicinal purposes. See Ocimum, 
toolsi, and basil^. 

Albany slip, zone. See *slip, ■''zone. 

albardin (al-bar-den'), n. [Sp., of Ar. origin.] 
A shoreweed, I/ygeum Spartum, of southwest- 
ern Europe and northern Africa : similar in its 
use to esparto and sometimes included under 
that name. 

Albata metal. See *metal. 

Albatrossia (al-ba-tros'i-a), n. [NL., named 
for the exploring steamer Albatross, V. S. N.] A 
genus of grenadiers of the family Macruridee, 
cod-like fishes of the deep seas. A. pectoralis 
is found in Bering Sea. 

albecore, n. See albacore. 

Albedo unguium, the lunula of the nails. 

albene (al'ben), n. [L. albu^, white, + -ene.] 
The substance formed by boiling melam with 
water. It is white and insoluble. 

alberello, n. Same as albarello. 

Alberini's process. See *process. 

albert (al'bert), ». [Named, about 1860, from 
Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria.] A 
short watch-chain made with a cross-bar de- 
signed to be passed through a buttonhole. 

Albert and Albertine ware. See *ware^. 

Albian (al'bi-an), a. and». [So named from 
the department of Aube (L. Albia, < albus, 
white), France.] I. a. In geol., noting the 
lower division of the Upper Cretaceous forma- 
tion in Belgium and Prance, equivalent to the 
Gait and Upper Greensand of England. The 
deposits consist of argillaceous marls, greensand, and 
limestone and are highly fossiliferous. 
II. n. The Albian division. 

albinescent (al-bi-nes'ent), a. [albino + 
-escent.] Showing a tendency to albinism. Na- 
ture, March 16, 1893. 

albinic (al-bin'ik), a. lalbin(o) + -ic] Marked 
by albinism or absence of pigment. 

Two of the sons, apparently, married wives who were 
'pure dominants,'!. e.,who were entirely free from the 
recessive (albinic) character. Science, Jan. 9, 1908, p. 75. 

albino, n. 4. In Mexico, a person who has 
one eighth negro and seven eighths Spanish 
blood ; the child of a Morisoo woman (who is 
the daughter of a mulatto mother and a Span- 
ish father) and of a Spaniard. 

Albion ware. See *ivare^- 



albirupean 

albirupean (al-bi-rS'pf-an), a. [L. albus, 
white, + rupes, rock.] Containing white rocks. 
— Albirupean group, in geol,, a series of sand-beds 
occurring along Chesapeake Bay and regaided by the 
Maryland geologists as of Lower Cretaceous age. 

Albite law, the law of twinning of albite. See allnte 
tioin, under twin. 

albitite (arhi-tit), M. lalbite + -ite^.] Injje- 
trog., a name proposed by Turner (1896) for 
granular igneous rocks consisting essentially 
of albite. Such rocks occur in dikes in the 
Sierra Nevada mountains of California. 

albitization (al"bi-ti-za'shon), n. [albite + 
-ize + -ation.'] The process of transforming 
into albite ; the alteration of some preexisting 
mineral, suehaslime-soda-feldspar, into albite. 
Geikie, Text-book of Geol., p. 790. 

albiventral (al-bi-ven'tral), a. [L. alhus, 
white, + venter, belly.] Having a white belly 
or under parts, as is the ease with many birds. 

albot (al'bo), n. [NL., orig. abl., in the phrase 
in albo, of L. album: see album.'] Same as 
album. 

Albo-carbon burner, a burner provided with a chamber 
containing solid naphthalene, which, being volatilized 
by the heat of the gas-flame, enriches the inflowing gas 
and thus increases its luminosity. 

albocracy (al-bok'ra-si), n.; pi. alboarades 
(-siz). [Ii. albus, "white, + Gr. -Kpareia, < 
(cporeZv, rule.] Government by white men, that 
is, by men of European origin. B. N. Gust, 
LiuCTistic Essays, p. 303. [Bare.] N. E. D. 

albodactylous (al-bo-dak'ti-lus), a. [Ii. albiis, 
white, + Gr. (Jd/cr«/lof, finger.] Having white 
wings. [Kare.] • 

albolene, alboline (al'bo-len,-lin), n. [L. albus, 
white, + -ol- + -ene or" -ine^.'] An unctuous 
substance derived from petroleum: used for 
the same purposes as vaseline. 

albo-pruinose (al-bo-prij'i-nos), a. [L. albus, 
white, + pruina, frost, + -ose.'] Covered with 
a thin white powdery bloom: said of the sur- 
face of certain plants, especially the stipes and 
caps of some pileate fungi. 

albofanite (al-bo-ran'it), n. lAlboran (see 
def.) + -ite2.] tn petrog., a name proposed 
by Becke (1899) for hyperstheue-andesite rich 
in lime, the type occurring in the island of 
Alboran. LoewinsOn-Lessing considers albo- 
ranite as essentially a hypersthene-basalt with- 
out olivin. 

Albright (ai'brit), n. One of the 'Albright 
People,' the name given to the Evangelical 
Association founded by Jacob Albright. See 

' Evangelical Association. 

albronze (al'bronz), n. [al(uminiwm) + bronze.] 
An alloy of aluminium with copper and tin or 
of aluminium with bronze, used for bearings 
where lightness of weight and durability are 
required ; aluminium bronze. 

Albuginacese (al-bu-ji-na'se-e), n. pi. [KL., 
< Albugo (Albugin-) + -aeese.] A family of 
phyoomycetous fungi typified by the genus 
*Albugo. 

albugo, ». 2. leap.] [NL. (S. P. Gray, 1821).] 
In mycol., a genus of fungi erroneously called 
Cystopus (which see). 

albullgnosine (aFbu-lig'no-sin),«. [albu(men) 
+ lignose + -ine^.] A material obtained by 
the action on wood of a solution of sodium 
sulphite boiling under pressure, making the 
liquid aeid, and adding albumen : proposed for 
use as a sizing and mordanting agent. 

albumeant (al-bu'me-an)_, o. [Irreg. < album 
+ -e-an.] Of or pertaining to albums, or the 
pressing invitations of friends or acquain- 
tances to contribute to their albums. Lamb, 
Letters, xvii. 156. [Rare.] 

Albumen color. See •color.— Albumen dyestuff. Same 
as (UbuTnen -kcolor. 

albumen-gland (al-bti'men-gland"), n. In cer- 
tain mollusks, as Eelix, a glandular organ of 
which the thick viscid secretion probably serves 
to envelop the eggs. 

I dissected one specimen, but was unable to obtain a 
clear view of either the central nervous system or the 
reproductive organs. The latter, as usual in this family, 
were extremely complicated, both the prostate and 
albumen-gUmd appearing to be extensively ramified. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1903, I. 257. 

albumin, «■ The albumins are highly complex organic 
bodies which enter prominently into the composition of 
all animal and vegetable tissues and form the ground- 
work so to speak, of every living ceU. They are the 
most Important food-stuffs of all classes of animal life, 
and can be elaborated by the chlorophyl-bearing plants 
from such simple substances as water, carbon dioxid, and 
certain nitrates or amtoonium salts. All albumins con- 
tain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur in 
definite proportions which vary but Uttle m the different 
members of the group : one albumin, which is found m 



28 

the thyroid, also contains iodine. Other elements are 
not met with in albumins proper, but are encountered in 
certain compound albumins, in which an albuminous radi- 
cal is united with other more or less complex groups. Thus 
hemoglobin contains iron, hemocyanin copper, and the 
nucleo-albumlna and nuoleoproteids phosphorus. All 
albumins also contain variable amounts of mineral salts 
in flrm combmation. Their molecular size is very large. 
For crystallized egg-albumin Hofmeister established the 
formula C239H386N68S2078, which corresponds to a 
molecular weight of 6,378. The protamins and histons 
apparently have the smallest molecules, while the com- 
pomid albumins are proportionately heavier: the weight 
of oxyhemoglobin has thus been determined as 14,800. 
The greater number of the albumins are amorphous. A 
few, hovever, can be obtaiued in crystalline form, such 
as egg-albumin, serum-albumin, oxyhemoglobin, and cer- 
tain vegetable albumins, as edestiu, etc. The so-called 
Bence Jones albumin, which has been met with in the 
urine in certain pathological conditions (multiple mye- 
loma), also belongs to this order. AH true albumins are 
levorotatory, while certain compound albumins (the 
nuoleoproteids) turn the plane of polarization to the 
right Osborne has shown that this property. In the 
case of the nuoleoproteids, is very likely wholly referable 
to the nucleinic acid complex which they contain. All 
albumins — owing to the great size of the molecule, no 
doubt— are incapable of diffusing through animal mem- 
brane or vegetable parchment. Some members of the 
group are soluble in water, others only in dilute saline 
solution, and still others in dilute acids and alkalis. 
From their solutions they can be precipitated by min- 
eral acids, the salts of the heavy metals,. the so-called 
alkaloidal reagents {as tannic acid, phosphotungstic acid, 
iodomercuric iodide, etc.), strong alcohol, and certain 
neutral salts (sodium chlorid, magnesium sulphate, so- 
dium sulphate, and notably ammonium sulphate). All 
^bumins further give certain color-reactions, of which 
the biuret reaction (production of a bluish or reddish 
violet-color on the addition of very dilute copper-sul- 
phate solution in the presence of an excess of strong 
caustic alkali) is especially characteristic. The true 
albumins are all conciliated by heat. As a result they 
lose their individual characteristics and are then said to 
be denaturized. After this they can be brought into solu- 
tion only by means which at the same time will produce 
inte^^ changes in their composition. From study of 
the various cleavage-products which result from the 
albumins on hydrolysis by boiling mineral acids and 
alkalis, by digestion with the proteolytic ferments, etc., a 
certain insight is now possible Into the complex structui'e 
of the albuminous molecule. Thus it appears that various 
d-amido acids (as leucin, tyrosin, asparaginic acid, glu- 
taminic acid), and the diamido acids (ornithin, lysin, 
etc.), exist in the albuminous complex in the form of 
Fischer's polypeptides, which have the general structure 
represented by the formula NH2. (0Hj.C0.NH)ii.CH2.- 
COOH. These in turn are combined with other gioups, 
such as the sulphur-containing cystin complex, the 
glucosainin-group, etc., to form still more complex 
radicals, which are further combined with similar 
groups to even larger complexes, which last in turn 
are again united with correspondingly large groups to 
form the complete molecule. Evidence of the correct- 
ness of this supposition is furnished by a study of the 
products of albuminous digestion. Here we And among 
the primary products of cleavage three complex bodies 
which Individually differ from one another and which in 
the intact molecule were manifestly in combination. 
These are the three primary albumoses, termed proto- 
cUbunwse, heteroaXbumoee, and glucotdbwmoae. The first- 
mentioned on further decomposition yields diamido 
'acids in small amount, much tyrosin, little leucin, no 
glycocol, etc. ; while the second contains diamido acids in 
large amount, much leucin, no tyrosin, and the total 
amount of glycocol of the original substance. Glucoal- 
bumose in turn contains the entire carbohydrate-group 
and a larger percentage of oxygen, while the amount of 
nitrogen and carbon is less than in the two other groups. 
(See also *product8 of digeetion.) The albumins may 
be divided into 5 classes, namely the native oBiumine, the 
nudeo-altyumins, the proteids, the albuminoids, and the 
derived albumins. Examples of the first group are the 
serum-albumin and serum-globulin of the blood-plasma, 
the ovalbumin of white of egg, the lactalbnmin of milk, 
and the myosin and myogen of 'muscle;;plaama. The 
same group further comprises the glucoalbumins, which 
are characterized by the special predominance of a car- 
bohydrate-group, and of which the various mucins and 
mucoids are common representatives; further, the mark- 
edly sulphurous ceratins of the skin and related sub- 
stances ^alr, horn, etc.) ; then the histons and the closely 
related protamins. These latter represent albumins of 
'simplest structure, and are fairly typical representatives 
of Fischer's polypeptides. Kossei's salmin thus appa- 
rently consists only of an ornithin complex, associated 
withtyrosin, serin, tryptophan, and a-pyrrolidin-carbonic 
acid. The second group of albumins is formed by the 
nucleo-albumins or phosphoglobulins. These are more 
complex than the members of the first group in having a 
special phosphorized radical in combination with an albu- 
minous complex. They comprise many imnortant food- 
stuffs, such as the casein of milk, the vitellins of the yolks 
of birds 'eggs, theichthnlin of fishes' eggs, besides the phy- 
toglobulins or phytovitellins of the leguminous plants. 
The third class is represented by the proteida, which are 
complex albumins, containing an albuminous group 
united with other complex radicals. In the nucleopro- 
teids, which are important constituents of cell-nuclei, we 
find nucleinic acid, from which the so-called purin or 
xanthln bases and uric acid are derived. In the hemo- 
globlnswe meet with pigment radicals : so in the common 
coloring matter of the blood, the hemoglobin, with hema- 
tin. The albuminoids, which form the fourth group, in 
contradistinction to those already mentioned, are notably 
constituents of intercellular structures and thus espe- 
cially abundant in the skeletal parts of the animal body. 
To this group belong the collagens or glutins of fibrous 
tissue and cartilage, the elastin of elastic tissue, the vari- 
ous skeletons found in the supporting structures of the 
invertebrates, etc. The last class comprises substances 
which are albuminous derivatives, but still possess albu- 
minous character, such as the coagulated albumins and 



-U 



y 



Hy? 



albumosuria 

the various intermediary digestive products, including 
thealbuminates, albumoses, and peptones.— Bence Jones 
albumin, formerly known as the Bence Jones albumose. 
Shown by Magnus Levy and Simon to be a true albumin. 
Its presence in the urine seems to be invariably asso- 
ciated with a fatal disease known as multiple mye- 
loma.— Carculatlne albumin, the albumin which ex- 
ists in the fluids oftne body and not in the solid tissues. 
— Fenier's albumin process. See *process. —iodized 
albumin, in photog., albumin containing an iodide.— 
Martin's albumin negative process. See *proce««. 
— MayaU'B albumin negative process. See *pro- 
cess^-^OXic albumin, a poisonous substance supposedly 
of albuminous character ; for example, the specific poison 
produced by the diphtheria organism. Also called toxal- 
bumin. 

albuminate, n — Weyl's albuminate, an insoluble 
modification of a globulin which results from the latter 
on prolonged exposure to water. 

albuminic (al bu min'ik), a. Pertaining to or 
derived from albumin : as, albuminic aeid. Ac- 
cording to Schmiedeberg, ferratin is a ferri- 
albuminic acid. 

albuminimeter, n — Esbach's aibumi- 

nlmeter, an appai-atus for the estimation of 
albumin in urine. The tube is filled with urine 
to the mark u, and with the reagent (which 
consists of an aqueous solution of citric acid 2 
per cent, and picric acid 1 per cent.) to the mark 
r. After thorough mixing the tube is set aside 
for twenty-four hours. The volume of the pre- 
cipitate, as read from the graduations, indi- 
cates the parts of albumin per thousand of 
urine. 

albuminize, i>. ;(.- Albuminized collo- 
dion. See iteollodion^ 

albuminoid, n. The albuminoids represent 
a class of albumins which, in contradistinction 
to the albumins proper, are essential compo- 
nents of the intercellular structures and result 
from the albumins, in the narrower sense of 
the term, through the activity of cellular ele- 
ments. As a class they do not contain all the 
typical radicals of the i)ure albumins, and for 
this reason, nodoubt^ theirnutritivevalue is dis- 
tinctly less than that of the albumins proper. 
They are largely found in the supporting tis- 
sues of the animal body, namely, the connec- 
tive tissue, cartilage, and bone. The group Jft''^'^ 
comprises collagen (gelatin), elastin, spongin, ^„e™,' 
fibroin, albumoid, etc. Also called glutinoid. ' 

albuminometer (al-bii-mi-nom'e-ter), foP Tea. 
n. Same as albuminimeter. s^^^i ^^'j 

albuminometry (al-bu-mi-nom'e-tri), urine; 1-7I 
n. The measurement of the amount f J^^ ''; 
of albumin in any fluid, such as the thousand! 
urine. 

albuminose, a. II. n. Same as *albumose, 

albuminuria, n — ciycllc albuminuria, a condition 
in which albumin appears in the urine for a short time 
at about the same period each day. 

albuminuric, a. II. n. One who suffers from 
albuminuria. 

It was found that, classing all albuminurics inone group, 
the percentage of mortality was decidedly increased. 

Med. Record, Feb. U, 1903. 

albumoid (al'bti-moid), n. [album(en) + -oid.] 
An albuminoid found in the cartilage of full- 
grown animals. It is insoluble In all neutral solvents 
.and dissolves in acids and alkalis only with great diffi- 
culty. 

albumoscope (al-bu'mo-skdp), n. 
[album(ine) + Gr. oKoirelv, view.] 
A glass instrument for detecting 
and estimating the quantity of al- 
bumin in ru'ine. The urine is made 
to float on the surface of strong nitric 
acid poured gently into a funnel-tube. 
The albumin appears at the zone of con- 
tact of the two liquids. 

albumose (al'bu-mos), ». [albu- 
m(en) + -ose. In effect short for 
*albuminose.] A name of derived 
albumins (see *albumin) which 1 
result from the albumins proper, 
as also from the albuminoids and 
the albuminous radicals of the nucleo-albu- 
mins and -proteids, through the action of pro- 
teolytic ferments, or on decomposition by 
means of acids or alkalis. Their formation is pre- 
ceded by the denatnrization of the albuminous molecule 

. and, in the case of the use of acids or alkalis, by the forma- 
tion of acid albumins and alkaline albuminates respec- 
tively. During the process of digestion primary albu- 
moses first result, which are subsequently transformed 
into secondary ordeuteroalbnmoses, and these in turn into 
peptones and simpler bodies. In their quantitative com- 
position the albumoses do hot differ materially from the 
original albumins, but their molecular weight is lower. 
As a result, no doubt they are more readily soluble, and 
as a class not altogether indiffusible through animal 
membrane or vegetable parchment. They can be sepa- 
rated from one another by fractional precipitation by 
means of certain neutral salts, notably ammonium sul- 
phate. The albumoses which are derived from the albu- 
mins proper, in contradistinction to those resulting from 
tlie albuminoids, are also called proteoses. The majority 
of the commercial peptone preparations are essentially 
mixtures of albumoses. — Toxic albumose, an albumose 
with toxic properties. 

albumosuria (aFbTi-m9-su'ri-a), n. [albumost 




albumosuria 

+ Gr. ovpov, urine.] In pathol, the presence 
of albumose in the excreted urine. 

Alburnus (al-bfer'nus), n. [NL. : see alburn.'] 
A genus of small minnows, known as bleaks, 
found in the waters of Europe. A. alburnus is 
the common bleak. 

albus (al'bos), n. [G., < L. albm, white.] A 
German copper coin equivalent to 12 hellers at 
Cassel and Cologne. 

alcaldia (al"kal-de'a), n. [8p.] 1. The of- 
fice or jurisdiction of an alcalde. — Z. TJte 
building where an alcalde transacts the busi- 
ness of his office. 

alcapton, alcaptonuria. See MlJcapton, *al- 
kaptonuria. 

alcassuz (&l-kas-s5s'), n. [Pg., alccu^z.'] In 
Brazil, the name of the native licorice, Peri- 
and/ra Mediterranea, the root of which is used 
in medicine, like that of the common licorice. 

alcelaphine (al-sel'a-fin), a. [NL. alcela- 
phinvs, < Alcelaphus," a, genus of antelopes.] 
Belating to the antilopine genus Alcelaphus, 
or to this with related genera considered as 
forming a division of the family Sovidee. 
Flower and Lydekker^ Mammals^p. 334. 

Alchemilla (al-ke-mil'S), n. [NL.] A genus 
of hard^ perennial herbs of the family Bosa- 
Cese, allied to Sanguisorba. The flowers are corym- 
bose and inconspicuous. They are suitable for rockeries 
and front rows of borders, although little grown. There 
are about 85 species, natives of the Old and New Worlds, 
most abundant between Mexico and Chile. 

Alchornea (al-k6r'ne-a), n. [NL. (Swartz^ 
1788), named in memory of Stanesby Alchorne, 
an English botanist and chemist who died 
about 1799.] A genus of dicotyledonous plants 
belonging to the family MuphorbiacesB. They are 
trees or shrubs with alternate leaves and small flowers 
clustered on simple or panicled terminal spikes or 
racemes. About 50 species are known, widely distributed 
in the warmer parts of both hemispheres. For A. iliei- 
folia, see Coelebogyne. 

Alcidea (al-sid'e-a), n. [NL., < Gt. ahai, elk, -I- 
eWoc, resemblance.] A genus of deep-sea 
sculpins of the family CotHdse. A. thobumi 
is found off the coast of California. 

alcogel (al'ko-jel), n. [^alco(,hot) + gel(aMn).'] 
Silicic acid separated in gelatinous condition 
by means of alcohol. 

alcohol, n — Acetone alcohol. Same as Aowto;.— Al- 
cohol lamp. See *lamp.—'B7T0ia/a«caiD alcohol. 
Same asAaceM.— Tolane alcohol, the name given to a 
substance of somewhat uncertain composition, said to be 
formed by the action of ethyl alcohol on benzoin.— Whey 
alcohol, an alcoholic liquor prepared from milk, after 
the separation of the fat and casein, by fermentation of 
the lactose or milk-sugar. 

alcoholase (al'ko-hol-as"), n. A ferment of 
vegetable origin which supposedly causes alco- 
holic fermentation during anaerobic respira- 
tion. 

alcoholic, a. II. n. 1. One who indulges to 
excess in alcoholic beverages, or who is suffer- 
ing from the systemic effects of alcohol. — 2. 
A remedy the chief therapeutic value of which 
depends upon the presence of alcohol. 

The unadministered alcohoHea are catalogued by genera 

on cards and located so that any jar can be found at once. 

Smithaonicm, Report, 1900, p. 38. 

alcoholize, i>. t — Alcoholized paper, in photog., 
paper prepared with an alcoholic solution containing 
milk-sugar, zinc iodide, and zinc bromide. The paper is 
afterward sensitized with a solution of silver acetonitrate 
acidified with glacial acetic acid. 

alcohol-motor (al'ko-hol-m6"tgr), n. An in- 
ternal-combustion motor in which alcohol va- 
por is burned explosively ; an alcohol-engine ; 
an engine which uses alcohol as fuel for its 
source of heat. 

alcornoco (al-k6r-n6'k6), n. Same as aleor- 
noque. 

alcove, n. (d) A recess in an escarpment formed by 
the more rapid retrogressive erosion of one part than of 

another. Alcove system, a method of arranging books 

in a library, or of exhibiting specimens in a museum, in 
which each subject and each class h»s an alcove or series 
of alcoves to itself. _ 

Alcyonacea (al"si-6-na'se-a), n. pi. [NL., < 
Alcyon + -acea."] An order or suborder of Al- 
cyonaria in which the skeleton consists of 
loose spicules embedded in a well-developed 
canalif erous ooenenchytna without axial skeletal 
rod. The group contains the families XewHdse, 
Aleyonidx, and NephthyidsB. Nearly equivalent 
to Alcyoniacex. 

alcyonacean (al"si-6-na'se-an), a. and«. I. 
a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling the Aleyo- 
nacea. 
II, n. One of the Alcyonacea. 

Alcyonaria, n.pl. 2. A subclass of Anthozoa, 
containing the orders Stolonifera, Alcyonacea, 
Pseudaxonia. Amfera, Stelechotokea, and Cceno- 
thecaUa. 



29 

aldane (al'dan), ». [ald{ekyde) + -ane.'] A 
name proposed by Riban to designate a com- 
pound formed by the condensation of two mole- 
cules of an aldehyde with the loss of water. 

aldea (al-da'a), ». [Pg., < Ar. al-dai'a, a farm 
or village.] A villa or country-seat. Yule and 
Bumell. [East Indies.] 

aldeament (al-de'a-ment), n. [Brazilian Pg. 
aldeamento, < Pg. dldear, lodge in villages, < 
ald^a, aldeia, a village : see *aldea.'] In Brazil, 
a settlement in which natives who have sub- 
mitted to the government, or to missionary 
influences, are gathered. See reduction (e). 
F. Boas. 

While the Government and the missions have suc- 
ceeded with great difficulty with others, as for the 
Bororo, with their hostile indisposition to link their 
interests with those of the colonists and to settle in per- 
manent aldewments, the plan to interest them in the 
cultivation of the soil did not succeed. 

Smithsonian, Beport, 1806, pp. 574, 575. 

Aldebaran (SFde-ba-ran' or al-deb'a-ran), n. 
[Ar., the follower (i. e. of the Pleiades).] A 
chrome star of magnitude 1.0; a Tauri.' 

Aldebaranian (al-de-ba-ra'ni-an), a. and n. 
I, a. Noting stars which have a spectrum 
similar to that of Aldebaran. They have fluted 
spectra in which a series of calcium lines, sometimes 
called protocalciimt, together with arc lines of iron cal- 
cium manganese (protostrontium) and hydrogen, are pre- 
dominant. The nutings are incipient. The blue line of 
calcium, K 1 4227, is strongly marked. 
II. n. An Aldebaranian star. 

aldebydase (al"de-hi-das'), n. [aldehyde + 
-ase.'] A ferment which oxidizes an aldehyde 
to its corresponding acid. 

aldehyde, n — Crotonlc aldehyde, a volatile oil with 
a disagreeable, penetrating odor, having the formula 
CHsCHiCHCHO, and prepared by the distillation of aldol. 
It boils at 104° C— Formic aldehyde. See *formic. 

aldehydene (al'de-hi-den), n. [aldehyde + 
-ene.l 1. Aname formerly applied to the base 
formed by heating aldehyde ammonia, now 
known to be trimethylpyridine. — 2. A name 
given by Ladenburg to the bases formed from 
aldehydes and hydroohlorids of aromatic or- 
thodiamines. 

alder^, ».— Alder grah. see •prafti.— California 

alder, Alnus rhombifoUa. — 'DwaXi alder. (a) The 
alder-leafed buckthorn, Rhammiit alnifoliM. (b) A shrub of 
the %eayiaFoihergilla,oi the southeastern United States.— 
Green alder, Alnvx Alnobetula, a shrub of the northern 
part of both hemispheres and of the AUeghanies farther 
south. — Hoary alder, the speckled alder, Alnue in- 
eana. — Mountain alder, (a) The green alder, Alnvx 
Alnobetula. (6) Alnus rhmiiifolia, of the western United 
States, (c) The striped maple, Aeet Pmnsylvanieum. 
[North Carolina.]— Narrow-leafed alder, an arbores- 
cent species, Alnvs tenuifolia, of western Korth America. 
The bark furnished the Indians an orange dye.— Eed 
alder, a northwestern species, Alnus Oregona.—SeaaiAe 
alder, Alnus manriUma, found in wet ground in Delaware 
and Maryland, near the coast, and also in Indian TeiTi- 
tory.— Spiked alder, thewhite alder,CTe«Ar<i alnifolia.— 
Western alder, the Califomian Alnus rhmnUfolia or 
the more northern red alder, Alnus Oregona. 

alder-blight (ai'd6r-blit"), «. A plant-louse, 
Schizoneura tessellnta. it occurs in great numbers 
on the under side of the branches of the alder, and 
secretes large quantities of down-like wax. It also 
secretes much honeydew, which is attractive to honey- 
loving insects and to the resting-spores of certain fungi. 

alder-fly (ftl'd6r-fli"')_, n. A name given by 
fishermen to a certain neuropterous insect of 
the family SialidcB, used as, or imitated for 
use as, bait: so named because it occurs 
along alder-lined streams in England. 

aldermanlike (&rder-man-lik), a. Like an 
alderman ; characteristic of an alderman ; 
proper or becoming to an alderman ; alder- 
manly. 

Aldemey (ard6r-ni), n. [The name of one of 
the Channel Islands.] A breed of small-sized 
cattle originating in Aldemey, noted for the 
abundance and richness of their milk. They 
are of light build, with small horns, and are generally of 
a fawn color with blackish legs. 

aldime (al'dim), n. [ald{ehyde) + 4me.'] A 
compound, having the general formula ECH:- 
NH, which may be considered as derived from 
ammonia and an aldehyde by the loss of water. 
The aldimes are stable only in the form of 
salts. 

aldine^ (al'din), ». [ald(ehyde) + -ine^.] A 
name given to those pyrazines (CnH2ii-4N2) 
which may be formed by the condensation of 
two molecules of an a-aminoaldehyde. 

aldo-alcohol (al'do-aVko-hol), n. [ald{ehyde) 
+ -0- + alcohol.] An organic compound con- 
taining both an aldehyde (CHO) and a hy- 
droxyl (OH) group. 

aldohezose (al-do-hek's6s), n. [ald(ehyd€) 
+ -0- + Gr. ef, six, + -ose.] A general name 



alethorama 

given to those sugars which have the composi- 
tion CgHi 2O6 ^^^ contain an aldehyde group. 
aldol (al'aol), n. [ald(ehyde) + -ol.] A com- 
pound, CH3CHOHCH2CHO, formed by the 
condensation of acetaldehyde by means of zinc 
chlorid. The official name is butanaloUZ. — 
Aldol condensation^ a condensation of two or more 
aldehyde molecules in which an aldehyde alcohol is 
formed. 

aldose (al'dos), n. [ald(ehyde) + -ose.] A 
name given to any monosaccharide which is an 
aldehyde to distinguish it from a ketose, which 
contains a ketone-group. 
aldoxime (al-dok'sim), n. [ald(ehyde) + oxime.] 
A compound, having the general formula R — 
CH:NOH, which is formed by the action of 
hydroxylamine on an aldehyde. Also aldoxim. 
Aldxich deep. See *deep. 
Aldrovandia (al-dro-van'di-S), n. [NL., < 
Aldrovandi (1522-1605), an Italian naturalist.] 
A genus of deep-sea fishes of the family ffalo- 
sauridse. Also called Halosauropsis. 
alecithal (a-les'i-thal), a. [Gr. a- priv. -I- 
Mictdog, the yolk of an "egg.] Jm embryol., pro- 
vided with very little and uniformly distributed 
food-yolk: a term applied to certain eggs, 
such as those of the sponges, sea-urchins, etc. 
Alectis (a-lek'tis), n. [NL., said to be < Gr. 
aMxrap, a oock.] A genus of Carangidse re- 
markable for its long threadlike fin-rays: 
hence known as the cobbler-fish. 
alectorioid (a-lek-to'ri-oid), a. [alectoria + 
-aid.] Resembling the thallus of the lichen 
Alectoria. 

Alectryouia (a-lek-tri-6'ni-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
aXeKTpv6v, a cock.] A genu's of oysters in which 
the left valve is attached by clasping shelly 
processes and has strong divaricate folds on 
the upper surface. The genus is living in existing 
seas, but was most abundant during Jurassic and Creta- 
ceous times. 
ale-haunter (al'han-t6r), n. [ale, 2, + haunter.] 
A frequenter of ale-houses or ale-drinkings. 
JETeylin. [Rare.] 

alembicar(a-lem'bik-al), a. [alembic + -al.] Of 
or pertaining to, or of the nature of, an alembic. 
— Alemhical lamp, a lamp having a capital or head 
like an alembic, used to arrest the smoke and unconsnmed 
vapors and return them to the oil-reservoir. It was in- 
vented by Besnard. 
Aleochara (al-f-ok'a-ra), n. [NL. (Graven- 
horst, 1802), < Gr. aAEijf,"equiv. to aXeecvdg, open 
to the sun, warm, -H ^''-'ip^iv, rejoice.] A genus 
of rove-beetles, of the family Staphylinidse, 
typical of the tribe Aleoeharini. it has the an- 
tennae 10-jointed, tarsi 5-joint^d, head retracted, not 
narrowed, and the palpi with accesspry terminal joint. 
It is a genus of general distribution, comprising nearly 
200 species. 
Aleoeharini (al"e-o-'ka-Ti'm),n.pl. [NL., 
< Aleochara + -wii.]' A. large tribe of small 
rove-beetles of the family Staphylinidse. They 
have the antennee inserted upon the front, the prothoracic 
spiracles visible, the front coxse large, and the fotu:th joint 
of the maxillary palpi distinct. The tribe comprises more 
than 30 North American genera. 
Aleposomus (a-lep-6-s6'mus), n. [NL., < Gr. 
a- priv. + AeTr/f, scale, + ao/ia, body,] A ge- 
nus of deep-sea fishes of the Atlantic, belong- 
ing to the family Alepocephalidse. 
Aleppo boil, button, evil. See ulcer.— Aleppo gall. 

See itgall3. 

alerta (a-lar'ta), m. [Sp. See alert.] 1. A call 
repeated by sentinels at regular intervals to 
indicate their watchfulness. — 2. An alarm by 
a sentinel, causing the guard to assemble under 
arms. 

Alethopteris(al-e-thop'te-ris),M. [NL. (Stem- 
berg, 1825), < Gr. aMjB^q, true, + Trrepig, fern.] 
A genus of fossil plants usually classed with 
the ferns and made the type of a suborder 
Alethopterides. it is characterized by large bipinnate 
to tripinnate fronds, the thick pinnules being inserted on 
the rachis by a broad, decurrent base, sometimes con- 
fluent. The fruit is unknown, but the recent discovery 
of seeds intimately associated with the fronds renders it 
probable that they were borne by this plant, in which 
case it will be necessary to remove it from the Pteridophyta 
and place it in the class Pteridospermx of Oliver and 
Scott. (See ■kPterUlospermm.) The genus occurs chiefly 
in the productive coal-measures of both hemispheres. 
alethopteroid (al-e-thop'te-roid), a. [Ale- 
thopteris + -oid.] Resembling or pertaining 
to the fossil plant genus Aleihopteris. 
alethorama (al-e-tho-ra'ma), «. [Gr. ahjOin, 
true, + bpafia, what is seen,a sight.] A form of 
cinematograph devised by Mortier and Ch6ri- 
Rousseau in which the film, instead of hav- 
ing the usual interrupted motion, moves con- 
tinuously, and the screen, instead of being 
alternately light and dark, is illuminated in a 
permanent manner by the images. The appara- 
tus consists of a wheel of which the peripheral teeth en- 



alethorama 

gage the perforations of the film and carry it in front of 
a brilliant beam of light from an electric arc. The trans- 
parent aim permits the light to pass through, and the 
picture is reflected from a mirror behind to another at 
one side, then through the first lens of the projection- 
objective to another mirror or to a reflecting prism, and 
finally out of the second lens to the screen. The instru- 
ment may also be used as a registering apparatus if a 
special shutter is provided. This is done by placing 
within the principal drum a smallerone which shfdl have 
slits one third as numerous iis the compartments of the 
outer drum and shall revolve three times as fast. 

aletophyte (a-le'to-fit), n. [Gr. akiiTnq, vaga- 
bond -I- fv-bv, plant.] A ruderal plant, or one 
sporadically introdneed. Aletophytes are re- 
garded by Pound and Clements, the authors ot 
the term, as a subclaas of meaophytes. 

aleiirodifonn (al-u-ro'di-form), a. Inentom., 
resembling one of the insects of the genus 
Aleurodes or family Aleurodidse. Jour. Roy. 
Micros. Soc, April, 1904. 

aleuronate (a-lja'ro-nat), n. [Irreg. < Gr. aXev- 
pov, flour, + -afei.] Albuminous material of 
vegetable origin. The so-called aleuronate flour has 
been used as a substitute for ordinary flour in making di- 
abetic bread. It contains a low percentage of starch. 

Our bread was partly carefully dried wheaten biscuits, 
and partly aleuronate bread, which I had caused to be 
made of wheat flour mixed with about 30 per cent, of 
(dewrimate flour (vegetable albumen). 

Nansen, Farthest North, II. 126. 

aleuroscope (a-lii'ro-skop), n. [Gr. alevpov, 
flour, -t- aKoirelv, view.] An instrument, in- 
vented by Sellnick, designed, like the aleurom- 
eter of Boland, to indicate the fitness ot flour 
for making bread. 

aleutite (a-lli'iit), n. \Aleut{ian) (islands) + 
-ite2.] 1-D.petrog., aname used by Spun- (1900) 
for andesites characterized by andesin and 
labradorite feldspars. The corresponding gran- 
ular rocks are called belugite by Spurr. 

A-level (a'lev-el), n. A leveling instrument 
used for grading earth-work, leveling ditches, 
etc. It consists of a light wooden frame of three pieces 
fastened together like the capital letter "A" with a 
plumb-line suspended from the vertex. To prepare it for 
use, the two feet are flrst brought carefully to the same 
level and the position of the plumb-line is marked on the 
horizontal crosspiece. In use the two feet may thus be 
brought level b^ moving one up or down till the plumb- 
line coincides with the mark on the crosspiece. The two 
feet of the inclined pieces are frequently placed at some 
convenient distance apart, as three yards, ten feet, a rod ; 
and the instrument may then also be used for stepping off 
horizontal distances as well as leveling. 

alexandert (al-eg-zan'dfer), V. t. [Alexander: 
see def . and cf . lynch, v.'] To treat with harsh- 
ness and severity, in the manner of Sir Jerome 
Alexander, an Irish judge in the seventeenth 
century who Was noted for his harsh and mer- 
ciless decisions, especially in regard to Pres- 
byterians and other nonconformists; by im- 
plication, to hang. [Rare.] 

I thank God the robbers in this province are suppressed. 
I hear not of one these three weeks. Many I have taken 
and keep in jail against the assizes, where I hope they 
will be alexandered. 

Earl of Orrery, Letter to Ormonde, April 18, 1666 (Trans. 
[Boy. Hist. Boc., II. 124). 

alexanders, n — Golden alexanders, a yellow-flow- 
ered umbelliferous herb of the northeastern United States, 
Thaspium trifolwium aureum. The name is less prop- 
erly applied to Ziiia aurea. — Purple alexanders, Thaa- 
pium trifoliatum, a plant similar to the golden alexan- 
ders, but with purple flowers. 

alexandra (al-eg-zan'dra), n. In angling, an 
artfficial fly with silver body and peacock harl. 

Alexandra car. See *car^. 

Alexandrian clover. See Trifolium and 
*l>erseem. 

alexia, n. — Motor alexia, a form of aphasia in which 
the patient cannot read aloud, though understanding the 
printed page.— Optical, sensoiy, or visnal alexia, loss 
of ability to comprehend the written or printed page. 

Alexian (a-lek'si-an), a. and n. I. a. Of or 
pertaining to St. Alexius or Alexis, or to the 
Alexians. 

II. n. A member of the religious congrega- 
tion of Alexian brothers, or Cellites. They are 
an association of laymen formed about the beginning of 
the fourteenth century to take charge of the sick and 
infirm : called Alexians from St. Alexius, their patron 
saint. 

alexin (a-lek'sin), n. [Irreg. < Gr. aM^eiv, ward 
off, protect, + -8«2.] A term originally intro- 
duced by Buchner to designate certain sub- 
stances present in normal blood-serum which 
are capable of destroying various foreign cel- 
lular elements, such as bacteria, red blood- 
corpuscles, etc. In the literature of immunity, this 
term has been retained to a certain extent, by French 
writers especially, to designate that component of the 
serum which renders possible the action of the various 
specific immune bodies (amboceptors) and which is de- 
stroyed by heating to atemperatare of about 55° C. or on 
prolonged standing. In this sense its meaning is the 



30 

same as that of -kcompleiment, 8, a term introduced by 
Ehrlich and now the one most commonly used. Such 
complemeu1;al action is noted in the case of the hemo- 
lysins, the bacteriolysins, and the various cytotoxins. 
Same as -kaddirnent and -kcytase. 

alexocyte (a-lek'so-sit), n. [Gr. aH^eiv, ward 
off, protect, + KvTO(, a hollow (a cell).] A 
term introduced by Hankin to designate those 
leucocytes which supposedly furnish alexins. 

Alexurus (a-lek-sU'rus), n. [NL., < (f) Gr. 
d/tifcjv, defend, -I- ovpd, tail.] A genus of 
gobies found in Mexico. A. armiger is tound at 
La Paz. 

alezan (al-e-zan'), n. [P. and OP. alezan, < 
Sp. alazan, of undetermined (Ar. ?) origin.] 
A sorrel horse. [Rare.] 

The snow-white steed of Odo ; the alezan of Fitz- 
osbome. Bidwerf Harold. N. E. D. 

alfa, n. A simplified spelling of alpha. 

alfabet, n. A simplified spelling of alphaiet. 

alfalfa, n. —Turkestan alfalfa, a variety ot alfalfa of 
great value in the arid region of central Asia. This and 
the oasis alfalfa are likely to be valuable in the dry parts 
of the western United States, where irrigation is im- 
practicable. — Oasis alfalfa, a drought-resisting variety 
of the common alfalfa, introduced into the western United 
States from Tunis. 

Alfenld metal. See *metal. 

alferfeinpliyTic(al"fer-fem-fir'ik), a. [alfer{ric) 
+ fem{ic) + (por) phyr(it)ic.'] In petrog., not- 
ing a porphyry containing phenocrysts of both 
alierric silicates (hornblende, augite, biotite) 
and the simpler ferric or ferromagnesian 
minerals (hypersthene, diopside, oUvin) : 
proposed by Gross, Iddings, Pirsson, and 
Washington (1902) in their quantitative classi- 
fication of igneous rocks (which see, under 
*roclc). 

alferpliyric(al-fer-fir'ik),a. lalfer{ric) + (por)- 
phyr{it)ie.'] In petrog., noting a porphyry con- 
taining phenocrysts of an aluminous ferro- 
magnesian (alferrie) mineral. See quantita- 
tive classification of igneoits rocks, under *rocJc. 

alferrie (al-fer'ik), a. [al(uminous) + ferr(o- 
magnesian) + -ie.'] Pertaining to, belonging 
to or having the characteristics of the group 
of aluminous, ferromagnesian, and calcic 
silicates, rock-making minerals, such as augite, 
hornblende, and biotite. See quantitative 
classification of igneous rocks, under *roch. 

alfilerilla, n — Musky alfllerllla, a weed, Erodium 
mogohatuTn, which invades pasture-grounds from Cali- 
fornia to Arizona. It has a limited forage value. Also 
called ground-needle and musky heron's-bUl. 

alfonsin (al-fon'sin), n. [Pg. alfonsim, a fish 
so named, also a silver coin, < Alfonso, a royal 
name.] Any species of fish of the genus Beryx. 

alforjat (al-f6r'ha), n. [Sp., perhaps < Ar. 
aUkhorj : al, the, + khorj, store, supply.] A 
saddle-bag; knapsack; wallet. [Spanish- 
American.] 

alfridary (al'fri-da-ri), n. [NL. alfridaria, 
prob. of Ar. origin ; perhaps < Ar. al, the, + 
fariydah (fartda), a fixed and defined part, < 
farada, he defined, decreed, etc.] In astrol., 
the planet supposed to rule any given septen- 
nial period of human life. 

alg (alg), n. [= G. alge, < L. alga: see alga.'] 
A seaweed ; an alga. 

alga, n.— Boring alga, one of several of the algae which 
have the power of penetrating bivalve-shells, corals, etc 

algal, a — Algal fungus, any fungus which shows close 
relations to the algse and is supposed to be derived from 
them, as the Phycomycetee. ' 

algalia (al-ga'le-a), n. [Colonial Sp.< Sp. al- 
gaUa, civet, alluding to the o4or of the seeds.] 
The abelmosk, Abelmoschus Abelmoschus, a 
shrub cultivated for its flowers and seeds, 
which have a strong odor of musk. See Abel- 
moschus, abelmosk, amber-seed, and muskmal- 
low, 2. 

Algansea (al-gan'se-a), n. [NL.] A genus of 
large chubs, of the family Cyprinidee, found in 
Mexico. 

algebra, n — Double algebra. See *dim6fe.— Uni- 
versal algebra, (a) That calculus whose general prin- 
ciples are the general definitions which hold for any 
process of addition and othprs which hold for any process 
of multiplication. (6) Algebra of multiple unite. Sylvester. 

algebraic, a — A^ebralc addition. See -kaddition. 
—Algebraic configuration, the aggregate of rational 
functions of x and y, where y and x are connected by an 
algebraic equation.— Algebraic magnitude. See *mag- 
Tutude.- Algebraic surface. See surface. 

algebraization, algebrization (al"ie-bra-i-za'- 
shgn, al"je-bri-za'shpn), n. [algebraize, -brize, 
+ -ation.'] Algebraic calculation; reduction 
of a calculation or problem to algebraic form. 
Nature, LXVn. 203. 

algedonic (al-jf-or al-ge-don'ik)^a. and n. [NL. 
*algedonicns < Gr. aXyo^, pain + fi6ovTi, plea^ 
sure.] I. a. In psychol. and estJietics, relating 



Algonkian 

to the affections of pleasantness and unplea- 
santness; pertaining to pleasure and pain. 

I shall venture occasionally to use the word algedoni(^ 

as an adjective to cover the ground of pain and pleasure. 

Marshall, Fain, Pleasure and .^thetics, p. 9. 

II. II. pi. In psychol. and esthetics, the doc- 
trine of afEeotion ; the science of pleasure and 
pain. 

It would be well it English usage authorized the em- 
ployment of the word algedonics to signify the science of 
pain and pleasure. 

Marshall, Fain, Pleasure and Esthetics, p. 9. 

Algerian fir. See *fir. 

Alger metal. See *metal. 

algesia (al-je'si-a), n. [Gr. aXyT/mg, sense of 
pain, < aXyelv, feel pain. Cf. analgesia.] Capa- 
city for pain ; pain sensitivity ; sensitiveness to 
Sain. 
gesimeter. algesimetric (al-je-sim'e-ter, 
al-je-si-met rik). See *algometer, *algometric. 

algicide (al' ji-sid), n. [NL., < alga + L. 
-cida, < csedere, kill.] Any substance, as cop- 
per sulphate, which has the property of de- 
stroying algae. Science, XX. 805. 

Algid fever, a form of pernicious malarial fever marked 
by severe chills. 

algin, algine (al'jin), n. [alga + -in^, ■4iie^.'i 
A mucilaginous substance obtained from cer- 
tain algae, Laminaria stenophylla and X. digi- 
tata. It slightly resembles gelatin, but differs from that 
in not coagulating to a jelly and in not being precipitated 
by tannin, from albumin in not coagulating by heat, and 
from gum arable in being precipitated by mineral acids 
and several organic acids. Insoluble algin is a nitroge- 
nous acid, alginic acid. This forms soluble salts with ttie 
alkaline metals ; those ot the heavy metals are for the 
most part insolnble in water. The solutions ot algin are 
very viscid. It has 14 times the viscidity of starch and 
37 times that of giun arable. It may be used as a thick- 
ener and for fixing iron and aluminium mordants in cal- 
ico-printing, as a waterproof dressing for cloth, and for 
emulsi^ngoils and clarifying wines and spirits. It may 
be obtained in thin transparent sheets, forming a substi- 
tute tor parchment paper, gutta-percha, or gelatin ; and 
it dries up to a homy substance which may be turned and 
polished like ivory or the ivory-nut. 

alginate (al'ji-nat), n. [algin{ic) + -ate.] In 
chem., a salt of alginic acid. 

algine, n. See *algin. 

alginic (al-jin'ik), a. [algin + -ic] In chem., 
of or pertaining to algin Alginic acid, the in- 
soluble form of algin freed from the basic elements with 
which it produces salts, the alginates. 

algioglandular (ai"ji-o-glan'du-lar), a. [Ir- 
reg. < Gr. oAyoc (gen. alyeo;), pain, -I- E. glandu- 
lar.] Relating to glandular action as the 
result of painful stimulation. 

algiometabolic (aFji-o-met-a-bol'ik), a. [Ir- 
reg. < Gr. dXyoc, pain, + IE" metabolic] JRe- 
lating to metabolic changes as the result of 
painful stimulation. 

algiomotor (al"ji-o-m6'tor), a. [Irreg. < Gr. 
aJyoc, pain, + E. motor.] Relating to a motor 
effect, as the outcome of painful stimulation. 

algiomuscular (al"ji-o-mus'ku-lar), a. [Ir- 
reg. < Gr. aXyog, pain_, -f- E. muscular.] Rela- 
ting to muscular action as the result of pain- 
ful stimulation. 

algiovascnlar (ar'ji-a-vas'ku-lar), a. [Irreg. 
< Gr. alyoe, pain, + E. vascular.] Relating to 
vascular changes as the result of painful stim- 
ulation. 

algivorous (al-jiv'o-ms), a. [L. alga, a sea- 
weed, -t- vorare, eat.] Feeding upon sea- 
weeds : said of some fishes and of the Galapagos 
lizard, Amhlyrhynchus. 

Algol (al'gol or al-gol'), ». [Ar.,'the demon.'] 
A pale star varying in magnitude from 2.3 to 

4.0 in a period of 2.89 days; ^ Persei Algol 

variable, a star which remains most of the time con- 
stant in brightness, but which at regular intervals suffers 
a comparatively sudden diminution of its light, due to 
the interposition of one of the members of a binary pair 
between the other member and the observer. Often 
called eclipse variable. 

algometer (al-gom'e-t6r), n. [Gr. aXyog, pain, 
+ /lirpov, measure.] An instrument used in 
psychophysical determinations of the stimulus 
Bmen and differential limen of cutaneous or 
muscular pain. Also algesimeter. 

The pressure alg&mHer consists essentially of a strong 
spring, by means of which a rubber disc or point is pressed 
against the surface to be tested. 

Scripture, New Psychol., p. 303. 

algometric (al-go-met'rik), a. In psychophys., 
pertaining to the use of the algometer or to 
the measurement of sensitivity to pain. Also 
algesimetric. G. S. Hall, Adolescence, II. 4. 

algometry (al-gom'e-tri), n. [Gr. alyog, pain, 
+ -fierpia. < /lirpov, a measure.] The measure- 
ment of sensitivity to pain. Also algesimetry. 

Algonkian, Algonquian (al-gon'ki-an), a. 
[Algonkiin] + -ian.] 1. Same as Algonlkn.— i. 



Algonkian 

SpeeificaUy,ingieoZ., applied to the Pi-eeambrian 
rocks which are either themselves sedimentary 
or, if igneous, are later than known sediments. 
—Algonkian period, a subdivision of Precambrian 
time, as used by the United States Geological Survey, 
immediately preceding the Cambrian. It in turn is pre- 
ceded by the Archsean in a restricted sense. It is equiva- 
lent to the latter part of the ArcTiomn, in the broad sense 
of that term used by many authors: approximately to the 
Archceozcic of J. D. Dana or to the Agnotazoie ot B.. D. 
Irving. Under the Algonkian are placed all those Pre- 
cambrian rocks which are sedimentary or, if igneous, are 
later than recognizable sediments. 

algophilist (al-gof i-list), n. [algophily + -ist.'] 
One who takes a morbid pleasure in the con- 
templation of mental or physical pain in others 
or in himself. 'Alien, and Neurol., May, 1903. 

algophily (al-gof'i-li), n. [Gr. aXjog, pain, + 
■4i-'lla, < (juielv, love.] Love of pain as felt by 
others {active algophily) or as experienced in 
one's own person {passive algophily). Alien, 
and Neurol., May, 1903. 

algorism, ».— Isobarlc algorism, the process ot form- 
ing the expression for the sum of the products of Tn fac- 
tors, each being the same function of m integers whose 
sum is p. 

algraphy (al'gra-fl), n. [Irreg. < al{iiminium) + 
Gr. -ypcupia, < ypiupeiv, write.] The art of 
printing from an aluminium plate to which 
a design in hardened oily ink has been trans- 
ferred . The portions of the plate which are not covered 
by the lines ot the design imbibe from a damping-roller 
water which resists where it is not needed the deposit 
of oily ink made by a second roller. The lines of the 
design accept the ink, which can then be neatly trans- 
ferred to paper by impression. See tlie extract. 

Successful work, especially in colour, has also been 
produced lately by algraphy — a process in which alumi- 
num takes the place of the stone. 

Eruyyc. Brit., XXVIII. 266. 

albambra (al-ham'bra), n. A counterpaue or 
bedquilt of coarse texture, woven with colored 
threads and in Jacquard designs. 
al-het (al-dhef), n.' [Heb. 'alhet, 'for the 
sin.'] The Jewish ' longer confession of sin': 
so called from the first two words of that 
confession. Like most of the prayers ia the Jewish 
festival ritual, called Tnabzw, it is acrostically arranged. 
Each verse asks torgivetiess for a special sin presumed 
to have been committed by the person confessing. This, 
like the 'lesser confession,* •kaaham.nu (yrhioii see), is 
most solemnly chanted by the reader and congregation 
several times during the services of the day of Atonement. 
alicyclic (al-i-sik'lik), a. [aU{phaUc) + Gr. 
KvicAoc;, a circle, + -ic (see cyclic).'] In chem., 
a term introduced by Bamberger to designate 
a compound containing a ring of carbon atoms 
but at the same time having many of the prop- 
erties of the aliphatic or open-chain com- 
pounds. 

alienation, n. 3. The state in which a person 
has completely forgotten his identity and be- 
comes a new person, alien to his former self. 
This use of the term was proposed when the described 
mode of dissolution of personality first attracted atten- 
tion ; but the word having already the recognized tech- 
nical meaning 1 {d), this employment of it has been 
rejected. 
alienize (al'yen-iz), v. t.; pret. andpp. alienized, 
ppr. alienizing. \aUen + -fee.] To render alien 
or foreign; form or conceive in accordance 
withforeign notions or ways. G. Meredith, Evan 
Harrington, p. 32. 

alienocola (a"li-en-ok'o-la), n. ; pi. alienocolse 
(-le). [ML., < L. alienus'j'ot another, + -cola, 
< colere, inhabit.] A parthenogenetic insect 
which is born upon and inhabits a plant of a 
different kind from that upon which its parent 
was bora. 

In the spring winged females are produced, which mi- 
grate to the Larch and give rise parthenogenetically to a 
wingless generation which hibernates under the bark. 
These alienocolse in the following spring produce par- 
thenogenetic winged females. 

Phillips, Proc. Amer. Phllos. Soc, 1903, p. 298. 

aliethmoidal (al"i-eth-moi'dal), a. \aliethmoid 
+ -al.'] Pertaining to the aliethmoid, or wing 
of the ethmoid region of the orbitonasal car- 
tilage ; relating to that part of the mesethmoid 
cartilage from which the aliethmoids are de- 
veloped. W. K. Parker, Morphol. of the Skull, 
p. 226. 

alif (a'lif ), n. [Pers. , < Ar. 'aUf= Heb. 'aleph : 
see alpha.'] The first letter of the Persian 
(Arabic) alphabet, consisting of a single stroke ; 
hence, a mere letter; a jot. 

A hair, they say, divides the false and true; 
Yes ; and a single alif were the clue. 

Could you but find it, to the Treasure-house, 
And peradventure to The Master, too. 
FUzgercUd, trans. Omar Khayyam, Eubaiyat, quat. 1. 

aliipoe (a-le'^e-pa'a), n [Hawaiian.] The com- 
mon canna or Indiaitshot, Canna vndica. 



31 

alimentive (ai-i-men'tiv), a. [aliment + -i»e.] 
Relating or pertaining to food or to the desire 
to eat and drink. 

alimentum (al-i-men'tum), n. ; pi. alimenta 
(-ta). [L.:see flsKmera*.] Aliment : food. Pop. 
Sd. Mo., LIX. 468. 

alinement, n. 4. In archseol., megaliths ar- 
ranged in single, parallel, or converging rows. 

alinite (al'i-nit), n. [G. alinit, a trade-name. 
Prom its use and form it may be conjectured 
to be formed from L. al{iment'am), aliment, -I- 
-m2 -I- -jfe2.] A preparation in the form of a 
yellowish powder containing a pure culture of 
Bacillus Ellenha-dhensis a. It is used for soil -in- 
oculation, and is said to be an aid to cereals in 
assimilating nitrogen. Also alinit. 

alinjectiou (al-in-jek'shgn), n. [al{cohol) + 
injection.'] In histol., the injection of alcohol 
into the tissues for the purpose of hardening 
them. B. a. Wilder. 

alintatao (a-lin-ta'tou), n. [Said to be a Taga- 
log name.] In the Pmlippine Islands, a tree, 
Siospyros pilosanthera, of the ebony family. 
It has simple alternate entire leayes,small unisexual flow- 
ers, and globose edible fruit, and yields a veiy hard, dark- 
colored wood like ebony, which is used in cabinet-making. 

alipata (a-le-pa'ta), n. [Said to be Bisayan, 
but not found.] In the Philippine Islands, the 
blinding-tree, Excsecaria Agallocha. See Mx- 
ceecaria, Uger's-milk, and *blin,ding-tree. 

aliphatic (al-i-fat'ik), a. [NL. aliphatious, < 
Gr. a2.ei^ap (-ot-), an unguent, fat, < aXeifetv, 
anoint.] Of or pertaining to fat; fatty; specif- 
ically, in chem., designating compounds which 
have only an open chain of carbon atoms, as 
distinguished especially from aromatic com- 
pounds, which contain a ring of carbon atoms. 
The hatural fats consist chiefly of compounds 
of this type. 

aliquot (al'i-kwot), v. t. [aliquot, a.] To divide 
into equal parts which are a multiple or a sub- 
multiple of another quantity. An aliquoting mech- 
anism is one which causes one part of a machine to move 
n times while the other part moves once. Sci. Amer. Sup,, 
Nov. 22, 1902. 

Aliquot tones, in aeouiKct, harmonics or overtones. 

alisier (a-le-zi-a'), n. [Creole P., same as P. 
alizier, the bean-tree.] The stag-bush, Vi- 
burnum prunifolium. [Louisian a.] 

alism (al'izm), n. [al-, part of the Semitic 
name for ' God' (Heb. el-, Ar. il-, ilah, al'lah, Al- 
lah), + -ism.] A title adopted by Prancis P. 
Barham for his religious system, which honors 
'divinity' as the all-supreme good, and de- 
scribes religion as the life of God in the soul 
of man, a divinity of essential being rather 
than formal doctrine. 

alisphenoid, ». 2. In ichth., a small lateral 
bone of the cranium. It articulates above with the 
sphenotic aild an inner descending wing of the frontal, 
and behind with the probtic. It usually forms a part of 




Rocctts Uneatus, Lateral View of Cranium. 




'5 '-5 

Roccus Uneatus. Inferior View of Cranium. 
/, romer; z, etlimoid; J, prefrontal; ¥> frontal; S. sphenotic; d, 
parietal : 7, epiotic ; S. supraoccipital ; 9, pterotic ; 10, opisthotic ; 
ZI, exoccipital ; J2, basioccipital ; 13, parasphenoid ; 14, Dasisphe- 
noid; is. proiltic; 16, alisphenoid. 

the lateral border of the anterior opening of the brain- 
case, though sometimes it nearly closes this by bend- 
ing inward and meeting its opposite fellow in a median 
suture. The 'alisphenoid 'ol Owen is the 'probtic' ol 
Parker. 
aliturgic (a-li-t§r'jik), a. [ a-18 -f- Uturgic.'] 
Without liturgy: designating a day in the Chris- 
tian year when the liturgical order is dispensed 
With. Strictly speaking, this never occurs. The mass 
of the presanotifled on Good Friday, referied to below, is 
according to the liturgy, though the liturgical order is 
curtailed in that ceremony. 



alkalic 

Meanwhile, both in East and West, the general prac- 
tice has contmued unbroken of reserving the Eucharist, 
in order that the "mass of the presanotifled " might take 
place on certain "aliturgic" days. 

Mncyc. Brit., XXXIL 220. 

aliturgical (a-li-tfer'ji-kal), a. Same as *ali- 
turgic. 

alivincular (al"i-ving'ku-lar), a. [L. ala, wing, 
-I- vinculum, band, -I- - dr^.] JNoting that 
form of ligament in the pelecypod moUusks 
which is like a cord or plug extendiugbetween 
the beaks of the two valves : it maybe central 
or posterior : contrasted vnth parivincular. 

alizarate (a-liz'a-rat), «. [alizar-in + - ate^.] 
A salt of aUzariii. 

alizarin, n. commercial alizarin is sold in the form 
of a yellowpaste containing 20 per cent, of dry substance, 
and, less frequently, as a dry powder. The diy substance 
in the paste is seldom pure alizarin, but contains vary- 
ing amounts of flavopurpurin and anthrapurpurin, both 
of which have properties similar to alizarin. Natural 
alizarin derived from madder contains purpurin in addi- 
tion to the above. The nature of the various commer- 
cial alizarins is often designated by suflixed letters or 
numbers. Thus alizarin I, alizarin P, and alizarin V 
are nearly pure alizarin and give bluish reds, while aliza- 
rin GA, alizoHn Q, etc., contain anthrapurpurin or flavo- 
purpurin, or both, and give yellowish reds.— Alizarin 
black, blue, Bordeaux, cardlnsU, etc. See -trblaek, 
etc.— Alizarin sapbirol, an acid dyestufl derived from 
anthraquinone. It dyes wool a bright and clear blue 
which is remarkably fast to light.— Alizarin yeUow, 
violet. See Ayellow, •Amolet^. 

aljama (al-ha'ma), n. [Sp., <'Ar. al, the, -I- 
Ar. jamd'a, a gathering, a congregation.] A 
self-governing community of Jews or of Moors 
Uving in Spain under Spanish rule during the 
middle ages. 

aljofaina (al''''ho-fa'e-na), n. [Sp., < Ar. al-ho- 

faina, al-hufaina, < al, the, + hofaima, h/ufaina, 
< hafna, a cup, porringer (Monlau).] An 
earthen Jug or basin. 

aljonjoli, n. Same as *ajonjoli. 

Alkainaaa pottery. See *pottery. 

alkali, «., 3. TMs term, used in the commercial sense, 
includes the carbonates of sodium and potassium, for- 
merly called mUd alkalis, and the hydroxids ol the same 
metals, the caustic alkalis. The alkali industry is one 
of great importance, especially the manufacture of soda, 
both carbonate and caustic. It is carried on mainly by 
three methods : the Leblanc process, the Solvay or ammo- 
nia process, and the electrolytic process. In the last of 
these, of recent introduction, a solution of common salt 
is decomposed by an electric current. The Solvay pro- 
cess is not_ practically applicable to the production of 
potash ; it is at present the principal source of soda. 
4. A mineral compound soluble in water under 
ordinary surface conditions. They are chiefly 
ehlorids, sulphates, ca^-bonates, and blcarbonates of so- 
dium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. These salts 
commonly effloresce and form crusts over surfaces in 
dry seasous. They are derived from the decay of racks, 
and are carried in solution from these sources, becoming 
concentrated enough to be detrimental only in arid or 
semi-arid regions. There are two well-known types, 
black and wftite.— Alkali blue-grass, brown, bulruBh. 
See -kblue-grass, etc.— Alkali flat, a sterile plain or basin 
carrying an excess ot alkali in its soil : usually the un- 
drained or poorly drained remnant of a former lake in 
an arid region.— Alkali manufacture, in a general 
sense, the production on the great scale of the alkalis 
soda and potash, and their carbonates, but more gener- 
ally used in a restricted sense to mean the manufacture 
of soda, carbonate and caustic, especially by the Leblanc 
process, with the accessory products, as bleacliing-pow- 
der, commonly made on the same premises. — Alkali 
soil, any soil containing an unusual amount of soluble 
mineral salts or alkali. More than four tenths ot one 
per cent, of such soluble matter is injurious to most vege- 
tation, although smaller amounts, on the contrary, are 
often advantageous. Soils naturally well drained do not 
suffer from these constituents, and alkali soils are con- 
fined eitlier to poorly drained or to arid regions. — Alkali 
spot, an area underlain by waters which drain from 
irrigated lands, frequently becoming increasingly sat- 
iirated with alkali. Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agr. 1900, 
p. 472.— Alkali waste, in the Leblauc process for the 
manufacture of carbonate of soda from common salt, the 
insoluble residue left after leaching black ash with 
water. It consists chiefiy of calcium sulphid, carbonate, 
and hydroxid, and is largely utilized for the recovery of 
the sulphur which it contains. — Alkali waters, natural 
mineral waters so heavily charged with alkalis as to 
be unfit for ordinary uses. — Black alkali, the name 
given, in some of the western regions of the United States, 
to sodium carbonate existing in the land, because it pro- 
duces black spots by its action on the humus of the soil. 

Ammonia and sodium carbonate or "black alkali" on 
the other hand, break down any aggregates wliich have 
been formed, and thus have the effect of " puddling " the 
soil, which dries into a hard compact mass. 

Yearbook C. S. Dept. of Agr. 1900, p. 209. 

Eefined alkali. Same as white -kalkali.— -White alkali, 
in the manufacture of carbonate of soda by the Leblanc 
process, the product obtained by redissolving soda-ash 
in water, clarifying the liquor, and evaporating to dryness. 

alkalic (al-kal'ik), a. [alkali + -ic] 1. Same 
as alkaline. Elect. World and Engin., Sept. 3, 
1904. — 2. Specifically applied to the minerals 
of igneous rocks (in the quantitative classifi- 
cation ) or to magmas androcks generally, wh en 
specially characterized by their alkali con- 



alkalic 

teats: in distinction trom alkaline, which im- 
plies the chemical property of alkalinity. 
alkalicalcic (aHkal-i-kal'sik), a. [alkali + 
caldc.'] In petrog., a term nsed in the quanti- 
tative classification of igneous rocks to indi- 
cate that certain rocks, tite chemical composi- 
tion of which is known, contain alkalis and 
lime belonging to the standard salic minerals 
(feldspars andfeldspathoids) in equal or nearly 



32 

on the back, with an almost white breast. In northern 
Peruvian (Qulohua) it is oaUed cAtJW-ftmte. 

alkameine (al-kam'e-in), w. [G. "alkameine; 
as alKnm(ine) + -e-ine^.] The carboxylic ester 
of an alkamine or alkine. Also called alkeme. 

alkamine (al-kara'inj, n. 
k{ohol), alcohol, + amin ^ _ 

by Ladenburg to tertiary bases which contain 
an- alcoholic group, as diethylethylol amine, 
(C2H6)2NCaHAOH. Also called alkine. 



equal amounts. A certain systematic dlviBion of the aiWlTifi f al'kan) n FG. *alkan (?), < alMohol), 
oua„titativ« nla«.iflcatio„ is called the aUcaiUalHo rana. ^^^%^^^ ^^^^^ B.^«e.] A hydrocarbon; 

CnHgn+2> of the marsh-gas or methane series : 



quantitative classification is called the alkalicalcic rang, 
3ee Quantitative classification qf ignevux rocks, under 

alkali-grass, n. 3. Pucdnellia airoides (some- 
times called alkali nieadow-grass) and P. Lem- 
moni, of the northern Eocky Mountain region. 
Sporobolus airoides of the Southwest has been 
called alkali finetop. — 3. A species of poison 
camass, Zigadenus elegans, dangerous to stock: 
so called in the stock-raising regions of Mon- 
tana, etc. 

alkalimeter, n. 2. An instrument for the quan- 
titative analysis of carbonated alkali, it consists 
essentially of a thin glass vessel which can be weighed on a 
delicate balance and is so constructed that a Imown weight 
of sodium carbonate or acid carbonate contained in one 
division is kept from acid contained in another division 
during the first weighing. The acid is then run on the 
carbonate, causing an evolution of carbon-diozid gas, 
which, in passing out of the apparatus, bubbles tluough 



allelomorph 

gether with urea and allanturic acid, by the 
action of nitric acid on allantoin. 
allantiasis (al-an-ti'a-sis), «. [NL., < Gr. 
a?Mg (aUavT-) + -iasis (noting a disease).] 
Same as *l)otulism. 
[Gr. *alkamin, < al- aUantoid, a. 2. In hot., sausage-shaped : ap- 
I.] A name given pije^ especially to the spores of certain pyre- 
nomycetous fungi. 

Allantosporae (al-an-tos'po-re), n. pi. [NL., 
< Gr. d^ioQ (d'/iXavT-), sausage, + aTropd, spore.] 
A name applied by Saccardo to artificial 
divisions of various families and orders of 
fungi, especially those of the Pyrenomyeetes 
and Fungi imperfeeti, to include the genera 
which have unicellular, cyUndric, or curved 



ofScial name. 

alkannin (al-kan'in), n. [Alkanna + -tn'-i 
A coloring matter, CJ6H14O4, obtained as gpores. 
a dark reddish-brown powder from Alkanna allantoxaidin (al-an'tok-sa'i-diii), n. [allan- 
tinctoria. toxa(nic) + -id^ + -in^.] A.s\ibsta]xee,Cs'K^g. 

alkapton (al-kap'ton), n. [alk{ali) + Gr. Qo + H2O, formed from allantoxanic acid by 
diTTeiv, touch.] A term ori^nally introduced ^j^g j^gg (,£ carbon dioxid. It is a weak acid, 
to designate a certain urinary constituent allantoxanic (al-an'tok-san'ik), a. [allant{<m) 
which is met with on rare occasions, and which ^. gx{ygen) + -an- + -ic] Notiiig an acid, 
causes the urine to turn reddish brown or C4H<jN304, formed by the oxidation of allan- 
black on standing or upon the addition of an tojji'ij, an alkaline solution. It exists only in ■ 
alkali. The substance to which this reaction is due ^^ form of salts. 

has been identified as homogentisinic acid, C6H3(OH)2.- -ii-nijiet n. Another spelling of alepine. 
In one mstanoe UTOleuouiic acid has been axid.liuieT^ '■■■__ ^-^""''"<=' "J;^, .6. J' . 




CH2.COOH. 

found iu the place of homogentisinic acid, 

ton. . 

alkaptonic (al-kap-ton'ik), a. Of or pertain- 
ing to alkapton. Homogentisinic acid and 
uroleucinio acid are sometimes collectively 
termed alkaptonic adds. See ■^alkapton. 

alkaptonuria (al-kap-to-nu'ri-a), n. [NL., < 
alkapton + oupov, urine.] The presence of al- 
kapton in the urine when voided : a rare meta- 
bolic anomaly. Also alcaptpnuria. 

alkeine, n. Same as *alkameine. 

alkene (al'ken), n. [G. *alken, < alk(,ohol), E. 
alcohol, + -m, E. -ene.'] A hydroearbonj C«- 
H211, of the ethylene or ethene series: ofacial 



^A, Mohr's Alkalimeter; S, Wibel's Alkalinieter. 



CnH2tt--2» of the acetylene or ethine series : offi- 
cial name. — 2. Same as '^alkamine. 

alkoxyl (al-kok'sil), n. [G. *alkoxyl, < alk(,o- 
hol), alcohol, + B. ox(ygen) + -j/Z.] A general 
name for an alkyl-group and oxygen, as ethoxyl, 
CoHbO. 

alkylate (al'ki-lat), v. t. ; pret. and pp. alky- 
lated, ppr. alkylating, [alkyl + -afel.] To in- 
troduce an alkyl in place of a hydrogen atom. 
Amer. Chem. Jour., April, 1903 



Also alcap- alleged (a-lejd'), p- a. That is or has been 
stated to'be (what is specified in the following 
word or clause) ; merely stated or asserted : 
much used when one wishes to disclaim re- 
sponsibility for the statement, or to intimate 
his disbelief in it : as, an alleged fact ; an 
alleged interview ; an alleged illness. 

We cannot be sure that the alleged second dispatch was 
ever sent Sir G. Cox, Gen. Hist. Greece, III. 10. 

Alleghanian <al-e-ga'ni-an), a. and n. 1. Of 
or pertaining to the AUeghanies. — 2, In 
anthrop., noting one of the secondary races of 
man, established by Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire, 
embracing the ' Red Indian.' Also used sub- 
stantively. — Allegbanian area. See *area. 
— - "• ■ See *series. 

1. Allegory or 



alkine (al'kin), n. [G. 'alkin, < alk{ohol), E. Aiwheny EiveTseries." 
alcohol, + -in, E. -in^.^ 1. A hydrocarbon, aUeeorism (al'e-go-rizm). 



concentrated sulphuric acid or passes over calcium alkvlationfal-ki-la'shon),TO. \alkliUU + -im.'\ ^"^SOiicauy. oee "liMcuwrwm, .j. 

ohlorid and is thus deprived of moisture. The apparatus ^^S^^^ytw^^^s -f i ntrodu^^^^^ an alkvl in nlaee allegOnstlC aFe-go-ns'tik), a. Of or pertai 

is weighed a second time, the loss iu weight represent^ing The process ot introducing an alfeyl in place . » ^llegorist or writer of allegories : 1 



allegorical writing. — 2. AUegorieal interpreta- 
tion, especially of the Scriptures. See the 
extract. 

Allegorism : That explanation of a Scripture passage 
which .is baaed upon the supposition that its author, 
whether God or man, intended something 'other' than 
what is literally expressed. . . . Expositors of this 
system may be called allegorists ; the system itself 
aUegarimn. Qiiaberg, Jewish Encyc, I. 403. 

allegorist, n. 2. One who interprets Scripture 
allegorically. See *allegorism, 2. 
" " ■ .in- 



the cSbon dioxid evolved and thus indicating the quality of hydrogen. Nature, July, 9, 1903. 
of the carbonate. As a precaution, dry air Is drawn alkvlene (al'M-len), n. (alkyl + -ene.'] Same 

as *alkene or olejine. 



through the apparatus to displace any residual gas. 
Special forms have been devised by Bunsen, Fresenius, 
Sohroetter, Mohr, and others. 
'alkalimirlic (al*kal-i-mer'lik), a. [alkali + 
mirlio.'] In petrog., a term used in the quanti- 
tative classification of igneous rocks to indi- 
cate that certain rocks, the chemical compo- 
sition of which is known, contain alkalis and 
mirlic constituents belonging to the standard 
femic minerals in equal or nearly" equal 



alkylidlne (al-kil'i-din), n. [alkyl + -id + 
-ine^.'] The term applied,. in organic chemis- 
try, to bivalent hydrocarbon radicals, contain- 
ing the group >CRE, where E represents hy^ „?i°^„ „„.,..., . . , 
a^iro-n nr- o^Tr VivrlrnpnrVinTi radipal snch as allegTO, a. Special varieties of movement or style 
drogen or any nyoroear Don radical, suen as j ^^jOj^j J ^ j^^j j^ j^^ „j^ ,^, 

methyl, CHo. The ethylidine radicals are •• •■'..- ". ' ■ "_-"__, 

isomeric with the bivalent ethylene radical. 



ui ii..€»iiT vjvi.*u.* -CE2.CE2~' 

amounts. A certain systematic division of the allacll»saesia(aFa-ke8-the'si-a), n. [NL., 

quantitative system is called an alkalimirlic < Gr. aAhixv, elsewhere (< aAAoc, other), + 

rana. See quantitative classification of igneous moftymf, feeling.] The perception of a sensa- _ . 

rocks under *rock tion elsewhere than at the point where the alleja (a-le'ja), n. 



JUkaiine glands. See *ff?a)id.— Alkaline Iodide. See stimulus is applied, 
•iodide.— Alkaline metals, the metals of which the allactlte (arak-tit), ». [Gr. aA?iaKT{iK6g),aA}., 
hydroxids constitute the alkalis, namely, sodium, potas- (^ ^xUaasiv, change, exchange (see allagite), 
slum, and the rarer lithium, nibidium, and OKSium.- , . gn At, arsp^iatn nfmanffaiipsfi occurring 
Alkaline tide. See *(i(fo.— Alkaline water, a mineral J -ite-i. J Aii arseniate ot manganese occurring 
water occurring in nature with the carbonate of sodium m small brownisn-red prismatic crystals : 
or potassium (generally the former) as an ingredient in found in Sweden. 

sufficient quantity to give a well-marked reaction to test- AllagecrinidSB (a-lai-e-krin'-i-de), n. pi [ NL., 
naner and medicinal activity. Thecarbonates of calcium "i.i«*6=»'*"^""»v j . „„'„•%..;„„„ i. 

and ma^iesium are also frequeotly present, dissolved by <Alla^ecnnus + -idse.] The name given by 
excess of carbonic acid. The waters of Vichy in France Etheridge and Carpenter to a lamily or simple 
and Ems in Germany are examples. 

alkali-weed (al'ka-li-wed), n. The yerba 
mansa, Anemopsis Californica. 

alkali-works (al'ka-li-w6rks), n. pi. The 

buildings, machinery, and other appliances -tyiagecrinus cai-a jeit n-nus;, m. u^i^-,irreg. 
-■ ■ aductohhe alkali manSacture. <Gr. a^^^, chjinge, + mv'"', lily.] The 



the allegoristio style ; allegoristic lessons. 

all6gresse (al-a-gres'), n. [F., < alligre, lively : 
see allegro.] Gaiety ; sprightliness ; glad- 
someness; glee. Urquhart. <• 

AUegrippus conglomerate. See *emglmn- 
erate. 

are 
agitato, 
quick and "with agitation ; allegro assai, very quick ; 
allegro con brio or confuoco, quick and with spirit or in- 
tensity ; allegro con moto or allegro molto, with decided 
quickness ; allegro vivace, quick and with vivacity ; 
allegro giusto, quick, but with steady, even movement ; 
allegro moderato, moderately quick; allegro ma turn 
Irdppo, quick, but not excessively so. 

Also allejah, 



[Anglo-Ind. 



inadunate crinoids. They have a very small calyx, 
baisal plates anisylosed and supporting sometimes two 
arms, sometimes one. They lived in early Carboniferous 

seas. 



used in the conduct 

alkalizer (al'ka-li-zer), n. A chemical agent 
which tends to render alkaline. 

alkaloid, n Animal aJkalold, a leucomalne or a 

ptomaine. See these words. — Artiflcial alkaloid, syn- 
thetic alkaloid.— Cadaveric or putrefactive alkaloid 
a ptomaine.— Synthetic alkaloid, an alkaloid formed 
artificially by chemical processes. 

alkamari (al-ka-ma're), n. [Aymara of Bo- 
livia.] A bird of prey, Polyphorus tharus, of 
the family Falconidse (thoi^h chiefly a scav- 
enger), frequently met with in the highlands of 



typical and only genus of the family AUqge- 
crinidsb. 

allalinite (al-a-lin'it), n. [Allaiin, a locality 
in Switzerland, -I- -ite^.] tapetrog., aname used 
by Eosenbusch for saussurite-gabbro in 
which the secondary smaragdite and saussurite 
preserve the original texture of the rock in 
spite of the complete transformation they rep- 
resent. It is distinguished from flaser-gabbro, 
in which there has been change in the form pf 
the constituents. 



Peru and Boli^a. " 'tai^ »*°"' ^ P»*f ' 'X'd « aUanic (a-lan'ik), a. [aUan(toin) -\- -ie.] Not- 

vated catches and open spaces, and when disturnea it ■»^'«»"»' x ri ir -kt r\ j. xi rx *«.. a 4. 

fliesonly a short distance. Its plumage is dark brown ing an acid, C4HBN5O6 + HgO, formed, to- 



allacha, alacUa, etc., < Hind. *aldcha, ilaeha, 
< Turki aldchah, alajdh, alchah (Yule).] A 
silk-and-cotton fabric of central Asia, woven 
in wavy effects. 

allelomorph (a-lel'o-m6rf), n. [Gr. 'ayi^im', 
of one another, -f- fi-opipii, form.] In hiol., one 
of a pair of mutually exclusive qualities ex- 
hibited respectively by each of two pure races 
or varieties of a species, these qualities being 
of such a nature that one or the other of the 
pair is exhibited in perfection, to the com- 
plete exclusion of the other, by each cross-bred 
descendant of the two pure races. When the 
cross-bred offspring, or the descendants of the cross- 
bred offspring, of two pure races or varieties which dif- 
fer from each other in respect to some characteristic are 
like one or the other parent in respect to this character- 
istic, and not intermediate between them, the character- 
istic in question, in each parental form, is termed by 
Bateson an allelomorph, or in both parental forms, con- 
sidered collectively, a pair of allelomorphs. Thus, for 
example, .when descendants are reared from a tall (D) 
and a short (B) variety of the garden-pea, some are tall 
and some snort, but intermediate forms are as rare as 
they are in the tall and short varieties of pure blood 
when bred true. In this case tallness and shortness may 
be considered as a pair of mutually antagonistic or in- 
compatible unit cliaracters, or aZldomorphi, each of 
which may replace but not combine with the other in 
the descendants from a cross between them. According 
to Mendel and those who accept his theoretical explana- 



allelomorph 

tlon of the results of his experiments, the cross-bred in- 
dividuals have two sorts of germ-cells in approximately 
equal numbers, those which are like the germ-cells of 
one pure parental I'ace (D) and those which are like the 
£erm-cells of the other (£). It descendants are born 
from cross-breeds through the union of two of the D or 
tall germ-cells, the shortness (R) of the short variety 
will not be represented in the fertilized eggs from which 
they arise, and they will be tall and will have none but 
tall descendants ; while those which arise from fertilized 
eggs formed by the union of the R or short germ-cells 
wiU be short and will have none but short descendants. 
Those which arise from fertilized eggs formed by the 
union of a tall (D) and a short (B) germ-cell may be tall 
'Or short but not intermediate. 

[If] two similar gametes meet, their offspring will be 
no more likely to show the other allelomorph than it no 
cross had ever taken place. 

Bateaon andSawndere, Bep. Evol. Com. Hoy. Soc. 1902, 

[L 159. 

allelomorphlc (a-lel-o-mdr'fik); a. [allelomorph 
+ -ic] Conoeming or pertaining to an allelo- 
morph ; Mendelian. 

But besides the strictly oJIeJomorpAtc or Mendelian dis- 
tribution of characters among the gametes ... we can 
imagine three other arrangements. 
Bateton and Saunders, Bep. EvoL Com. Boy. Soc. 1902, 

[I. 127. 

AUelomoipUc vailety, an analytical variety. See *va- 
riatian. 

allelomorplllsni (a-lel-o-mdr'flzm), n. [allelo- 
morph, (ie) + -ism. J The presence or the trans- 
mission or the inheritance of allelomorphic 
characters. 

It does not appear as yet that simple allelomarphiem 
occurs between any two colours, of which neither is 
xanthic or albino. 

Bateean and Saunders, Bep. Evol. Com. Boy. Soc. 1902, 

[1. 142. 

allelotazis (a-lel-6-tak'sis), n. [On. aTiTi^TiM/, 
of one another, +'rd|(f, arrangement.] In em- 
fyryol., the origin of an organ from several em- 
bryonic sources, such as that of the hypophy- 
sis from the entoderm of the pharynx and the 
ectoderm of the brain. Vov, Kvpffer. 

allelotropy (a-le-lot,'ro-pi), n. [Gt. cMJiXav, 
of each other, +-vp(m'ia^<.TpiKeiv, turn.] The 
existence in a tantomeno substance of the two 
isomeric forms In such a condition that either 
form readily passes over into the other. Knorr. 

allene (al'en), n. [L. all{ium), garlic, + -erne.] 
Same as *aliylene. 

allepigamic (aFep-i-gam'ik), a. [Gr. 4^/lof, 
other, + E. ^igamic.'i In biot, concerning or 
pertaining to adventitious epigamic characters. 
Poulton, Colours of Animals, p. 338. [Bare.] 

allesthesia (al-es-the'si-a), n. [NL., <Gr. 
oaTuoq, other, + ala6>iaig, sensation.] Same as 
allochiria. 

all-fives (ai"fivz'), n. A variety of all- 

fours in which the points are scored as fast as 
made in the tricks taken in. Ace of trumps counts 
4, king 8, queen 2, jack 1, ten 10, and five 6. The game- 
point is decided by counting these all over again at the 
end. Sixty-one points make a game. 

.alliance, n.— Farmers' Alliance, a cobperative asso- 
ciation of farmers, formed in Texas in 1876, lor mutual 
protection and assistance, especially in dealings with 
middlemen and against tne encroachments of capital- 
ists in their wholesale purchases of lands. In later years 
similar associations were formed in different parts of the 
United States, and as a result of frequent amalgamations 
of these the present Farmers' Alliance and Industrial 
Union came into existence as a political body, coBperat- 
ingmore or less closely with the People's party. —Grand 
Alliance. See Orand Alliance in Cyclopedia of Dames. 
— Presbyterian Alliance. See -kPresbyUrUm. 

allioholyt (ari-kol-i), a. A jocose perver- 
sion of the word ' melancholy. ' Shah, T. G. of 
v., iv. 2. 27. 

A disconsolate wood-pigeon ... so aUicholy as any- 
thing, Walpole, letters, I. 8. 

alligator, «. 6. A boat used in handling float- 
ing logs. It can be moved overland from one 
body of water to another by its own power, usu- 
ally applied throngha drum and cable. [U. S.] 
Horn alligator, alligator leather made from the back 
of the skin, which has the roughest and largest scales, 
resembling plates of horn. ,, , „„ , 

.AUigatorellus (aFi-ga-to-rel'u8)j m. [NL., < 
Alligator + dim. -ellvs.'] An extinct genus of 
small crocodilians from the Jurassic litho- 
graphic stone of C^rin, France. 

Alllgatorium (al"i-ga-t6'ri-um), n. [NL., < 
Alligat(or) + -orium.'] An extinct genus of 
small crocodilians of the ta.Tmly Aioposauridse, 
from the Jurassic lithographic limestone of 
Trance and Bavaria. 

alligator-shears (al'i-ga-tor-sherz«!); n. smg. 
and pi. Shears used for cutting off puddled 
bars in lengths suitable for piling, and also 
the crop ends of bars in general. There is a 
flxed lower jaw, and an upper movable jaw, 
whose fuloi-um is set at the inner end of the 
cutting portion. Behind the fulcrum the lever 

S.— 3 



33 

is prolonged, and attached to a connecting-rod 
which receives its oscillatory movement from 
a crank or eccentric. Also called crocodile- or 
oropping-shears. Lockwood, Diet. Mech. Eng. 
Terms. 

alligator-snapper (aFi-ga-tor-snap'6r), n. The 
more common name for the "alligator-terrapin, 
Macrochelys lacertina, a species of fresh-water 
turtle found along the border of the Gulf of 
Mexico from Florida to Texas. It is the largest 
fresh-water turtle of North America and pos- 
sibly of the world, reaching a length of 5 feet 
and a weight of 150 pounds. 

Allionia (al-i-6'jii-a), ». [NL. (Loefling, 1758), 
named in honor of Carlo AUioni (1725-1804), a 
professor of botany at Turin.] A genus of 
dicotyledonous plants of the family Nyctagi- 
naeese. See Osoybaphus. 

alliteral (a-lit'e-ral), a. [Irreg. < L. ad, to, + 
litera, letter: iee literal.1 Characterized by 
alliteration; alliterational : as, the alliteral 
languages of Africa. 

alliterate, n. II, a. Formed by or showing 
alliteration : as, alUterate words. 

alliterational (a-lit-e-ra'shon-^al), a. Charac- 
terized by or abounding in alliteration. Penny 
Cyc, 1858. 

aluturic (al-i-tfl'rik), o. [all(antom) + -it- + 
urie('i).'] Noting an acid, CeHe04N4, formed by 
boiling a solution of alloxantin with hydro- 
chloric acid. It is a yellowish, crystalline pow- 
der moderately soluble in hot water. 

all-nighter (Al-m't6r), n. A public hack which 

Slies during the night. [Slang.] 
lo-. 2. In cfeem., a prefix proposed by Michael 
to designate an unexplained isomerism. Thus 
f nmaric acid would be called tUlmnaleic acid. The prefix 
is used for that isomer which is the less stable of the two 
compounds considered. 

allo-autogamous (al''''d-&-tog'a-mus), a. [Gr. 
d/lXof, other, + autogamous.'] "In bot., self-fer- 
tilizing, but only when cross-fertilization fails. 

allo-autogamy (al"6-4,-tog'a-mi), «. [< allo- 
autogamous + -^.] The character of being allo- 
autogamous. 

allocaffein (al''''6-ka-fe'iD), n. A compound, 
CaHgOsNj, formed by decomposing the bro- 
mine addition-product of methylcaffein with 
water. It melts at 196°-198° C. 

allocarpy ('.I'o-kar-pi), n. [Gr. aTiloc, other, 
-f- mpTzOQ, fruit.] "The bearing of fruit as a 
result of cross-fertilization. 

allochiral (al-o-ki'ral), a. [Gr. d^Aof, other, 
+ x^'i-Pt hand.] Eelating or related to the other 
hand ; related as one hand of an individual is 
to the other hand of the same individual ; simi- 
lar, correspondent, or identical in form, as the 
right hand is to the left, though on opposite 
sides of the body and the parts are arranged 
in reverse order: opposed to *homochiral. See 
also *heterochiral. 

allochirally (al-o-ki'ral-i), adv. In an allo- 
chiral manner; as one"hand is to the other. 

Alloclironiatic precious stones, precious stones of a 
variable character, that is, possessing one or more colors 
in the same crystal or gem. 

allocinnamic (al-o-sin'a-mik), a. [Gr. a/lAof, 
other, + cinnamic.'] N'bting an acid isomeric 
with ordinary cinnamic acid, but closely re- 
lated to it in structure. The two acids are 
supposed to be stereomers. 

alloclase (al'o-klas), n. [Gr. aUog, other, + 
kMbi;, breaking, < kAov, break.] Same as *oi- 
loclasite. 

alloclasite (a-16'kla^sit), n. [As alloclase + 
4te^.'] A mineral related to arsenopyrite, con- 
taining sulphur, arsenic, bismuth, cobalt, and 
iron: found in Hungary. 

allocochick (al-o-ko'chik), n. [N. W. North 
Amer. Ind.] The name of Indian shell-money 
used in northern California. 

allocryptic (al-o-krip'tik), a. [Gr. aMog, other, 
+ (cpwrnSf, hidden.] Concerning or pertaining 
to the concealment of an organism by objects 
which are not part of its body. 



allopsychic 

other, + de'afta, band, ligament.] The typical 
genus of the family Amdesmidse. 
allodesmid (al-o-dez'mid), a. and n. I. a. 
Having the characters of the Allodesmidse. 
II, n. A member of the pelecypod family 



Alloeryptie methods may also be used for aggressive 
purposes, as the ant-lion larva, almost buried in sand, or 
the large frog Ceratophrys, which covers Its back with 
earth when waiting for its prey. 

Snisyc. Brit., XXVII. 147. 



Allodesmidse (al-o-dez'mi-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Allodesma + 4dsB'.'\ A family of extinct pele- 
cypods of the order Teleodesmacea having very 
primitive characters and regarded by Neu- 
mayr as indicating the first stage in the de- 
velopment of the teleodesmaeean hinge, as in 
Astarie and Cardium. The valves are small and 
round, the cardinal area is linear, the ligament is pari- 
vincular, the hinge has one or two lateral laminceon each 
side of the beak, and the cardinal teeth are radially 
grooved. Tliey are Imown only from the Silurian rocks. 

Allodon (al ' 0-don), n. [Gr. a^l^lof, other, + 
bdoiig (MovT-),' tooth.] A genus of extinct 
monotremes from the Upper Jurassic rocks of 
North America, having three upper incisors, of 
which the second is greatly enlarged. More 
correctly written AHodtis. 

Allodus (al'o-dus), n. See *Allodon. 

AUoeocoela (al-e-o-se'la), n.pl. See *Alloioccela. 

alloeogenesis, n. 2. Hie alternation of sexual 
and parthenogenetic generations, seen espe- 
cially in certain parasitic Trematoaa. Also aU 
loiogenesis. Schwa/rze. 

allceogenetic (al"e-6-je-net'ik), a. Pertaining 
to or produced by aUceogenesis. 

allogenic (al-o-jen'ik), a, [Gr. alhig, other, + 

,-7ev?f, -producing.] Of a different origin: in 
geol., applied to those inclusions in an igneous 
rook which are obviously older than the inclos- 
ing rock, and to the components of a clastic 
rook which have originated elsewhere : con- 
trasted with *authigemc. 

Alloiocoela (a-loi-6-se'la), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. 
a7L?Mog, of another sortj + Kol?im>, a hollow.] 
An order or a suborder of Turbellaria having 
the enteron lobed or an irregularly widened 
sac. It contains the families Plagiostomidse, 
Monotidee, and Bothrioplanidee. Also Alloeoccela. 

alloioccelous (^-loi-o-se'ius), a. Having the 
characteristics of or resembling the Alloiocoela. 

alloiogenesis (al-oi-6-jen'e-sis), n. See *all€eo- 
genesis, 2. 

alloisomerism (al"9-i-som'e-rizm), n. [Gr. 
d^/kif, other, + isoinerism.] In ehem., a term 
introduced by Michael to distinguish certain 
cases of isomerism between mfferent sub- 
stances of the same percentage composition 
(asmaleic acid and fumaric acid), involving, it 
isnowbelieved, different geometrical positions 
of the atoms in space. 

alloite (al'6-it), n. [Irreg. < Gr. aXlog, other, 
+ .-jfe2.] In petrog., a name proposed .by 
Cordier (1816) for volcanic tuff of white or 
yellowish color and imperfectly indurated. 

allokinetic (al-9-ki--net'ik), a. [Gr. aTiXog,- 
other, + Kivijrdg, moved: see Mnetic.'] Moving 
in response to an external stimulus : opposed 
to *aut-oMnetic. 

allomorph (al'o-mdrf ), K. [Gr. oA/lof, other, + 
fiopf^, form.] lii mineral., aparamorph, that is, 
a pseudomorph formed by molecular change 
only, the chemical composition remaining the 
same, as ealcite after aragonite. 

allomorphic, a. 2. In petrog., same as xeno- 
morphic. 

allopalladium (al'^o-pa-la'di-um), n. A sup- 
posed allotropic form of native palladium, 
crystallizing in hexagonal plates. 

allopelagic (al"o-pe-laj'ik), a. [Gr. aTiXog, 
other, + TT^^oyof, sea.] Being in different 
parts of the sea (at different times) ; moving 
up and down irregularly in the sea in search of 
food, for purposes of reproduction, at different 
stages of development, or in response to any 
stimulus except light or heat, a pelagic fish that 
floats as an egg and swims at the surface while young, 
afterward wandering in deeper water, is allopelagic. The 
word was introduced by Haeckel for the purpose of con- 
trasting organisms that wander up and down h'regularly 
with those that come to the surface only at night or only 
in the winter. See -kbathypelagic, •knyctipelagic, •kchimo. 



allophylous (a-lof'i-lus), a. Same as allo- 
phylian. 

alloplasmatic(aro-plas-mat'ik), a. [Gr. oAaoc, 
other, + TrMa/id, anything formed.] Con- 
structed out of cells or "by cells, but incapable 
of growth by cell-multipUcation. 

allopsychic (al-op-si'kik), a. [Gr. dAXof, other, 
+ ijwxri, soul, mind.] Pertaining to mind or 
consciousness in its relation to the external 
Allodesma (al-o-dez'ma), n. [NL., < Gr. aXXog, world. Also allopsychical. 



allocutive (a-lok'u-tiv), a. Speaking with au- 
thority and in reprehension, as in a papal allo- 
cution. 

He had been greatly convinced of the great resources 
of the vernacular, by hearing an old neighbor, notedforher 
aXlocvMve energy, remark that she had just given the hired 
man a good tongue-banging. The Atiamtic, 1884, p. 510. 



allopsycliic 

Consciuusness is a function of the associative mech- 
anism, and may be considered in its threefold relation- 
ship to the outer world, the body, and self ,— oZtopuj/cAw, 
samatopeychie, and autopsychic. 

Buek, Medical Handbook, IV. 27. 

allorhythmia (al-6-rith'mi-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 

d/i/lof, other, + Imdiio^, rhyttiin.] In pathol., a 

condition in which the rhythm of the pulse 

varies from time to time. Lancet, Aug. 22, 1903. 

allorisma (al-o-riz'mS,), n. [NL., appar. < Gr. 
d;4^f, other, -I- Epeto/io, support.] A genus of 
extinct peleoypods of Paleozoic age. TheyhavR 
valves which gape posteriorly, edentulous hinge, and 
parivlncular ligament. The genus embraces species which 
show the earliest evidence of retractile siphons. 

Allosaurus (al-o-s^'rus), n. [NL., < Gr. aMog, 
other, + cavpog, lizard.] A genus of diuosau- 
rian reptiles described hy Marsh from the 
Upper Jurassic beds of Colorado and closely 
allied to the better-known Megalosaurus. They 
have very short fore and large hiud legs, the 
latter reaching a length of 5 feet. 

allosematic (al'o-se-mat'ik), a. [Gr. aX/ioc, 
other, + a^pia, mark : see sematic.'] Having or 
using the sematio colors of another animal, 
which serve for deceptive protection, it has 
been suggested that the sea-anemones, which are often 
found on the shells of hermit-crabs and on the backs of 
decorative crabs, are illustrations of allosematic protec- 
tion. PouU'ony Colours of Animals, p. 338, 

Allosomus (al-o-s6'mus), n. [NL., < Gr. d/lllof, 
other, + aa/^a, body.] A subgeneric name for 
the division of the genus Argyrosomus which 
contains the tuUibee, A. tulUbee. ' 

allothigene (al'o-thi-jen"), a. [Gr. d/i;io0t, else- 
where, + -yev^c, -produced.] Same as *allo- 
genic. 

allothigeuetic (aFo-thi-jf-net'ik), a. [Gr. 
aX?.odi, elsewhere, + ■yEvemc, origin : see geneiio.} 
In geol., composed ofmaterials which have orig- 
inated elsewhere : applied to the fragmental, 
sedimentary rocks, the components of which 
have been derived from" other sources, as con- 
trasted with the igneous rocks, whose minerals 
have crystallized in situ. See '^allogenic. 

allothigenetically (aFp-thi-je-net'i-kal-i), 
adv. In an allothigenetic manner or by means 
of allothigenetic materials. 

allothigenic (al"o-thi-jen'ik), a. [Gr. dAAoft, 
elsewhere (< aUoi, other), + -yev^g, -produced.] 
Same as *allothigeneUc. 

allotMmorphic (al"o-thi-m6r'fik), a. {Gr. d/l- 
Aofli, elsewhere (< SMioc, other), + fiofxjrfi, form.] 
'ba. petrol., a term applied to particles derived 
from older rocks which retain unchanged their 
original form in the secondary clastic deposits 
where thejr now occur. 

allothogenic (al"o-tho- jen'ik), a. Same as *aZ- 
lothigenic. 

allotriomorpllic (a-lot-ri-o-m6r'fik), a. [Gr. 
aXMrpwQ, of another, alien, + fwp^, form.] 
Same as xenomorphic. 

allotropMc (al-o-trof 'ik), a. [Gr. dAAof, other, 
+ rpoipt;, nourishment.] Of altered nutritive 
value; rendered less nutritious. 

Allotropic silver. See *silver. 

allotropism, n. The occurrence of more than one form 
of a chemical element with difference in physical prop- 
erties is explained, in the light of the atomic theory, as 
depending on a difference in the number, and possibly in 
the arrangement, of the atoms which go to make up the 
molecule. Thus it is believed that in the more common 
form of oxygen there are two, but in the allotropic ozone 
three, atoms to the molecule. 

allotropist (a-lot'ro-pist), n. One who explains 
the presentation of unusual properties by a 
chemical element by assuming the existence of 
that element in an allotropic form ; specifically, 
an advocate of the theory that allotropic modi- 
fications of iron have an important effect in 
producing the hardness of suddenly quenched 
steel, as distinguished from a *car6onisf (which 
see). Nature, May 5, 1904. 

alloxuremia (al-ok-su-re'mi-a), n. lalloxur(,ic) 
+ Gr. alfta, blood.] A condition resulting from 
the presence of any of the alloxuric bases in the 
blood. 

alloxuric (a-lok-su'rik), a. [aUox(an) + uric.'] 
Pertaining to or derived from alloxan and uric 
acid: noting certain bases comprising xan- 
thin, hypoxauthin, episaroin, heteroxanthin, 
paraxanthin, theophyllin, theobromine, caf- 
ein, guanine, epiguanine, adenin, and carnin. 
Th ey are all n uclear derivatives. Also termed 
xanthin bases or purin bases. 

alloy, n. 1. A metallic alloy possessea the general 
physical properties of ametal, but is usually intermediate 
in properties between those of its constituents. Alloys 
are divided into three classes : (1) Those which form 
solid solutions in all proportions ; (2) those which do 
not form solid solutions in all proportions, and which 
form no chemical compounds ; and (3) those which form 



34 

one or more chemical compounds. An alloy of the first 
class forms a homogeneous fluid when melted, and a 
homogeneous solid after freezing. Alloys of the second 
class form a homogeneous fluid when melted, but on 
solidification the components separate from one another 
and form microscopic crystals of the different metals in- 
timately associated, taut not in chemical combination or 
solution. A highly magnified section of such an alloy 
wduld not show a homogeneous structure, but the indi- 
vidual crystals of the pure components could be dis- 
tinguished. Alloys of the third class follow the same 
general laws on solidification as the alloys of the second 
class, but the crystals which separate do not consist of 
the pure components, but some of the crystals will be of 
one or more of the pure components, while other crystals 
wUl be formed of chemical compounds of the different 
components.— Aluminium alloys. See *aluminvum. 
— Euteotlc alloy, an alloy having such a composition 
that it melts at a lower temperature than an alloy of 
the same metals having any other composition. See euteo- 
«»c.— Upowltz'S alloy, a fusible alloy consisting of S 
parts of cadmium, 8 parts of lead, 1 parts of tin, and 16 
parts of bismuth. It melts at 168° R, and is used for 
castings of delicate objects, as well as for soldering 
Britannia metal and other white articles which cannot 
withstand high temperature.— Prinaep'B alloys, in 
pyrom., a progressive series of alloys of gold, silver, and 
platinum employed by James Prinsep for estimating high 
temperature^ on the principle that the f using-points of 
pure metals are fixed. This series consists of 10 alloys of 
gold and silver, each increased by A of 8ol<l> S""! l** *1" 
loys of gold and platinum with a progressive increase of 
tic of gold. The temperature of any furnace can readily 
be determined by introducing these alloys and noting the 
point where fusion begins. See also phrases under ♦meiffl/ 
and the words gold, sUmr, etc. — Betz alloy,an alloy com- 
posed of 15 parts of copper, 2.34 of tin, 1.82 of lead, 
and 1 of antimony. It resists the corrosive action of 
alkalis and acids.— Steel alloys. The number of these 
alloys is very large, since iron alloys readily with most 
metals. In the best known, steel is combined with one 
or more of the following ' metals ; manganese, nickel, 
chromium, titanium, tungsten, aluminium, vanadium, 
boron, uranium, copper, tin, and zinc. The term 'steel 
alloy' is applied only to steels containing influencing 
quantities of metals other than iron. 

allspicy (ai'spi-si), a. [allspice + -y^."] "Warm; 
resembling allspice in warmth. Sood, Up the 
Ehine, p. 217. [Rare.] 

AU-the-Talents Administration. See *ad- 
ministration. , 

alluranic (al-u-ran'ik), a. [allipxan) + ur(ea) 
+ -an + -ic] Noting a weak acid, C6H4N4O4, 
formed from alloxan and urea. 

Alluring glands. See *gland. 

AUurus (a-lii'rus), n. [NL., < Gr. d/lAof, an- 
other, + ovpd, tail.] A subgeneric name for 
a small group of snail-fishes, of the family 
Liparididse, from the depths of the North Pa- 
cific. 

alluvial, «. 2. A term applied to the most re- 
cent or postglacial deposits, which follow the 
diluvial deposits ^Alluvial cone. See *i!om.— Al- 
luvial fan. Same as /an, 3. 

II. n. Alluvial soil; specifically, in Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand, gold-bearing alluvial 
soil. 

alluviated (a-lii'vi-a-ted), p. a. [aMuvium + 
-ate^ + -ed^."] Pertaining to or characterized 
by alluvial deposits, such as alluvial fans. 
Geog. Jour. (R. G. S.), IX. 538. 

alluviation (a-lu-vi-a'shon), n. [alluvium + 
-ation.2 The process of accumulating rock-de- 
bris along the lower reaches of slopes by rain- 
wash and along the more slowly flowing 
stream-courses by loss of overload. Alluvial 
fans or cones, alluvial plains or flood-plains, 
and slope-waste are the chief products of 
alluviation. ChamberUn, and Salisbv/ry, Geol., 
1. 176. 

allwhither .(&l'hwiSH"6r), adv. In all direc- 
tions. [Rare.] 

The swell . . . crumbled up and ran allwkither oilily. 
Kipling, Their Lawful Occasions. 

allyl, n. — Sulpbocarbamide of allyl, a crystallized 
compound obtained by the action of an excess of am- 
monium hydrate on the essential oil of mustard. A few 
drops of a saturated a£[ueous solution will reverse the 
image on a photographic plate and give a direct positive 
in the camera. 

allylene (al'i-len), n. [allyl + -ene.] The 
name given to two isomeric hydrocarbons, 
methyl acetylene or propine, CHgC-CH, and 
propadiene, 0H2:C:CH2. 

allylin (al'i-lin), n. [allyl + -in^.'] A name 
given to three ethers of glycerol and allyl al- 
cohol known as monoallylin, diallylin, and 
triallylin. The last is 03HgO3(C3HB)3. 

alma^ (al'mS.), n. [Turk.] A Turkish mea- 
sure of capacity, equal to 1.15 gallons. 

almacabala (ai'ma-kab'a-la), n. [ML. alma- 
cabala, < Ar. al-miiiqdbalah,'' the comparison': 
see etym. of algebra and cf. cabala.] The 
mystic explanation of numbers and of relations 
of numbers. 

almacabalic (al-ma-kab'a-lik), a. Of or per- 
taining to almacabala. 



aloed 

alinacen(al-ma-than'),». [Sp.: see magazine.] 
A warehouse; a magazine or storehouse. 

Some sheep were procured, and from an akituicen dls- 
tart about a mile inland, other articles. 

Oeog. Jour. (K.. 6. S.), XV. 604. 

almdcigo (al-ma'the-go), ». [Sp. mastic] 
The West Indian birch, Ierebinth%s Simaruba, 
one of the commonest and most characteris- 
tic trees of Porto Eioo. Its wood is soft and 
of little value. See cacMbou, and West Indian 
birch, under birch. [Porto Rico.] 

almagrerite (al-ma-gre'rit), m. [Sp. Alma- 
grera (see def.) + -ite^.] Anhydrous zinc 
sulphate, occurring as a natural mineral in the 
Sierra Almagrera in Spain. Also *ziticosite. 

almandite (al'man-dit), n. Same as almaridin. 

almasca (al-mas'ka), ». A soft gray resin 
soluble in chloroform, ether, and absolute al- 
cohol: probably derived from Idea hepta- 
phylla. Thorpe, Diet. Applied Chem., I. 61. 

almeidina (al-ma-de'na), ». [Pg., from th© 
name of the first exporter of the product, Joao 
Duarte de Almeida.] The commercial name 
for a rubber adulterant obtained from the latex 
of Foekeamultiflora and Euphorbia rhipsaloides. 
It is exported from Angola, and comes into commerce in 
the form of dry, somewhat brittle balls about as large as 
the fist and almost white in color. 

almendor (ai-man-dor'), n. [Pg., almond-tree.] 
Geoffraa superba, a tree of the bean family 
common in Brazil and Venezuela. Its fruit is 
about the size of a walnut, with a greenish-yellow downy 
rind and a fleshy pulp Inclosing a hard, nut-like seed. 
The fi-uit is boiled and used as food by the Indians, and 
the kernel is also eaten. The tree yields a fine, hard 
wood. In northern Brazil the Indians (Tupi) call it mari. 
[Brazil.] 

ahuendro (al-men'dro), n. [Sp. almendro, 
almond-tree : see almond.] A name applied in 
Guam, the Philippines, and Porto Eico to 
Terminalia Catappa, the nuts of which some- 
what resemble almonds in shape and flavor. 
See Terminalia^, and country almonds, under 
almond. 

Almen's solution. See *solution. 

Almond black. See *blaok.—'Oi3ia, almonds the seeds 
of a large tree, Irmngia Gabonensis, of tropical West Af- 
rica. They are rich in mucilage and fat, and when 
roasted are used for food. See diha-bread and Irvingia. 
— Hard-sliell almond, a type of sweet almond having 
a nut sometimes as hard as a peach-stone, little valued 
except as a stock.— Malabar almond. Same as coun- 
try almond (which see, under almond).- Faper-sheU 
almond, a thin-shelled type of sweet almond, of the 
highest commercial grade. It includes a false variety 
with a double shell.— Soft-sbell almond, the ordinary 
commercial almond exclusive of the paper-shell. There 
are all gradations of hardness in almond-shells.— Tropi- 
cal almond, a common name for Terminalia Catappa, 
Also Demerara almond. 

almond-butter (a'mond-bufer), n. Same as 



almond-meal (a'mond-mel), n. The cake left 
from almonds, after the oil has been removed 
by pressure, coarsely ground. 

almond-oil, n — Artificial bitter-almond oil, nitro- 
benzene (C8H6NO2), a yellow liquid with a smell like that 
of bitter almonds, sometimes used in perfumery. Same 
as Twirbane oU. 

almondy (a'mon-di), a. [almond + -y^.] Like 
almonds in taste or fragrance. Lyell, Life, ii. 
132. N. E. D. 

alnein (al'ne-in), n. [L. alneus, adj., < alnus, 
alder, + -in^.] A coloring matter extracted 
from the bark and wood of the alder, birch, 
and beech. It produces colors varying from 
yellow to brown-black. 

Alnitamian (al-ni-ta'mi-an), a. and n. I, a. 
Noting stars whose spectrum is of the type of 
that of Alnitam. They are characterized by the pre- 
dominance of hydrogen lines of the Huggins series (with 
fainter Pickering lines), strong helium, protosilicon, 
and a line of unknown origin in the cyan-blue having 
A = 4649.2. 
II. n. An Alnitamian star. 

alnoite (al'no-it), n. [Abm, an island of 
Sweden, + -ite^.] inpetrog., a name proposed 
by Eosenbusch (1887) for an igneous rock hav- 
ing the mineral composition of melilite-basalt, 
but occurring in dike form. It may also be 
considered as an olivin-rich biotite-monchi- 
cniite. 

Alocasia (al-o-ka'si-a), n. [NL., appar. arbi- 
trarily varied from Colocasia.] A genus of 
stove foliage plants of 20 or more species be- 
longing to the family Aracese, natives of trop- 
ical Asia aaid the Malayan Islands. Closely 
allied to Colocasia. See cut under *ape'^, 2. 

aloed (al'od), p. a. 1. Flavored with aloes; 
mixed with aloes; bitter: as, "death's aloed 
portion," Felltham.— 2. Shaded with or formed 
of aloes: as, " the atoe^ porch," ^rowwiw^. Men 
and Women, ii. 30. 



alogtic 

*i°^,$''S> "' — Alogtlo add, tetranitroanthraquinone, 
Ci4H402(N02)4 + HoO 0). It is prepared by treating 
aloes \¥itn nitric acid and is a tetr Aasio acid. 

aloft, adv.—Alott tbere ! the hail used to call the at- 
tention oi the men who are aloft in the rigging or on the 
yards or in the tops.— Lay aloft ! (naut.), an order to the 
seamen to mount the rigging for the execution ot some 
piece of worlt In the tops or on the yards.— Lay down 
&om aloft I (^na/ut), a command forthe seamen to cease 
work in the upper rigging and to descend to the declt. 

alogia (a-16'ji-a), m. [MXi. : see alogy.'j In 
pathol., aphasia due to ideational defect. 

aloja (a-16'ha), n. [Sp., a beverage made of 
water, honey, and spices.] A fermented bev- 
erage made from the sweet pods of several 
leguminous trees. In Argentina those of the 
algarroba, Prosopis alba, and the chanar, 
Gourllea aeoorUeans, are used. See *cha!lar. 
[South America.] 

Alonsoa (a-lon'so-a), n. [NL., from Z. Alonso, 
a Spanish officer.]] A genus of very tender 
tropical, American, annual plants of the family 
Serophulariacese. The cultivated species come mostly 
from Peru and Mexico.' There are 6 distinct species and 
varieties ; some authors, however, differ with regard to 
the number. These plants are cultivated in the open 
and very rarely in pots. A. irudsifolia, A. Wa/racewiczii, 
A. myrtifolia, and^. Unifolia are the species most com- 
monly used. The seeds are sold by most seedsmen. 

Alopecia dynamica, loss of hair due to destruction ot 
the hair-follicles byulceration, induration, or some other 
pathological process.— Alopecia maligna, a severe and 
intractable form of alopecia.— Alopecia neuiltica, loss 
of hair over the area of distribution of an injured nerve. 
— Alopecia neurotica, loss of hair due to some func- 
tional nervous disorder or trophoneurosis.- Alopecia 
presenilis, premature baldness.- Alopecia toxica, loss 
of hair accompanying one of the infectious diseases, such 
as typhoid fever : supposedly due to the action of the 
toxins of the disease.— Alopecia universalis, the falling 
of hair from the face and body as well as from the scalp. 

alopeke (a-16p'e-ke), n. [Gr. iiTMireKfj^ Attic 
contraction of akwrKSKiri, a fox-skin, Ionic fern, 
of ahjKeKeioi; adj., <. aTiomj^, a fox.] An ancient 
Thraeian head,-dress of fox-skin. 

alorcic (a-16r'sik), a. lal(oes) + orc(in) + -ic.'] 
Noting au acid, C9H10O3-I-H2O, formed in 
small amount by fusing aloes with sodium hy- 
droxid. It crystallizes in needles which, when 
dry, melt at 115° C. 

alorcinic (al-6r-sin'ik), a. [al(,oes) + orcin + 
-ic] Same as *alorde. 

alouette (al-6-et'), n. [F. alouette, a lark, < 
OF. alouete, dim. of aloue, < L. alauda, a lark.] 
A device for inducing sleep by tiring the eyes 
by a pencil of light reflected from a series of 
revolving mirrors. ■ 

aloxanthin (al-ok-zan'thin), n. A compound 
formed by oxidizing barbaloin and socaloin. 
It is piobably tetrahydroxymethylanthraguinone, Cj^Hs- 
(0H3X0H)402. It consists of orange-colored needles 
which melt at 260°-266° C. 

Aloysia (al-o-is'i-a), n. [NL., from a personal 
name.] A subgenus of plants, of the large 
genus JLippia, which contains the commonly 
known lemon verbena (i. citriodora). The lemon 
verbena is easily grown in common greenhouses. In the 
South it may be grown in the open. It is a low-growing, 
tender shrub, with long, narrow, pointed leaves, native 
to South America. 

alpargata (al-par-ga'ta), n. [Sp.] In Spanish- 
speaking countries, a kind of sandal or low shoe 
with a hemp or rush sole and cloth upper, 
alpha, n. 4. [cap.^ The name given by Carl 
Neumann, the mathematical physicist, to a 
supposed body to which all motion, especially 
motion of rotation, is relative. Ithas been said that 
Newton originated this idea, but that is incorrect. New- 
ton believed that space is a really existing thing, and 
he suggested that there might possibly be a body which 
is really in absolute rest relatively to real space. The 
conception of the body Alpha, which was originated by 
Neumann, arose, on the contrary, from a difficulty which 
the theory of Leibnitz (that space is not an existent thing, 
but is merely an image embodying certain general laws 
of the relations between things) meets in the circum- 
stance that,according to theaccepteddoctrine ot Newton's 
tliree laws of motion, motion ot rotation (as it is ascer- 
tained, for example, by Foucault's pendulum expen- 
ment) is absolute and not merely relative motion. Neu- 
mann, and others who accept Leibnitz's theory of the , 
entire relativity ot space, seek to explain rotation by 
supposing that there is a body Alpha, which is not indeed 
absolutely at rest as Newton thought it possible that 
some body might be (since these persons are ot opinion 
that absolute place and absolute motion are phrases 
without meaning), but which is the body to which the 
motion spoken ot in the three laws ot motion ought to he 
understood to be relative. Ernst Mach undertakes to 
show that this body Alpha is really the universe as a 
whole, which virtually comes to saying that it is the 
starry heavens as a whole. The objection to this is that 
it makes objects the most remote from any given body 
the principal factors which determine the motions of 
that body. Now, according to that epistemological psy- 
chology which makes space an image embodying the 
laws of the relations of things, this image must be sup- 
posed to be so constituted as to make those things which 
principally affect one another appear to be near one an- 
other. According to Tait. there is no need of any body 
Alpha, since, so far as rotation and rectilinearity of mo- 



35 

tion are concerned, we have only to assume, as a defini- 
tion, that rotation is relative to lines of force Sxed within 
a body having no dynamic effects of rotation.— Alpha 
paper. See itpaiier. — Alpha rays. See *rayi. 
Alpnabet of lllOUEllt, a list of simple ideas by the 
combination of which it was supposed by Kaymond LuUy, 
the youthful Leibnitz, and perhaps by Spinoza, that 
knowledge could he manufactured.— Blind alphabet. 
See *&rai22e.— Oeaf-and-diunb alphabet, uie con- 
ventional signs or flnger-gestures used by the deaf and 
dumb in lieu ot speech. See deoif-^mute.— Missionary 
alphabet, a regulated form of the Roman alphabet used 
by missionaries in writing the unwritten or imperfectly 
written languages of the peoples among whom they work. 
About 1830 English and American missionaries adopted 
a scheme, substantially that put forth by Sir William 
Jones in 1781, tor the transliteration of Asiatic languages, 
based upon the Eoman or Continental values of the 
vowels. This was extended by conferences ot scholars 
held in 1854 and later. The first definite result was the 
publication of Lepslus's "Standard Alphabet" (1856. 
second edition 1863), and of F. Max MUller's "Church 
Missionary Alphabet," in effect a recension of Lepslus's 
scheme. This Lepsius-Miiller alphabet has been applied 
to the recording ot many hitherto illiterate languages, and, 
in one form or another, is used by missionaries throughout 
the world. It promises, in the more scientific form now 
being worked out in successive recensions by philologists, 
to become the general phonetic alphabet ot the world. 
See phUological icalphttbets.— 'PbllOloeical alphabets, 
modem phonetic forms ot the Roman alphabet as en- 
larged, regulated, and controlled for philological pur- 
poses. Conspicuous philological alphabets are Lepslus's 
"Standard Alphabet" (1855, second edition, 1863 : see 
above); Ellis's "Paleeotype" (1869); Sweet's "Romic" 
(1877) ; Murray's scheme of notation in the New English 
Dictionary (1884); various Continental forms (since about 
1875) associated with the names of Sievers, Victor, Fricke, 
Storm, Jespersen, and Passy and the Association Pho- 
n^tique Internationale of Paris; and the alphabet rec- 
ommended' by the American Philological Association in 
1877 (see below). Most of the phonetic redactions put 
forth by short-hand promoters (since 1840) are based 
upon the so-called 'English' values of the vowels, and 
are in no sense scientific or philological. 

ALPHABET OF 
THE AMERICAN PHILOLOGICAL ASSOCIA'nON. 









VOWELS. 








saoBT. 


Form. 


Name. 


Sound as in 


I 


i 


1 


(t) 


it (it) ' 


E 


e 


e 


(^ 


met (met) 


A 


a 


a 


w 


o((at) 


a 


a 


Q 


(ah) 


ash (ask) 


e 


e 


e 


m 


not (net), w?uvt (hwet) 











(oh) 


obey (obe) 


u 


V 


n 


m 


Imt (but) 


TI 


n 


u 


(o8) 


full (ful) 








LONG. 


Form. 


Name. 


Sound as In 


i 


i 


i 


(ee) 


pique =pealc (pic) 


E 


e 


e 


(.ay) 


they (dhe), veil (vel) 


A 


a 


a 


(ai[r]) 


air = ere = heir (ar) 


a 


d 


a 


(ah) 


arm (arm),/ar (fflr) 


6 


s 


8 


(awe) 


nor (nSr), wall (wSl) 











(oh) 


no (no), holy (holi) 





V 


e 


(MM) 


bum (bom) 


n 


u 


u 


(00) 


rule (rul), ooze (flz) 



DIPHTHONGS, 
ai oi at (eye, 1) aisle=iale (ail) 
an au au (ok) out (out), ov,r=hour (aur) 
01 el ei (oi) oU (eil), boy (bei) 

Itr iu lu /««d (find), /ew (fin) 



P p 

T t 

CH ch 
C(K)o(k) 

F t 

TH th 

S s 

SH sh 

H h 



CONSONANTS. 
SUBD. 
pi (pee) pet (pet) 
ti (tee) tip (tip) 
chi (ch£e) chest (chest) 
ci (Jcee) come (cum) 
ef (eff) fat (tat) 
ith (ith) thin (thin) 
es (ess) sown (son) 
ish (ish) she (sh!) 
hi (hee) he (hi), hat (bat) 



SONANT. 



B 

D 
J 
G 
V 



DH dh 

Z z 

ZH zh 

W w 

L 1 

R r 

Y y 

M m 

N n 



M ifiee) 

d! (dee) 

je (jay) 

» (ghee) 

vi (pee) 

dhi (thee) 

zi (zee) 

zhi (zhee) 



bet (bet) 
dip (dip) 
jest (jest) 
gum (gnm) 
vat (vat) 
thee (dhi) 
zone (zon) 
azure (azhur) 



wu (woo) we (wi), tmi (wit) 



el (eU) 
Qr (ar) 
yl (yee) 
em (em) 
(en) 



lo (16), ell (el) 
rat (rat), are (flr) 
ye (yl), year (yir) 
me (mi), my (mal) 
no (no) 



NG ng ing (ing) sin^ (sing) 

Phonetic alphabet, an alphabet in which each char- 
acter represents a definite sound, and which is so used 
that the pronunciation of each word can, within narrow 
limits, be known with certainty by any one who knows 
the alphabet. The Roman alphabet, like its original the 



alsike 

Greek, was originally phonetic, and as used in modem 
times (in Italian, Spanish, Portuguese French, English, 
German, etc.) is still fairly phonetic. French has devi- 
ated most in the consonant system, allowing or requiring 
thfe extensive suppression of consonants in utterance, 
and English most in the vowel system, the whole series 
of English long vowels having been thrown into hopeless 
confusion. The most conspicuous instance of a highly 
phonetic and classified alphabet long iu actual use is the 
Sanskrit, which was reduced to its present order by na- 
tive grammarians about the second century A. D., on 
much the same lines as those on which scholars are now 
endeavoring to establish a classified reconstitution of the 
Roman alphabet.— Physiological alphabet, the ele- 
mentary sounds of human speech.— Scientific alpha- 
bet, an alphabet based upon scientific principles ; one 
which embodies phonetic precision and sufficiency. Per- 
haps the only alphabet fairly entitled to this designee 
tion is A. M. Bell's ' visible speech ' (1867), which takes 
account of all distinguishable vocal sounds, including 
whispering, sneezing, coughing, chuckling, etc., and pro- 
vides for each sound a symbol whose form is significant' 
and thus in a way makes the intended sound obvious or 
' visible ' to the reader. In a laxer use, the term has 
been applied to the philological alphabets based upon 
the historic Roman alphabet. These are used with a 
tolerable degree of precision and uniformity, and, com- 
pared to the traditional alphabets as conventionally used, 
are fairly scientific. See phUologieal * alphabets. 

alphabetist (al'fa-bet-ist), n. [alphabet + -w«.] 
A student or a deviser of alphabets. S. S. 
Haldeman, Analyt. Orthog., ii. 22. 

alpha-napnthol(al-fa-naf'th61), «. A naphthoL 
having the hydroxy 1-group in the alpha position. 

alpha-naphthylamine (al"f a-naf "thil-am'in), 
«. Naphthylamine in whieli the amido-group 
is in the alpha position. 

Alphestes (al-fes'tez), n. [NL., < Gr. al^ariiQ, 
a kind of fish.] A genus of sea-bass allied to- 
EpmephelMs, of the family Serrarndse. 

alphogen (al'fo-jen), n. Same as *alphoeone. 

alphonse (al-fons'), ». [Sp. Alfonsino.'] A 
Spanish gold coin of the reign of Alfonso XII., 
worth 20 pesetas or |3.86. 

alphozone (al'fo-zon), n. A white crystalline 
compound, CsflioOc, obtained by the action 
of hydrogen peroxid on succinic anhydride;' 
disuecinic peroxid. It is a powerful germi- 
cide. Also called alphogen. 

alphyl (al'fil),.». A name proposed by Bam- 
berger to designate an aromatic radical, as 
phenyl, CgHg. Such radicals are now more often called' 
aryls, while aliphatic radicals, as methyl, CHg, are some- 
times called dlphyls; but the latter are more properly . 
called oZft^Zs, and the name aZjjAj/Z has becomesuperfiuous. 

alphylate (al'fi-lat), v. t. ; pret. and pp. alphij' 
lated, ppr. alphylating. [alphyl + -ate^.'] To 
introduce an alphyl into (an organic com- 
pound). Amer. Chem. Jour., April, 1903. 

alpine, a. 2. [cap.'] In anthrop., noting the 
type of the European race which inhabits the • 
Alps and the regions east and west of the Alps : 
characterized by a broad, short head, broad ■ 
face with full chin and heavy nose, medium 
stature, and prevalently grayish eyes and 
brown hair. Also called Celto-Slavic, Sarma- 
tian, Arvernian. Ripley, Eaees of Europe, p. 
123 — Alpine blue, diluviiun, glacier. See *62ue, etc. 
—Alpine hat, a soft felt hat with a deep dent in the 
crown and rolled brim : originally a traveling-hat, and 
used in mountain-climbing, whence the name. — Alpine 
granite. See protogiiie. 

Alpinia (al-pln'i-a), n. [NL. from Prospero 
Alpino, an Italian botanist.] A genus of stove 
herbs of the family Zinsiberaceie, cultivated 
for both the foliage and the racemes or panicles 
of flowers. There are about 60 species ot this genus 
found in tropical and subtropical Asia, the islands ot the 
Pacific Ocean, and Australia. The species most com- 
monly cultivated is A. nutans, a plant with very beautiful 
foliage, sometimes known as the shell-Jlower. 

alpinin (al'pi-nin), n. [(?) Alpine + -jw2.] A 
substance prepared from galangal root, since 
shown to be a mixture of galangin and cam- 
pherid. 

Alsace gray, green, etc. See *gray, *green\ 
etc. 

Alsatian clover. See *clover. 

alsbachite (alz'ba-kit), n. [Alsbach, a streani 
on Mount Melibocus, Odenwald, Baden, -I- 
-iie^.'] In petrog., the name given by Chelius 
(1892) to a variety of granite-porphyry poor in 
f erromagnesian minerals and rich in pink gar- 
net, occurring on the slope of Mount Melibocus. 

Alsidium (al-sid'i-um), n. [NL. (C. A. Agardh, 
1827), said to have been formed (if so, irregu- 
larly) < Gr. d/lif , saltness, or a/If, salt, -f- -idium.'] 
A genus of red seaweeds containing the species 
A. Helminthochortos, or Corsiean moss, used 
in medicine. 

alsike (al'sik, Sw. al'si-ke), n. [Prop. Alsike 
clover, named from (Sw.) Alsike near Upsala 
in Sweden.] A species of clover (Trifolium 
hybridum) native to Europe, much grown in 
the United States for forage, it thrives best 



alsike 

In moist land. It is a tall, weak-stemmed brancMng 
species, with small whitish heads which become pinlt. 
It is sometimes known as Swedish eloeer. 

Alsine (al'si-ne), n. [NL. (Linnseus, 1753), < 
6r. a^alvti, a plant of unknown identity, < ahsog, 
grove or place grown with trees and grass.] 
A genus of dicotyledonous plants belonging to 
the family Silenacex. See Stellaria. 

alstonidine (al-sto'ni-din), n. lAlstonia (see 
def . ) + -id + -ine^. ] An alkaloid found in Pala 
(AlstOHia) constricta. It crystallizes in needles 
which melt at 181° C. 

alstonine (arsta-nin), n. [Alstonia (see def.) 
+ -tne2.] An alkaloid, C21H20N2O4+3JH2O, 
found in the bark of Pala (Alstonia) constricta. 
It IS amorphous and was formerly called chlo- 
rogenin. 

Alstroemeria (al-stre-me'ri-a), n. [NL., from 
a personal name.] A genus of cool-house and 
stove plants, members of the family Amaryl- 
Udacese, with tuberous roots, treated as bulbs. 
The species most common in the United States are na- 
tives of Brazil, Peru, Chile, and Mexico. A. Pelegrina is 
best adapted for greenhouse purposes. In all there are 
about 60 described species, found in the tropical and sub- 
tropical regions of South America. 

Altamaha grits. See *gri^. 

altar-book (ftl'tar-buk), n. Same as missal. 

altar-boy (Wtaif-boi), n. A boy who serves a 

Sriest while he'is officiating at the altar. 
tar-motmd (^rtar-moimd), n. A mound of 
earth erected over an altar of clay on which 
sacrifices were burned. Altar-mounds have 
been discovered principally in Ohio. 
alteratio (al-te-ra'shi-o), n. [NL. : see altera- 
<Jon.] In mensural mime, the regular doubling 
of the time-value of a note in certain relations. 
The rules governing this were complicated and 
arbitrary. 

Altered chord, note, or triad, in rmuic, a chord, note, 
or triad affected by an accidental and thus changed in 
character or significance. 

alteregoism (al-tfer-e'go-izm), n. [L. alter 
ego, 'another I,' + -ism.'] A narrow altruism 
amounting merely to sympathy with persons 
who are in one's own case. Amer. Jour. Psychol., 
Xn.470. 

alteregoistic (al-tfer-e-go-ist'ik), a. Of or per- 
taining to alteregoism. 

Altemaria (al-ter-na'ri-^), n. [NL. (Nees von 
Esenbeck, 1816), < L. dltemus, alternate, -1- 
-aria,'] A genus of hyphomycetous fungi doubt- 
fully distmct from Macrosporium. The conidia 
are dark-colored, are both transversely and longitudi- 
nally septate, and are borne in chains. A. Braesicse occurs 
on the cabbage and cauliflower. 

alternate a. 4. In elect, same as *aUernat- 
ing. 

altemater, alternator (al't6r-na-t6r,-tgr), n. 
In elect. , an alternating-current dynamo or gen- 
erator. It consists of an armature in which electric 
power is produced and a magnetic field which produces 
the magnetic flux acting upon the armatiue. Accord- 
ing to their construction, altematers are : (1) resolvitig 
annatwre alternfUers, having the magnet field station- 

■ aiy and the armature revolving ; (2) remAviiig field al- 




Revolving Field Altemater. 

J terjMters, having the magnet field revolving and the 
armature stationary; (3) indwslor aUematers, having 
the field coils and armature stationary and the iron 
core revolving ; (4) iitduetion or asjfnchronmis olterTiat- 
erg, that is, induction motors running as generators above 
synchronism. See MniuctUm generator.— Compensat- 
ed altemater, an altemater in which the armature re- 
action is compensated by a compensating ^exciter (which 
see) and the voltage thereby maintained irrespective of 
load or character of load, that is, power-factor.— Inductor 
altemater, in elect., an altemating-cnrrent generator, 
in which field and armature windings are stationary, and 
only a toothed iron structure revolves. 



36 

alternating (al'tfer-na-ting), p. a. Specifically, 
in elect, periodicaliyreversing or changing the 
direction in such a manner that the total ef- 
fect in one direction is the same as in the op- 
posite direction. An alternating current is a current 
consisting of a series of half-waves of equal duration and 
equal intensity but opposite direction. One half-wave 
is called an alternatuyn, two successive half-waves, or a 
complete wave, a cyde. The number of cycles per sec- 
ond is tliefreqmncy. Commercial frequencies are 25, 60, 
and 125 cycles per second. Since the alternating current 
varies from instant to instant, the square-root of the 
mean square of the instantaneous values is commonly 
employed and called the effective valve of the alternat- 
ing current, since it represents the effect or power of the 
latter. Under alternating current, alternating electro- 
motive force, etc, usually the effective value Is imder- 
stood. If the successive half-waves gradually decrease 
in intensity, the current is called an oscillating current. 
Oscillating currents usually have frequencies of hundred 
thousands and millions of cycles per second. They are 
produced by condenser discharges and are used in wire- 
less telegraphy, etc.— Alternating group. See *groupi. 
— Alternating motion. See*ntocum. — Alternating 
synunetiy, in crystal. See itsymmetry. 

alternation, n. 5. In phytogeog., the discon- 
tinuous occurrence of a plant type due to local 
variations in the conditions. See the extract. 

The term attemation i^nsed to designate that phenom- 
enon of vegetation in which a formation recurs at dif- 
ferent places in a region, or a species at different points 
In a formation. 

F. K Clements, Bot. Surv. Neb., VII. 163. 

6. In elect, the time of one reversal, or 
one half -wave of alternating current. One alter- 
nation therefore is one half-cycle. The frequency of an 
alternating current formerly was given in alternations 
per minute. See ^attemottn^.— AjltltlietiC alterna- 
tion Of generations, the alternation between a sexual 
generation and an asexual generation which is unlike it 
in form or structure or in both; metagenesis. Encyc. 
Bra., XXXII. 211.— Homologoua alternation of gen- 
erations, the alternation of a sexual generation with an 
asexual generation similar to it in appearance. 

Homologovi altemation is illustrated by many Algee 
and Fungi where offspring of similar appearance are pro- 
duced in two different ways, either vegetatively or sexu- 
ally. Muye. Brit, XXXII, 214. 

alternative I. a. — ^Alternative inheritance. See 

•ki-nheritance. 
H. n. — ^Voltaic alternatives, suddenly reversed 

falvanic currents. 
temativity (al-tfer-na-tiv'i-ti), n. [alterna- 
tive + ■4ty.'] The power of choosing between two 
alternatives, as between two courses of action; 
decision of character. By some writers con- 
fused with the power of ethical self-control or 
moral inhibition. 

alternative (S.l-ter-na-te'v6), o. [It.] lamusic, 
noting a movement or section which alternates 
with another or is set in contrast with it. 

alternator, n. See ■^altemater. 

alttaionic (al-thi-on'ik). a. [al^cohol) + Gr. 
ticlov, sulphur, + -n + -ic.] Derived from 

alconol and sulphur Althlonic acid, an old name, 

no longer used, for ethyl-sulphuric acid. 

altbo, conj. A simplified spelling of although,. 

Alticns (al'ti-kus), n. [NL., prop. HalUcus, 
< Gr. alTiKdq, good at leaping, < oMeoBai, leap.] 
A genus of blennies similar to Salarias. A. sa- 
liens lives on lava-rocks about the reefs in the South 
Seas, lurking out of water and leaping like a lizard when 
disturbed. It is black in color and about 4 inclies in 
length. 

altilik (al'ti-lik), n. [Turk. *alUUk, < alti, six, 
+-Uk, adj. suffix.] TheTurkish six-piaster piece. 

altimetric (al-ti-met'rik), a. Same as *altimet- 
rical. 

He proposed to carry a chain of altimetric observations 
to Kara-koshum and Chaklik. 

Oeog. Jour., (K. G. S.), XVI, 472. 

altimetrical (al-ti-met'ri-kal), a. [altmetry 
+ -ic-al.] Relating or pertaining to altime- 
try, or the measurement of heights. Blount. 

altimetrically (al-ti-met'ri-kal-i), adv. As re- 
gards the measurement of heights. 

altinichlic (al-ti-nik'lik), n. [Turk, altin, a 
gold coin.] A Turkish silver coin, the one- 
piaster piece, which has a legal weight of 
18.557 grains and a varying value. 

altist (alt'ist), n. lalt{o) + -ist] In music, 
one who sings the alto part. 

Altitude cinde. See *eir<;2e.— Altitude motion, the 
motion of an instrumentwhen it turns on a horizontal axis. 
See sextant.— A. K. altitude, the sextant sight measured 
in the morning by the navigator for the purpose of obtain- 
ing a base from which to calculate the longitude of the 
vesseL— Double altitude, the angle between an object 
and its reflection in an artificial horizon (ordinarily a 
trough of mercury). Such angles are usually measured 
with a sextant by an observer on land.— Observed alti- 
tude, the angular height of a heavenly body from the 
horizon, as measured on the sextant, or other nautical in- 
strument of reflection, or the sextant altitude before cor- 
rections for semi-diameter, parallax, dip of the horizon, 
and refraction are applied. — F. M. altitude, the sextant 
sight measured in the afternoon by the navigator for de- 
termining the ship's meridian. 



alum-cake 

Altitudinalindex.^See*ind«». _,.,..., ^ 

.Altmann's bioSlasts or granules. See *lnMast. 

alto^t, adv. phr. See all, adv., 1. 

alto-CUmnlus (al-to-kii'mu-lus), n. ; pi. alto- 
cumuli (-li). [L. alius, high, -I- cumulus, heap 
(see cumulus).] A cloud, the highest form of 




AltD-cumulus. 
(From a phototype by J. Vinceut.) 

cumulus, appearing in small masses, bright 
on the sunny and shaded on the opposite side ; 
in the older terminology, a cumulo-cirrus. 
They are frequently arranged In rank and file, generally 
disappearing in the sunshine, and are then indicative of 
dry, pleasant weather. Sometimes this little cloud has a 
definite structure as a vortex-ring. 

alto-nimbus (al-to-nim'bus), n.; pi. alto-nimbi 
(-bi). [L. alius, high, + nimbus, cloud (see 
nim'bus).'] A cloud from which rain falls after 
it is completely developed, but which in its 
first stages is seen to be a dull-colored cloud 
at the summit of a mass of air flowing in under 
an advancing cumulus or cumulo-nimbus. Shn- 
ilar clouds of much greater extent are formed when 
broad sheets of air, blowing from the southwest, approach 
near a storm-center and begin to form clouds before reach- 
ing the rain region. 

alto-stratus (al-to-stra'tus), n. ; pi. alto-strati 
(-li). [L. alius, high, -1- NL. stratus.] 1. A 
thin horizontal sheet of clouds, usually disap- 
pearing slowly : apparently a lower layer of 
what under favorable circumstances might 
have been a cumulus cloud. The outer surface, 
melting away at sunset, gives rise to beautiful 
sunset cloud-colors by reflection of light from 
the sun or the sky beyond the western horizon. 
— 2. A rather high cloud covering the sky as 
a layer whose lower surface is horizontal. 
The extreme boundaries of such an alto-stratus 
cloud thin away into a series of alto-cumuli. 

altro-nutrition (al'tro-nu-trish'on), n. [Ir- 
reg. < L. alter, other, -f- nutrition^ Nutrition 
carried over to another: applied in the quota- 
tion to reproduction viewed in its social and 
ethical consequences. 

Reproduction is therefore not only ultra-nutrition, in 
going beyond the individual, but it is altro-nutritiaa, in 
carrying the process to and into another. It is, as we 
shall see, the beginning of altruism. 

Ward, Pure SocioL, p. 291. 

altrotelic (al-tro-tel'ik), a. See the extract. 

The few years of schooling is only the very end of a 
process that, in a sense, has run tluough eons. The 
school merely puts on the final touches. . . . Letonrneau 
speaks of spontaneous and organic training. Nature 
first adjusts the body to the physical environment ; then 
the social adjustment marks a higher stage. Heredity 
is stored up experience. The second stage or division of 
education we may call . . . artificial or telic. Art is 
here teleologlcal control of nature ; if it is directed by 
another it is o^troeeZic; and when it becomes subjective 
it is autotelic. The telic aspect begins when we enter 
the social sphere. O. S. Hall, Adolescence, II. 447. 

altrtdstic, a. 2. Pertaining to that theory of 
ethics which regards altruism as the highest 
motive. 

aludel, n. In modem times it has been applied almost 
exclusively to the thin earthen condensers used in the 
collection of mercury at the reduction-worlis at Almad^n, 
Spain. 

aluff (a-luf), adv. Naut, of sails, in the posi- 
tion when the helm is put down, or alee, so 
that the vessel is thrown up into the wind and 
the sails shake or slat. 

alum, n.— Alum bath, a saturated solntion of potas- 
sium alum. It is used in photography to check the frill- 
ing of plates or the blistering of paper.— Alum scSiSt. 
Same as alum shale.— Porous alum, the trade-name of 
aluminium sulphate obtained by evaporation of its solu- 
tion and to which, just before solidification, a small 
quantity of sodium carbonate is added with stirring of 
the pasty mass. The evolution of carbon-dioxid gas in 
bubbles puffs up the material to a spongy condition, 
which becomes permanent on setting. 

alum-cake (al'um-kak), ». The dried mass 
left after the treatment with strong sulphuric 
acid of kaolin or fairly pure clay which has 



alum-caEe 

been roasted, it consists essentially of alnmininm 
sulphate, but includes, mixed witli it, the silica derived 
from the clay. Also alum-clay cake. 
aJlim-eartll, n. 2. A loose clay containing 
iron pyrites from which alum may be made. 



oiten occurs with beds of lignite, and usu- especially useful for welding conductor-rails, defective 

ally contains rather less silica than the more — " ^ — '" "' *"""' *"' *■""'" — ' *■" 

oomjjaot alum slate. 

alumian (a-lu'mi-an), n. [aXuim^vm) + -an.] 
A doubtful alumiiiium sulphate (perhaps AI2- 
S2O9) found in Spain. 

Alumina cream, freshly precipitated aluminium hydrate 

held in suspension in water. 
alummium, n. Aluminium melts at 65i.6° C, and 

the tensile strength of hars made of it is about 28,000 

pounds a square inch. The commercial production of 

the metal began about 1888, the process most largely 

used, as at Pittsburg and Niagara, being that of Hall, in 

which anhydrous alumina from bauxite is dissolved in a 

bath of fused cryolite in the presence of carbon and elee- 

trolyzed by a current of 6 or 7 volts and 7,000 amperes. 

The price has been brought down from $15 to 30 cents a 

pound, and the annual output increased from 3 to many 

thousand tons per annum. The only moderate strength 

of the metal, certain difficulties in working It (as, for in- .. _„ ^. _^ 

stance, in soldering), and its chemical alterability under nlnmiTint.'hprTnwCfl-li-i'Tni.Tin thhv'jni^ n TNT, 

some conditions have tended to limit its applications, aiummounermy (a-lu mi-no-tner mi;, n. LJNIj. 

Among the more recent uses made of It may be men- alumxnum + br. rep/*)?, heat.] bame as *alwim- 

tioned the etching of designs for theatrical and other nofhermies. 

posters, substitution for copper In wire for the ttansmis- alum-meal (arum-mel), ». Alum as obtained 

slon of electric currents, the manufacture of a silver-like {„ _„„i, p-vstals at its fiTst nrvRtalli/atioTi bv 

paint from the powder, and the production of a very high "^ small crystals, at its Mst crystallization j Dy 

temperatiu-e by rapid combustion of the powder in ad- rapid cooling, with agitation, ot a hot solution. 

mixture with sodium dioxid. See *alummothermics.— allindum (a-lun'dum), n. [L. al(,ms), other, + 

Aluminium brass, an alloy of aluminium, ainc, and (eor)'UMdum.'\ An artiflcial abrasive made in an 

cop5er produced either by mtroducmg metallic alu- "lopf-ip (nr^^op, and iisfid a<! a siib<!tit,iitfi for 

minium Into melted brass, or by Introducing zinc into eieoiric lurnace ana usea as a suDSiiiuie lor 

melted aluminium bronze. The proportion of alumin- corundum. 

ium varies from 1 to 5.8 parts, that of copper from 56,8 alllTglte (a-16r'jit), TO. [Gr. alovpyi/i, purple (lit. 

to 77.5, and that of zinc from 21 to 43. The metal is 'wrought in the sea,' with reference to the 



37 

other very important application of the aluminothcrmic 
process is to welding. In this thermit (which see) is 
placed in a specially prepared crucible of refractory ma- 
terial and the reaction is started by means of an igniter. 
The fluid mass of iron produced is poured Into a mold 
placed around the joint to be welded. This process is 
especially useful for welding conductor-rails, defective 
castings, and parts of broken machinery which must be 
repaired at the places where they are in use. When the 
aluminothermlc process Is used for the separation of 
metals, an important by-product is farmed, namely, the 
melted aluminium oxid or alumina. It is an artificial 
corundum and has been called coruMn, Its uniform 
hardness makes it far superior to natural corundum or 
emery for grinding and polishing purposes. A great ob- 
stacle in the way of the use of aluminothermlc processes 
has been the lack of some means of starting the reaction, 
which requires a high temperature. Dr. Goldschmidt 
accomplishes this by using an igniter consisting usually 
of a readily reducible oxid, such as barium peroxid, 
mixed with finely powdered aluminium. The reaction 
of this mixture may be started by means of a match. A 
pinch of this mixture placed upon the thermit or other 
aluminothermlc mixture will serve to start the reaction. 
Once started, the main reaction will propagate , Itself, 
since the temperature produced Is probably above 3000° C. , 
and higher than can be obtained in any other artificial 
way except by the electric arc, 



genuine purple dye from the purple-fish as dis 
tinguished from imitations made on land, < 
oA?, sea, + ipyov, work), + -dte^. ] Amanga- 
nese-miea, varying from purple to cochineal 
red, froin St. Marcel, Piedrnont. 



very ductile and malleable, and its tensile strength is 
far above that of ordinary brass.— Aluminium hypo- 
chlorite. A solution of tMs salt prepared by the interac- 
tion of solutions of bleaohlng-powder and aluminium 
sulphate has been used in bleaching under the name 
WUion's liqimr. It has been applied chiefly In the prep- 
aration of paper stock, but it may also be used as a 
preservative and disinfectant and in mordanting cloth Alutera (a-lu'te-rS), n. [NL., < L. aluta, soft 

'i'i'„2j'f,i?S™ ^JS^SSH prooesaes. See -tfroeess.- leather.] A genus of file-fishes remarkable 
Aluminium pyrolignite. a trade-name for aluminmm *„„ j.i,„. i„„j.i,„_„ „i,j„ „„j i„„„ t,„j„. i!„„„j 
acetate, largely used in sofution as a mordant in dyeing. 10' their leathery skin and lean body : found 
— Aluminium solder. Very nearly pure zinc has been m tropical seas, A. monoceros is the oom- 
recommended for soldering articles of aluminium, but monest species. 

the process is still a difficult and unsatisfactory one, AliraTina ^al-irn'n' 1la^ n TNT. 1 A crAniia nt 
chiefly in consequence of the high conducting power and -a-lVanUS Jal-va n-us), TO. L^i^-J A genus ot 
high specific heat of aluminium.-Alumli&um steeL small darters of the t&mi\j Percidse. A. late- 
Bee *<tee;i.^Alumlnium sulphate, a1b(S04)318H20, raUs is found in northern Mexico, 
a substance manufactured from Dauxlfe, kaolin, or cryo- a'\'mkat.o Cnl'v5 fit> n FT. nlmentiii >ir>llnwArl 
lite, used In makine alnm_ nlarifvinir drinkino..watV.i., aiVCaie (al Ve-at), a. lU. OmeatUS, nOllOWea 

out like a trough or tray, < alveus, a trough, 
tray : see atoeM«.] BsxaQ aa aloeated. 



lite, used In making alum, clarifying drinking-water, 
purifying sewage, preparing size, etc.— Aluminium 
zinc, an alloy of aluminium and zinc. These two metals 
are combined In various proportions, and the alloy ob- 
tained is generally harder thau aluminium but very 
brittle, unless the proportion of zinc Is very small. The 
further addition of copper makes a very stiff metal, 
well adapted for castings. — Bromide of aluminium, a 
salt prepared by saturating hydrobromic acid with gelat- 
inous aluminium hydrate and then carefully evaporat- 
ing to dryness. It Is used in photograpliy in sensitizing 
collodion, one grain to the ounce. — Wolfram alumin- 
ium, an alloy of aluminium and tungsten, used largely 
for military equipments. The metal rolls, draws, and 
spins well. 



alvelos (ai've-los), «. The milky resinous juice 
of EuphorMa heterodoxa, indigenous to Brazil : 
a yellowish-white syrupy substance used in 
medicine. 

alveola (al-ve'o-la), to. j pi. alveolee (-le). [NL. 
fern.: see ahieolm.] In bot. : (a) One of the 
pits in a receptacle after the' removal of the 
flowers, especially in the heads of composite 
plants. (6) A pore in a fungus, as Polyporus. 
(c) The depressed perithecium in certain fungi, 



aluminlze (a-lu'mi-mz), v. t.: pret. and pp. W ^neuepr«8seupBnciieciuiDm oerDamiungi. 
n^n.) + ,.il^]' To apply al^m^r a salt of ^alu- It^^y^S-X^ Jl^* ? °'ni*^^» ,r ° 



minium to (a material, as cloth), 

alumino-. A oombining form (with siUeate, 
phosphate, etc.) of aluminum, aluminium. The 
feldspars are all aluminosilicates. 

aluminoferric (a-lix"mi-no-fer'ik), a. See the 
following.— Aliuninoferric cake, the trade-name for 
aluminium sulphate when it contains a considerable 
quantity of ferric Efulphate derived from iron occurring as 
an Impurity In bauxite or china clay. 

altuninol (a-lu'mi-nol), ». [alumin{ium) + 
-ol.'] A trade-name for j3-naphtholdisulpho- 
nate of aluminium, Al2(CioHgOH(S03)2)3. 
It combines the astringency of alum with the 
antiseptic power of naphthol. 

alununothermic (a-lu"mi-no-th6r'mik), a. 
Pertaining to or produced by aluminothermy ; 
producing high temperatures by the combus- 
tion of finely divided metallic aluminium. 
Elect. World and Ungin., Feb. 13, 1904, 



contact with the alveolar point of the upper 
front teeth, as the consonants *, d, n, I Alveo- 
lar abscess, a deep-seated gum-boil.— Alveolar angle, 
in anthrop., the angle formed by the lines drawn from 
the alveolar point to the baslon and to the nasion. — 
Alveolar hjrpothesis, the doctrine or opinion that the 
reticulated appearances in protoplasm are due to the 
walls of contiguous vesicles or alveoli, and that this 
foam-like structure is the universal fundamental struc- 
ture of protoplasm. — Alveolar line, in (franiom., the 
continuation of the lateral margin of the anterior na^al 
aperture to the anterior nasal spine. Harrison Allen, 
Jour. Acad. H^at. ScL, X. 418. 

alveolar-dorsal (al-ve'*'o-lar-d6r'sal), a. Alveo- 
lar and dorsal. Stiid. iTate Psych.'Lah.,'^. 105. 

Alveolites (al^'ve-o-li'tez), n. [NL., < L. alveo- 
lus, dim. of aheus, a cavity, -I- ■4tes, E. -jfe2.] 
Agenus of extinct tabulate corals. They grow in 
spreading or branching masses composed of contiguous 
corallites opening obliquely on the surface with semi- 
lunar apertures ; the septa are represented by rows of 
splnules and mural pores are present. This coral is very 
abundant in the Silurian and Devonian. 



aluminotlierillics (a-11i'''mi-n6-th6r'miks), ... 
lahminium, + thermics.] A collective name for alveololabial (al-ve"'o-lo-la'bi-al), a. Pertain- 
the processes in which high temperatures are ing to the lips and to the alveolar processes, 
produced by the chemical combination of alveololingual (al-ve"o-16-ling'gwal), a. Per- 
oxygen and aluminium, it has been known for taining to the tongue and to the alveolar pro- 
some time that high temperature could be obtained by the cesses, 

formation of alumina, but the operation was not practi- alveolonasal (al-ve''''6-16-na'zal), a. In era- 
^l?ffl"by' SrHTs'SoW^ciS^^Th^f "tSZ «»««•' -«l^ti?,g to thealveolar point and to the 
mixing finely powdered aluminium with some pulverized nasion . as, tne aweQlonasai line, 
metallic oxid (e. g., FesO^), and then raising the tempera^ alveolUS, n. (A) In the shells of belemuites or fossil 
ture to the point where reaction takes place through dibranchiate cephalopods, the conical cavity at the an- 
whioh the aluminium deprives the other metal of its terior end. 

oxygen, forming AI2O3. This reaction generates a great Alvine calculi, Intestinal concretions which result from 
quantity of heat and a very high temperature. J3t» pro- the inspissation of portions of the fecal contents, 
cess is used toitbe production of pure metals which jt -i—ii.- rai'„=n-\ ,» r Jlmt> i-n Wm-wmr -1- «"fo>2 1 
has not before been possible to isolate completely and ^i^P® (^ '' L-,- <- ■ -^lorway + -»«B».J 

in a pure form, such as chromium, manganese, , etc. An. A Silicate resembling zircon m form, but oon- 



Amanita 

tainingy ttrium and probably thorium and other 
rare elements : found in Norway. 

aly (a'li), a. [ale + -^1.] Of, pertaining to, 
like, or characteristic of the use of ale : as, an 
aly tale ; an aly taste ; an aly nose. 

AlYpia (a-lip'i-a)j n. [NL. (Huebner, 1825), 
said to be < Gr. ahmla, freedom from grief.] 
A genus of agaristid moths containing several 
species which inhabit the United States. One 
of them, A. ocUrniavuLata, occurs abundantly in the lai'val 
state upon grape-vines, which It Injures by devouring the 
foliage. 

A. M. A. An abbreviation of American Med- 
ical Association. 

ama-ama (a''''ma-^'ma), n. [Hawaiian.] A 
Hawaiian name of the common mullet, Mugil 
cephalus. It is a food-fish of very superior 
quality, and is reared in artificial ponds in that 
region. 

amacrine (a-mak'rin), a. [Gr. a- priv. -I- /^a- 
Kp6i, long, "-I- Iq (-IV-), muscle, in pi. fiber.] 
Not having long fibers : a term applied to an- 
axone nerve-cells, sometimes called spongio- 
blasts, found in the inner molecular layer of 
the retina of the eye. 

amaldar, n. 2. In India, an agent or man- 
ager; in some districts, a revenue-collector. 
Also written amildar. 

Amalgamated plates. See *plate. 

amalgamating-pan (a-mal'ga-ma-ting-pan"), 
TO. Ingold^ and silver-milling, a pan-shaped ma- 
chine with a revolving muller for grinding ores 
in order to extract the precious metals from 
the resulting pulp with the aid of mercury. 
The use of chemicals and heat is sometimes 
required, especially for silver ores. 

amalgamation, n.—Baxrel amalgamation, a pro- 
cess of amalgamation in which the ore to be treated Is 
charged into revolving barrels and there the precious 
metals are imlted with mercury. In the United States 
the barrel-process has been replaced by the pan-process, 
while In Europe and In South and Central America it is 
still In use.— Kroncke's process of amalgamation, 
a Chilean amalgamation process, in use since 1862, adapted 
chiefly for ores from the deeper workings, which carry, 
besides some native silver and chlorid, much argentlte, 
proustite, pyroargyrite, and polybasite. The active re- 
agent is a hot solution of cuprous chlorid which is pre- 
pared separately. The operation is carried on in rotating 
wooden barrels, and lead or zinc is employed as a meana 
of decomposing the calomel. — Baw amalgamation, 
the amalgamation of silver ore vrithout a preliminary 
chlorldizing roast.— Roast amalgamation, amalgama- 
tion of silver ore after a preliminary chlorldizing roast. 
See chloridize. 

amalic (a-mal'ik), a. [Formation not obvious.] 
Noting an acid, Oj2Hi4Ni08, formed by the 
oxidation of oaffein or wieobromine; tetra- 
methyl alloxantin. 

Amanist (a-ma'nist), TO. lAmana, a group of 
villages in Iowa (< Amana, a mountain men- 
tioned in Cant. iv. 8), -1- -is*.] A member of a 
German religious community properly known 
as the " True Inspiration Society." Itoriglnated 
as a religious sect in Germany In the seventeenth cen- 
tury, was much persecuted there and elsewhere on the 
confinent of E\u-ope, removed to the United States in 
1842, and became communistic. The community settled 
first at Ebenezer, near Buffalo, New York, but removed, 
in 1866 and the following years, to Amana, near Cedar 
Sapids, Iowa, where it forms a group of seven villages, 
engaged in agriculture and manufactures, and sharing 
things in common under the rule of a president and sev- 
eral trustees elected by the people. Its members believe 
in the plenary Inspiration of the Bible, and make it their 
sole creed, differing little in their beliefs from Lutherans. 
They have no rite of baptism, do not believe in eternal 
punishment, and, like the Quakers, disapprove of war and 
are non-resistants. 
They disbelieve in 
ceremonies and In 
gaiety of all kinds, 
have no clergy, and 
no preaching ex- 
cept when God 
raises up an 'in- 
spired instrument,' 
but all are devout 
church-^oers. See 
insiniraHonut. 

Amanita (am'^a- 
ni'ta), TO. [NL., 
< (xT. afiavirai, 
pi., a sort of 
fungi.] 1. In 
my col., a genus 
of fungi of the 
family Agaricor 
ceee, restricted 
by recent au- 
thors to white- 
spored species 
having the stem 
provided with 
bothanannulus, 
or ring, and a 




Antanitopsis plutnbea. 
'After figure in Eneler and Prantl's 
" Pflanzenfamilien.'i) ' ■ ' ■■ : * 



Amanita 

volva. Over 50 species have been described, 
a number of which are common and widely dis- 
tributed throughout temperate regions. — Z. 

II. c] A plant of this genus Fly amanita, a 

name frequently applied to Amanita mvscaria, a poison- 
ous species.— Orange amanita, a common name for A. 
esBsaruZt a large edible species having an orange-colored 
pileus. — Folson amamta, a name applied to A. phtd- 
loiaes, a white species which is extremely poisonous. 

Amanitopsis(a-man-i-top'sis), n. [NL.(Eoze, 
1879), < Amanita -t- i>\>u:, view.] A genus of 
white-spored agarics having a volva but no an- 
nulus. A. plumbea is a common and widely dis- 
tributed species. See cut on preceding page. 

amanous (am'a-nus), a. [Gr. d- priv. + L. ma- 
nus, a hand.] Without hands or manus : some- 
times applied to birds. [Bare.] ■ 

amaranth, ». 4. Sajae a,s purple heart — 5. An 
acid dyestuff, of the monoazo type, which dyes 
wool and silk a pure bluish red that is moder- 
ately fast to light and milling. It is known 
by various other names, as azo acid-ruMne, Bor- 
deaux S, and fast red.— Amaranth spirit, a trade- 
name for one of the solutions of chlorid of tin used 
as a mordant in dyeing. These solutions are now much 
less used than they were before the introdaction of the 
coal-tar dyes. —Low amaranth, one of the tumbleweeds, 
Amaranttts blitoideBf of the prauie States resembling A. 
^raecizanSf but more spreading. Also prostrate or spread- 
ing amaranth.— Roukh amaranth, the pigweed, Ama- 
rawthus retroJUceus. — Spiny amaranth, a tropical weed, 
Amaranthw spinosus, recently spread in waste places 
fwm Virginia to Missouri aud southward. It Is a stout> 
bushy species and the stems bear slender spines. Also 
caAled eardess-wsed and red careless-weed. — Spreading 
amaranth. Same as low *amaranth. — Thorny ama- 
ranth. Same as spiny -^amarantft. 

amarantite (am-a-ran'tit), n. [amarant, pro- 
per form of amaranth, H- -jte2.] A hydrous 
iferric sulphate occurring in slender prismatic 
crystals and bladed masses of an amaranth-red 
«olar. Also called hohmannite. * 

amargosa (a-mar-go'sa), n. [Sp. amargoso, 
bitter.] A name in Guam and the Philippines 
.of -the balsam-pear and the balsam-apple {Mo- 
mordiea Charantia and M. Balsamina), gourd- 
like plants with palmate leaves and warty, 
jeUow fruit which bursts open when ripe, dis- 
playing the seeds surrounded by a red aril. 

Simaric (a-mar'ik), a. [L. amarus, bitter, -I- 

-ic.'] Of a bitter nature Amaxic acid, an acid, 

C23H2QO3 + H2O, formed by boiling benzamarone with 
alcoholic sodium hydroxid. It is crystalline and easily 
forms an anhydrid. 

amaril (am'a-ril), n. [L. amarus, bitter + -il.'\ 
The hypothetical poison of the Bacillus ictero- 
ides, regarded by some as the cause of yellow 
fever. 

amaroid (am'a-roid), n. [L. amarus, bitter, + 
-md.'] A name proposed to designate those 
bitter substances which have a definite com- 
position but do not belong to one of the recog- 
nized classes of compounds such as glucosides 
or alkaloids. 

amaroidal (am-a-roi'dal), a. [amaroid + -asZ.] 
1. Somewhat bitter in taste. — 2. In pharm., 
resembling a bitter in properties. 

Amasonia (am-a-so'ni-a), n. [NL., named for 
Thomas Amason, an early American traveler.] 
A genus of greenhouse shrubs from tropical 
America, of the family Verbenaceee : sometimes 

frown for the long, persistent, hairy, yellow 
owers. A. calycina is the only common spe- 
cies in the United States. There are about six 
species, but they are not much known in cul- 
tivation, 
amastia (a-mas'ti-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 'a/iaaria, 

< a/iaaTO(, without breasts, < a- priv. + /laaro^, 
breast.] Congenital absence of the nipples or 
of the entire breasts. 

amasty (a-mas'ti), n. Same as *amastia. 

amaurosis, n. - intoxication amaurosis, blindness 
due to the action of some systemic poison, such as alcohol 
or tobacco. 

Amaurotic family Idiocy, a form of idiocy accompa- 
nied by constant and irremediable retinal lesions caus- 
ing blindness. Lancet, June 25, 1804. 

amaxophobia (am-ak-so-fo'bi-a), n. [Prop. 
*hamaa;ophobia, < Gr. a/ia^a, a wagon, -1- -<popia, 

< <i>oj3elv, fear.] A morbid fear of vehicles. 
amazia (a-ma'zi-a), «. [NL., < Gr. a- priv. -)- 

/iaZ6g, breast.] Congenital absence of the mam- 
mary glands. 

Amazoman group, in geol., a term applied to rocks 
of Cretaceous age along the Rio Funis, Brazil, and re- 
garded as equivalent in part to the Upper Chalk or 
Maestrichtian of Europe. 

Amazonianism (am-a-z6'ni-an-izm), n. The 
state or condition oi Amazons ; Amazonian 
customs and conditions which develop in a 
certain state of society ; particularly, the sup- 
posed Amazonian revolution of the women 
against prevailing hetserism. McLennan. 



38 

Amazonism (am'a-zon-izm), n. The supposed 
supremacy and rule of women in primitive 
society : an interpretation of the facts of de- 
scent traced in the female line, and the con- 
sequent supremacy of the male relatives of 
the wife over her husband. Ward, Pure So- 
ciol., p. 338. 

Amazonomachia (am''a-zon-o-mak'i-a), n. 
[NL., <Gr. 'Afta^iyv, Amazon, '+ ^d;);?/, fight.] 
In Gr. anUq., a battle of Amazons. There were 
several of these mythic battles : (1) the invasion of Xiycia 
by the Amazons ; (2) the invasion of Phiygia by the 
Amazons ; (3) the battle with Hercules, his 9th labor, 
in which Hippolyta, queen of the Amazons, was slain ; 
(4) the battle with Theseus to liberate Antiope ; (5) the 
battle at the close of the Trojan War, when the Amazons 
came to the assistance of Priam ; (6) the invasion by the 
Amazons of the island of Leuce at the mouth of the 
Danube. Since it furnished many interesting arrange- 
ments of men, women, and horses in action, the Amazon- 
omachia was a favorite subject with Greek aitists. The 
finest representation of it now in existence is a series of 



Amblystomatidse 

ambiciliate (am-bi-sil'i-at), a. [L. avM-, on 
both sides, + NL. ciliatus, ciliate.] In ichtk., 
having the scales on both sides of the body 
edged with minute teeth. [Rare.] 

Ambicolurate fish appear to be always what one may 
call * ambiciliate ' also. 




Amazonomachia, from a Sarcophagus in the Louvre. 

bas-reliefs, in the British Museum, which was found in 
the ruins of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. It was 
often represented in the decoration of vases. 

A.M.B. An abbreviation of the Latin Artium 
Mechanicarum Baeoalaureus, Bachelor of the 
Mechanic Arts, a title conferred by some col- 
leges. 

ambach, n. Same as *aml>atch. 

ambagiousness (am-ba'jus-nes), n. lamba- 
gious + -ness."} The quality of being amba- 
gious, roundabout, or indirect. 

ambatcbi (am'bach), n. [See ambash.'] The 
pith-tree of the Nile, .Mschyn^omene Elaphrox- 
ylon, a thorny shrub or small tree of extraor- 
dinarily quick growth : a characteristic plant 
of the waters of tropical Africa. Its xmcom- 
monly light, spongy wood is used for floats 
and small rafts. See ambash. 

ambeer, ambier (am'ber), n. [Perhaps due in 
some way to amber, in allusion to its color.] 
Tobacco-juice. Joaquin Miller. [Local, XJ. S.] 

amber'', n. — Drawn amber, amber which has been 
dragged out of the sea with nets and rakes. — Fit amber, 
amber mined from pits or diggings. It usually has a 
friable brown crust. Distinguished from stra/nd and sea 
amber, from which this coating has been worn by the 
action of sea and sand. — Sea amber, amber washed up 
by the sea (from deposits under the sea or on the coast) or 
dredged from its depths. Also called sea-stone. — Strand 
amber, water-worn amber found on a coast or strand. 

amber-beds (am'bfer-bedz), n. pi. A deposit 
of glauconitic sands of Lower Oligocene age, 
developed along the coast of the Baltic Sea 
near Kiinigsberg, in the lower part of which is 
a band containing considerable quantities of 
amber. The sands carry marine fossils, but the amber 
incloses insects, spiders, and centipeds, together with 
the fruit, flowers, seeds, and leaves of a large number of 
land plants. 

amberiferous (am-bfer-if'er-us), a. Amber- 
bearing or amber-producing. 

The west coast of Denmark ... is included in this 
aimberiferaus region. Buck, Med. Handbook, I. 208. 

amberite (am'be-rit), »!. [amber ■k--ite^.'^ One 
of the modern explosives known as smokeless 
powders, it contains 40 per cent, of nitroglycerin, 
56 per cent, of soluble guncotton, and 4 per cent, of 
camphor, vaseline, or some equivalent substance. 

amber-jack (am'b6r-jak), n. A name given to 
large species of the genus Seriola, as S. lalandi 
and S. dumerili. 

amberous (am'b6r-us), a. Amber-colored ; like 
amber. 

Its chambers paved with aniberovs lights. 

The Century, Aug., 1890, p. 600. 

amber-snail (am'b6r-snal), n. A species of 
Succinea. 

amber-tree, n. 2. The extinct tree Pinites 
succinifer, which yielded most of the amber of 
the Baltic region. 

ambiance (an-bi-ans'), n. [F. {Kouveau La- 
rousse), < ambiant = E. ambient. The E. form 
would be *ambienee.'] Environment: in art, 
the arrangement of accessories and surround- 
ings to support the main effect intended. 



Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1894, p. 439. 

ambicolorate (am-bi-kul'or-at), a. [L. ambi-, 
on both sides, + coloratus, colored.] Having 
both sides of the body colored: applied specifi- 
cally to abnormal examples of flatfishes, colored 
on both sides, which are normally white be- 
neath. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1894, p. 435. 

ambicoloration (am-bi-kul-o-ra'shgn), n. [L. 
ambi-, on both sides, + coloration.\ In zool., 
the property or fact of having both sides 
colored. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1894, p. 432. 

Ambient vein. See *vein. 

ambier, n. See *ambeer. 

ambilation (am-bi-la'shon), n. [ambi- + (re)- 
lation.'] A relation in which every individual 
object of the universe of discourse stands to 
every other ; a pene-eoexistence. 

ambisinistrous (am-bi-sin'is-tms), a. [L. 
ambi-, on both sides, + sinister, left.] Same 
as ambilevous. 

ambital (am'bi-tal), a. [ambit + -ai.] Of or 
pertaining to the ambitus or margin of the sheU 
or test, as in echinoderms. 

ambitty (am-bit'i), a. [Prob. a factory pron. 
of P. invitr^ (an!'''vi"tra'), unvitrified, < in-, L. 
in-, neg., + vitre, < L. vitrum, glass.] In glass- 
manuf., devitrified in the pot during the time it 
is being worked, as glass. 

ambitus, n. 6. In Gregorian music, the range 
or compass of a melody. — 7. In the flat sea- 
urchins or echinoids, the peripheral or equa- 
torial area of the test which is not traiissected 
by the ambulacra. 

Amblotberiidx (am-bl6-the'ri-i-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < Amblotherium + -irfas.] A family of 
primitive mammals in which the molars bear 
a tritubercular blade and a posterior talon: 
from the Jurassic of North America and Great 
Britain. 

Amblotherium (am-bl6-the'ri-um), n. [NL.. 
for *Amblytherium, < Gr. a/i^^vg, sluggish, + 
di/plov, wild beast.] The typical genus of the 
family Amblotheriidse : regarded by some au- 
thors as synonymous with Peraspalea;, Phas- 
colestes, and Stylodon. 

AmblycephaUds (am-bli-se-fal'i-de), n.pl. 
[NL., < Amilycephalns -\- -idee.] A family of 
harmless tropical snakes found in South Amer- 
ica and Asia. The pterygoids, which are widely sepa- 
rated from the quadrates, do not reach beyond the plane 
of the occipital condyle. On account of the size of the 
head, the species (about 30 in number) bear some resem- 
blance to venomous snakes. 

amblyctaromatic (am-bli-kro-mat'ik), a. [6r. 
a/j.p?.v(, dim, -I- jfp«i/zo, color.] Feebly stain- 
ing : applied to certain myelocytes occurring 
in marrow. Opposed to *trachychromatie. 

Amblygobius (am-bli-go'bi-us), ». [NL., < Gr. 
a/i^Xic, dull, blunt, -I- li.gobius, goby.] A genus 
of gobies in the East Indies. 

amblyopia, n. Failing sight, as distinguished 
from amaurosis or total blindness. 

amblyoscope (am'bli-o-skop), n. [Gr. afil3M(, 
dim, dull, obtuse, + bko-kcIv, view.] A stereo- 
scope each lateral half of which has indepen- 
dent motion , whereby a fusion of the two images 
can be effected under any conditions of diver- 
gence or convergence of the visual axes. Lan- 
cet, July 18, 1903. 

ambljrpod (am'bli-pod), n. [Gr. d/i/3/,uf, blunt, 
-t- irot;f, foot."] A member of the order Am- 
blypoda, a group comprising a large number 
of extinct ungulates. 

Amblypomacentrus (am"bli-p6-ma^sen'trus), 
n. [NL., < Gr. afiPUg, dull, blunt, + (!) Poma- 
centrus.] Aname given to a section of the genus 
Pomacentrns, small reef-fishes known as dam- 
sel-fishes or demoiselles. 

Amblyrhiza (am-bli-ri'za), n. [NL., '< Gr. 
aiipXvi, blunt, + pi^a, root'.] An extinct genus 
of rodents, allied to Chinchilla, from the Post- 
tertiary of the AntiHes. 

amblystegite (am-blis'te-jit), n. [Gr. d/ijSXif, 
blunt, -I- arty?!, roof, chamber, -I- -ite'^. The 
name alludes to the form of the crystals.] A 
variety of hvpersthene from the andesite of 
the Laacher See in the Eifel, originally de- 
scribed as an independent species. 

Amblystomatidae (am'bli-sto-mat'i-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < Amblystoma{t-) +--ida.] .'?ame as Am- 
blystomidx. 



amboceptor 

amboceptor (am-bo-sep'tor), n. [L. a7w6o,both, 
+ (,re)ceptm:'i -A. specifio adaptation-product, 
the result of immunization, which unites the 
corresponding complement with the receptor 
of the cell or cellular product for which it has 
a special affinity. See *immunity. Also copula, 
desmon, fixator, immune body, intermediary body, 
jyreparator. 

The excessive or lateral cbains, being useless to the 
cells in which they are produced, are cast off ahd appear 
in the body juices as iutermediary bodies or ' eeptors,' 
which, according to their nature, ai'e designated uni- 
ceptors (antitoxins, etc.) and amiboceptars (intermediary 
bodies). Science, July 8, 1908. 

Ambocoelia (am-bo-se'li-a), ». [NL., < Gr. 
anjiuv, a raised edge, + leoiXia, belly.] A genus 
of small spire-bearingbraohiopods with smooth 
or spinous valves: abundant in the Devonian 
and Carboniferous rocks. 

Ambonychia (am-bo-nik'i-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
afiflcM, a raised edge, + Swf, talon.] The 
typical genus of the family Ambonychiidse. 

Ambonychiidse (am-bo-ni-M'i-de), n. [NL., < 
Ambonychia + -idee.'] A family of peleeypod 
or acephalous moUusks. They have mytUilorm 
shells with no auricle and with the anterior adductor 
muscle obsolete, no hinge-teeth, ligament external, and 
byssal gape small. It is highly characteristic ot the early 
Silurian faunee and has a few Devonian representatives. 

Amboyna button or pimple. See *button. 
ambroid (am'broid), n. The trade-name of a 

substance made from the inferior pieces of 

amber. See the extract. 

The inferior pieces of amber are made into what is 
called arribroid. The pieces are washed and dried, coated 
on the outside with some chemical, and are then moulded 
with the aid of heat and pressure. 

Sdentijic American, Sept. 16, 1890, 

ambrosia, m. 3. The food of certain wood-boring 
beetles, consisting of various hyphomycetous 
fungi found associated with the beetles in their 
galleries, and said by some authors to be prop- 
agated by them, each species of beetle using 
a particular species of fungus. 

Their [ambrosia-beetles'] food consists not of wood, 
but of a substance to which the name ambroHa has been 
given, and which is a coating formed by certain minute 
fungi and propagated on the walls of their galleries by 
the beetles. The action of the fungus produces the char- 
acteristic stain in the wood. 

Tearbook CT. S. Dept. Agr., 1896, p. 421. 

ambrosia-beetle (am-br6'zia-be''''tl), n. Any 
one of a group of beetles' of the family Sco- 
lyiidx, which burrow in the wood of different 
trees, and in their burrows cultivate certain 
fungi known as ambrosia. See *ambrosia, 3. 
Thirty species belonging to 6 genera in the 
United States are known to have this habit. — 
COBmopolilian ambrosia-beetle, a scolytid beetle of 
wide distribution, Xyleborus saxeseni. — OsijE ambrosia- 
beetle, an American scolytid beetle, Xyleborus affi/nis. 

Ambrosiacese (am-bro-zi-a'sf-e), n. pi, [NL. 
(Eeichenbaeh, 1828), < Ambrosia + -a^ese.'] A 
family of dieotyledonousj sympetalous plants 
of the order Campanwlales, the ragweed family : 
chiefly distinguished from the Asteracese, in 
which it is included by many authors, by hav- 
ing the stamens (usually 5) separate, or the 
anthers merely connivent, so as not to be 
truly syngenesious. There are 8 genera and about 
65 species, mostly American, coarse weeds, some bearing 
burs. Amlyromi, the ragweed, is the type, and the two 
other best-known genera are Iva and XarUhium. 

ambrosial, «. 2. Pertaining to the senses of 
taste and smell : a forced use. 

While yet in the animal state man learns to enjoy the 
ambrosial senses in partaking ot food and drink and in 
inhaling the air laden with many paiticles given oB by 
natural bodies. 

J. W. Powell, Amer. Ethnol. Kep., XIX. llx. 

Ambrosian, a — Ambroslan hymn, any hymn attrib- 
uted to St. Ambrose (340-397) or his school. The title is 
generally considered as applying to twelve hymns char- 
acterized by their lack of rhythm and their austere 
simplicity. The 'Te Deum ' commonly called ' Ambro; 
sian ' is thought now to be a translation of an ancient 
Greek hymn. ,. , i 

ambrosine (am'bro-sm), n. [? ambros(ta) + 
-»»e2.] A resinous mineral found in the phos- 
phate-beds near Charleston, South Carolina. 

ambulacral, a. 2. Situated on the side which 
bears the ambulacra;, hence, in Stelleroidea 
and Crinoidea, oral — Ambulacral brush, in spa- 
tangoid searurchins, a structure consisting of an ordi- 
nary tube-foot of which the terminal disk is extraordi- 
narily widened and carries a number of club-shaped or 
conical solid appendages, each supported by a calcareous 
rod. The brushes occur near the mouth and anus, and 
are said to play an important part in the taking in of food 
by stirring up the sand.— Ambulacral fields, the areas 
or divisions of the surface of an echmoderm which are 
covered by the ambulacra.— Ambulacral root, one of 
the hollow adhesive locomotive organs of an echmoderm ; 



39 

a tube-foot or tentacle.— Ambulacral pore, one of the 
openings between adjacent ambulacral ossicles in star- 




Longitudinal section through an ambulacral brush of a spatan* 
gold (after Lov&n and Hamann). a, body epithelium ; i>, support- 
lug-Tod ; c, supporting plate of the terminal disk ; d, septa ; e, canal 
nf the water-vascular system;/*, longitudinal muscles; f, nervp; 
/;, circular muscle-6bers. Magnified. (Drawn from Lang's " Com- 
parative Anatomy.") 

fishes, or through the ambulacral plates in echinoids, for 
the passage of the canal which connects a tube-foot with 
its ampulla. 

II, n. Same as ambulacral ossicle or plate. 
ambulance, n — veterinary ambulance, a substan- 
tial, heavy wagon with horizontal bottom and a false re- 
movable floor which can be rolled in and out, used lor 
conveying invalid and disabled horses. The sides are 
high and are fitted with slings, etc. 

ambulance-chaser (am'bu-lans-cha'''sgr), n. 
A person, either a lawyer of the agent of a 
lawyer, who follows up cases of accident in the 
streets and tries to induce the injured person 
to bring suit for damages. [CoUoq.] 

ambulancier (am-bu-lan^ser'), n. [F. ambu- 
lancier, i ambulance, amjjulance.] An ambu- 
lance surgeon or attendant. [Bare.] 

Ambulatoria(am"bTi-la-to'ri-a), n.pl. [NL.] A 
group or suborder of orthopterous insects, cor- 
responding to the Gressoria or walkers, and in- 
cluding only the tajaily PhasmidsB. See Gres- 
soria. 

Ambulatory school, in Sweden, a method of education 
resorted to on account of the sparse population of the 
country. See the extract. 

In so sparsely populated a country the organization of 
education (which is hdth free and compulsory) is a special 
difficulty, which has been partly overcome by arnibulatory 
schools, in which the teacher shifts his quarters twice a 
year or oftener within his district. The local manage- 
ment of education is part of the duties of the clergy, and 
this system seems to work without friction, though Swe- 
den has her Nonconformists, perhaps because the latter 
are compelled to contribute to the support of the State 
Church. Atheneeum, March 18, 1905, p. 333. 

ame (a'ma), n. [Jap. ame, a kind of jelly made 
of flour.] A form of glucose or starch sugar 
made in Japan by the action of barley malt 
upon rice paste. It is melted and molded into 
numerous fanciful shapes for sale. 

amebic, a. See *am<Bbic. 

amebonrte, n. See *am(eboeyte. 

ameed (a-med), v. t. [a-i + meed.'] To reward; 
recompense. J. Barlow, Columbiad, vii. 611. 

ameen.(a-™en')) '"•• [-A-r. 'am/in, faithful, trust- 
worthy.'] A person employed in a confidential 
capacity ; a confidential servant or agent ; an 
assistant; a bailiff, inspector, or intendant. 
[Anglo-Indian.] 

iuneiums, n. An earlier spelling of Amiurus. 

Amelanchier (am-e-lan'ki-6r), n. [NL. (Medi- 
cus, 1789), from Mespilus 4'»telanchier, the Lin- 
nean name of the rock-medlar.] A genus of 
ornamental dicotyledonous shrubs or trees be- 
longing to the family Malacese and including 
about 12 species widely distributed in North 
America, Europe, northern Africa, and eastern 
and southwestern Asia. They have alternate, sim- 
ple, entire or serrate leaves, and usually racemose, white 
Sowers with persistent sepals and obovate-oblong or spatu- 
late petals contracted at the base into slender claws. 
The fi'Uit is small, globose or pyriform, with sweet and 
juicy flesh. The rock-medlar of central Europe is Ame- 
lanchier Amelanchier. See seroice^erry, 3. 

amelification (a-mel"i-fi-ka'shon), n. [amiel + 
L. -fi^are, ifacere, make.] In embryol., the for- 
mation of enamel in the developing tooth. 

ameliorant (a-mel'yo-rant), n. That which 
ameliorates, lietters, or improves. 

amelioration,n.— Latent amelloration,unperceived 

progress due to natural causes, for example, increase of 
population and migration, which makes possible artifi- 
cial amelioration through conscious effort. Ward, Dy- 
namic Sociol., II. 209. 

ameloblast (a-mel'6-blast), n. \a,mel + Gr. 
13^076^, a geiin.] In embryol., same as *ada- 
mantoblast. 

amemasu (a'ma-ma'su), n. [Jap.] A Japanese 
name ot SalveUnus Jcundseha, a trout com- 
mon in streams of Kamchatka and occasion- 
ally taken in northern Japan. 



Amerindian 

Amen comer, a place in some Methodist 
churches, usually at one side of the pulpit, 
where formerly sat the deacons who led the 
responsive ' amens ' during the service. 

amenomania, n. See amoenomania. 

Amentiflorse (a-men-ti-flo're), n. pi. [NL., < L. 
amentum (see ament) + flos (flor-), aflower(see 

fimier).'] In phytogeog., the catkin-bearing 
division of the ecological group Stigmaticw, 
consisting of Salix, Populus, and Betula. 

amentulum (a-men'tu-lum), n. ; pi. amentula 
(-]a). [NL., dim. of amentum, ament.] The 
male inflorescence of Sphagnum compared to a 
diminutive catkin. 

amenyl (am'en - il), n. The organic radical, 
CsHo, derived from amylene, C^\q. 

Amer&an blight. See -^MiipM.- American class, a 
group of domesticated fowls iucluding those breeds which 
have originated in the United States. These are the 
Plymouth Rocks, wyandottes, javas, American domi- 
nlques, and Jersey blues. — ^American ^cockroach, 
•copper, •copper hind-wing, ^dagger, Alappet, 
•locust, •pottery, etc. See the nouus.— Ameri- 
can Protective AsBcclatioB. &ee-kprot6clive. Ameri- 
can race, in anthrop., the primitive race of man 
inhabiting America. It is closely allied to the Moncol 
race, and is characterized by straight black hair, strong 
development of the malar bones and nose, and a skin 
which ranges from almost white to dark reddish brown 
in color. While the types of South and Central America 
are not well known, six fundamental types may be dis- 
tinguished in North America and northern Mexico : (1) 
the Arctic type : short, with long and high head, very 
wide and flat face, and narrow nose, and of light color ; 
(2) the Northwestern type : of moderate stature, with 
short head, wide face, broad and flat nose, and of 
darker color ; (3) the Mississippi Valley type : tall, with 
moderately elongated head, wide face, broad and high 
hooked nose, and of reddish color ; (4) the Southeastern 
type : very tall, with rounded and high head, wide face, 
and high hooked nose ; (5) the Sonoran type : of mod- 
erate stature, with long, rather low head, delicate 
face, and of dark color ; (6) the Mexican type ; of mod- 
erate stature, with shoit head, moderately heavy face, 
and of dark color. A number of subtypes of these may 
be distinguished.— American Saw-fly, See -ksaw-Jly.— 
American scale, in numis., a measure of one sixteenth - 
ot an inch, used for indicating the sizes of coins. 

Americana (a-mer-i-ka'na), n. pi. [NL., neut. 
^l.otAmeriednus, American.] Booksandpapers 
relating to America, particularly to its early 
history, geography, etc. 

Americanism, n. 5. A name applied to a 
series of opinions at variance with the policy 
and practice of the Roman Catholic Church, 
supposed for a time to be held by some mem- 
bers of that church, especially in the United 
States, and condemned by Pope Leo XIII. in 
1899 in an apostolical letter addressed to 
Cardinal Gibbons. The chief points were : that in 
order to attract those who differ from her the c;luirch 
should shape her teachings more in accord with the 
spirit of the age ; that larger individual independence be 
allowed ; that the church should relax some of her 
ancient severity and make concessions to new opinions ; 
that points of teaching which are of minor importance 
be omitted and others toned down ; that the monastic 
orders are out of date and their vows have no mural 
value ; and that there should be a separation between 
church and state in all countries and under all con- 
ditions. 

We are unable to give approval to these views which, 
in this collective sense, are called by some Americanism. 
But if by this name are to be understood cei-tain endow- 
ments of mind which belong to the American people, just 
as other characteristics belong to various other nations, 
and moreover by it is intended your politic condition and 
the laws and customs by which you are governed, there 
is no reason to take exception to the name. 

Pope Leo XIII. to Cardinal Gibbons, in Amer. Cath. 
Quar. Rev., April, 1899. 

Americanistic (a-mer-i-kan-is'tik), a. Of or 
pertaining to an Americanist or to his science ; 
carried on by Americanists: as, Americanistic 
research. 

Americanitis (a-mer-i-kan-i'tis), n. Over- 
weening national conceit in citizens of the 
United States, especially when shown or ex- 
pressed by vulgar brag or noisy braggadocio. 

The removal(from athletics, etc.) of the real dishonor 
so often revealed by the disqualiflcation of men tainted 
with professionalism, less perfervid AmericaniUs at 
games and in celebrating victories, less newspaper ex- 
ploitation, and a better regulation of the rapidly- 
growing pecuniary side of these spectacles — these yet 
remain to be accomplished. 

0. S. EttM, Adolescence, 11. 411. 

Amerind (am's-rind*), n. and a. [A back- 
formation from Amerindian for Amer(ican) 
Indian.] Same as ^Amerindian (which see). 

The tribal fraternities of the Amerinds. 

An. Bep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., 1897-98, p. xlviii. 

Amerindian (am-e-rin'di-an), a. andw. [Amer- 
{ican) + Indian. " Hence, by back-formation, 
Amerind. This word, with the associated 
forms Amerind, Amerindic, etc., was originally 
suggested by Dr. Charles P. G. Scott to Major 
J. W. Powell as a new but intelligible term 



40 

, ppr. amidizing. [amid{e) + -i«ei.] To 

treat cotton material (cellulose) with calcium 
ehlorid and ammonia at a temperature of 100° 
C, in order to increase the affinity of the fiber 
for basic colors : not widely used 



Amerindian 

freed from the ambiguous and false associa- 
tions of Indian and American Indian, and 
serving the need of a comprehensive term 
covering all the aboriginal tribes and languages 

of North and South America. The word was _„ 

adopted by Major Powell and other ethnolo- amidmost (a-mid'most), adv. andprep. {amid 
gists at Washington in 1898, and has been + -most.] In the very middle ; in the midst of . 
much used since. The formation of the word William Morris, Earthly Paradise, III. iv. 52. 
is analogous with that of £^j-asi«», .EMramtic, amidoazobenzene (am'i-do-az-o-ben'zen), n. 
Eurafrican, etc., of aldehyde, albronze, chloro- [amide + azo- + benzene.'} Same as *amino- 
form, dyne, glycol, etc., of cosecant, cosine, co- azohenzene and aniline "^yellow, 
tangent, etc., and of innumerable names of amidoazobenzol (am'i-do-az-o-ben'zol), ». 
genera in zo61ogy and botany.] I. a. Ameri- An azobenzene, C6H5.N=N.C6H5, into which 
can Indian, in the widest sense; of or pertain- an amido-(NH2) group has been introduced: 
ing to the aboriginal inhabitants of North and C6H6.N=N.CeHA.NH2. 

South America (the Amerinds) or their Ian- amidol (am 'i-Q61),». {jo/mide + -oLI Atrade- 

guages ; Amerind. name for the hydrochlorid of diaminophenol, 

Thetourworldsofwideapread^««ri«d.a»mythology. ^^^ed as a developer in photography. «S f or 

An. Sep. Bur. Amer. Ethrwl., 1897-98, p. 8S5. mula IS C6H30H(NH2)2.2HC1. The free base 

is unstable. 

II. n. One of the aboriginal inhabitants of amidothiolactic (am^i-do-thi-o-lat'tik), a. 

North and South America; an 'Indian' (with- Noting lactic acid which contains a thio (SH) 

out the ambiguity of that term); a 'red man'; and an amido (NH2) group. Cystein (C2H3- 

an Amerind. (NH2).(SH).COOH) is generally regarded as 

Amerindic (am-e-rin'dik), a. Amerindian in an acid of this order. 

the most general sense, especially as applied amidosime (am-i-dok'sim), n. [amide + ox- 
to matters of ethnology or philology. ime.] The general name for a class of com- 

ameristic, a._ 3: In hot., destitute of a meris- pounds formed by the union of a nitrile with 

hydroxyl amine. They have the general lormula 
B— C(NH2):N0H. The amidoximes are usually crystal- 
line but unstable compounds and have both basic and 
acid properties. 
amidozyl (am-i-dok'sil), TO. [amide + ox(y- 
gen) + -yl.'] The univalent group NHOH, as in 
isobutyrio amidoxyl nitrile, (CHs)2C(NH0H)- 
CN, which is formed by the addition of hydro- 

cyanic acid to acetoxime. 

umoeiiular globose or short cylindric hyaline A. M. I. £. E. An abbreviation of Associate 

ov colored spores. Member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

amesial (a-me'si-al), ffl. [a-^^ + mesial.'] In amigo (a-me'go), ». [Sp., <L.a)»iCMS, a friend.] 

hiol., not median. A median or unpaired A friend: used sgeeificaUy, in the Philippine 



ammonia 

Church In the United States niunbers about 1,200 follow- 
ers. They are also called Hookers from their use of hooks 
in their clothing. , . , , 

Amishman (am'ish-ora'mish-man), n. [Amish 
+ man.'] A member of the Amish sect of the 
Mennonites. See •''Amish. 

amitosis (am-i-to'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. dr priv. -(- 




tern : applied to the prothalli of certain ferns 
which, being inadequately nourished, produce 
antheridia only. 
Amerosporae (am-e-ros'po-re), n. pi. [NL., < 
6r. h- priv. -I- iiipog, partj + anop&, seed.] A 
name applied by Saccardo to artificial divisions 
of various families and orders of fungi, espe- 
cially those <jf the Pyrenomycetes and Fungi 
Tmperfecii, to include the genera which have 



orgati in a bilateral organism may be said to be 
amesial in origin if it arises by the union of 
two bilateral rudiments. 

ametabole (a-me-tab'o-le), n. Direct develop- 
ment without metabole or metamorphosis. 

amethenic (am-e-then'ik), a. Noting an acid. 



Islands, for a native who is not hostile to the 
United States. 
Amiichthys (am-i-ik'this), n. [NL., < Grr. &/ila, 
a kind of tunny, -I- i%6vg, fish.] A genus of 
small cardinal fishes, of the family Apogonidse, 
in Cuba. 



C7HX4O2, formed by the oxidation of diamy- amildar, n. Same as *amaldar. 

lene. It is a liquid with weak acid properties, amimetic (a^mi-met'ik), a. [a-i8 + mimetic.'] 

amethyst, n. 4. A trade-name for certain Not mimetic : applied to animals, especially in- 
artificial dyes of the azine class, as tetramethyl sects, which do not mimic or resemble other 
safranine and tetra-amyl safranine.— Burnt species in coloration or behavior, 
ametlvst, amethyst obtained by burning out the color amimia, TO. — ^Amnesic amlmia, loss of appreciation of 
of smwy quartz, which Is occasionally combined with the significance of gestures.— Ataxic amunia, aphasia 
the amethystine quartz. with inability to make gestures. 

ametoecious (a-me-te'shius), a. [Gr. a -priv. amin (am'in), n. Same as amine. 
+ /lerd.'bejonA, + olia>c,ho\ise. Ct m^tcedous.] aminic (a-min'ik), a. [amine + 4c.] Pertain- 
Not changing its host : applied to parasitic jng to an amine or to the amino group : as, 



plants. Compare metociojM, heiercedous, heter- 
CBCiism. 

amfibia, n. pi. A simplified spelling of am- 
phibia. 

amfibian, a. and •«. A simplified spelling of 
amphibian. 

anwbious, a. A simplified spelling of amphib- 
ious. 



aminic nitrogen. 
amino (am'i-no), a. [Orig. combining form of 
amine.] Containing the group NH2 : as, amino- 
acetie acid. The word is also used as a prefix or in 
compound words with the same meaning. Often written, 
Incorrectly, atnuJo.— Amino explosive, an explosive con- 
taining an amino compound, usually in the form of a 
nitrate, a3 the nitrate of aminoacetic acid, CHgNUoGOo- 
H.HNOg. 



Amharan (am-har^n), a. and n. Same as aminoazobenzene (am^i-no-az-o-ben'zen), 



*Amharic. Geog. Jour. (E. G. S.), IX. 315. 

Amharic, «. See '^Abyssiman languages (a). 

amic (am'ik), a. [am(ide) + ■4c.] Having the 
properties of an amide and also of an acid: 
usually employed in composition : as, oxamic 
add, C02SrcONH2. Same as amidic. 



[amine -t- azo- -i- benzene.] A yellow crystal- 
line compound, CeH6N:NC6H4NH2, formed by 
warming diazoaminobenzene with aniline hy- 
drochlorid and aniline. Some of its derivatives 
are valuable dyes. Also called, less correctly, 
*amidoazobenzene. 



A. M. I. 0. E, An abbreviation of Assodate aminoform (a-min'o-f&rm), to. [amine + -form.] 
Member of the Institute of Cirnl Engineers. Hexamethylene tetramine. Same as *cysto- 

Amici's telescope. See *teleseope. gen, -kv/rotropin, and *formin. 

amicrobic(a-miir6'bik),a. [a-^8 -{- microbic.] aminoglutaric(am*i-no-glo-tar'ik), a. [amine 
Not related to or caused by microbes : as, an -I- glutaric.] Pertaining to glutamic acid in a 



relation indicated by the specific prefix Am- 

inoelutarlc acid a colorless, dextrorotatory compound, 
H00CCH(NH2)CH2CH2C00H, prepared by the action of 
dilute sulphuric acid on certain constituents of wheat 
gluten. It crystallizes in trimetric tetrahedra, melts at 
202° C, and is also called a-amvnoglvtaric tKid or a-glit- 
tamdc acid. 



amierobic disease 
Amicmrse (am^i-krS're), n.pl. [NL., < Gr. 

a- priv. + juKpdg, sinall, + ovpd, tail. Cf . Mi- 

crurse.] A group of Nemertim,, belonging to 

the family Linddse, characterized by the ab- 
sence of a small filamentous tail : contrasted 

with Micrurie. The group includes the genera aminolysis (am-i-nol'i-sis), to. [amine + Gr. 

lAneus and Euborlasia. TAaiq, dissolving. ] In chem., the decomposition 

amidah (a-me'da), n. [Heb., < 'amad, stand.] of a substance when involving a taking up of 

The most solemn prayer in the Jewish liturgy, the elements of ammonia. 

also known as the shemonah 'esra (' eighteen Amish (am'ish or a'mish), a. and n. [Also 

blessings')- K is repeated thrice daily, sotto Ornish; < *Ammisch, < Amman (see def.), < am- 

voce, while standing. The prayer is composed of 

eis^te^n short prayers and praises which treat princl- 

bally of r^siurection, the restoration of Jerusalem, and 

jBie coming-of the Messiah. Nothing should disturb the 

plou3 worshiper while he is engaged in this prayer. 
ainiden n Amide powder, an explosive mixture con- 

'»stiii^ oi nearly equal parts of ammonium nitrate and 

niter, with a small amount of charcoal. 

amidize (am'i-diz); v. i.; pret. and pp. ami- 



dial. form of amtmann, officer: see am- 
man.] I. a. Pertaining to Jacob Amman (see 
next) or to his followers or their sect. 

H. TO. A sect of the Mennonites which arose 
in the 17th century in Switzerland, named from 
its leader, Jacob Amman. He insisted on the strict 
use of the ban, and went so far as to repudiate the use of 
buttons and shaving as things of the world. The Amish 



Group of celts with amitotically dividing nuclei; ovarian follicular 
epithelium of the cockroach. (Wheeler.) 

/iiTog, thread, + -osis.] In cytol., direct cell- 
division, akinesis or karyostenosis, as opposed 
to the indirect form of division (mitosis, karyo- 
kinesis, which see): so called from the absence 
of thread-like figures in the nucleus. 

amitotic (am-i-tot'ik), a. Exhibiting amitosis; 
relating to amitosis. 

amitotically (am-i-tot'i-kal-i), adv. By ami- 
tosis or direct division of cells withoutprelim- 
inary karyokinesis. Encye. Brit, XXXI. 514. 

Amitra (am'i-tra), n. [NL., < Gr. a/iiTpoc, with- 
out girdle or head-band, < a- priv. 4- /itVpo, a 
girdle, a head-band : see miter.] A genus of 
deep-sea snail-fishes, of the family Liparididse, 
lacking ventral fins. 

Amitrichthys (am-i-trik'this), n. [NL., < Gr. 
a/iiTpoi, without girdle, -I- t;j:^f! fish.] A sub- 
genus of deep-sea snail-fidies of the family 
Liparididse. 

Amitrinse (am-i-tri'ne), to. pi. [NL., < Amitra 
+ 4nsB.] A subfamily of Mparididse, lacking 
ventral fins : typified by the genus Amitra. 

amixia (a-mik'si-a,), n. [NL., < Gr. a/it^ia, < 
a/UKTog, unmingledj < a- priv. + /UK-dg, < ficyvvvai, 
mix.] In biol., cessation cf interbreeding be- 
tween races or varieties. 

amixis (a-mik'sis), n. [NL., < o- priv. + /'iff, 
mingUng.] Same as *amixia. 

"When we reflect that species extinct elsewhere must, 
have survived locally, and add to these those local forms 
which owe their origin to amixis, we cease to be aston- 
ished at the enormous number cf species of Lepidoptera 
which we find on the earth at the present day. 

Eimer (trans. )t Organic Evolution, p. 131. 

amly (am'li), «. [Origin unknown.] The larva 
of the hell^ammite-fly, CorydaUs cornuta (,Co- 
rydaJ/us cornmtus). [Rhode Jfsland.] 

A. M. M. An abbreviation of ArUum Mechan- 
icarum Magister, Master of Mechanic Arts: a 
degree conferred by some institutions. 

ammelide (am'e-lid), TO. [ammel-in + 4de.] A 
monamide of cyanuric acid having the formula- 
(CN)3(OH)oNH2. It is formed from ammeline 
by heating the latter with sulphuric acid. Also- 
called melanurenie add. 

ammeline (am'e-Iin), n. [Metathetic form of 
melamine.'] The diamide, (CN)30H(NH2)2- 
of cyanuric acid. It forms microscopic needles- 
which are very difficultly soluble in water. It 
is a weak base. 

ammine (am'in), m. See metal-ammonia com- 
pounds, under *ammonia. 

ftmmiolite (am'i-o-Iit), to. [Gr. afi/zum, cinna- 
bar in its sandy state (< o/i/zof, sand), + Xi'Soc, 
stone.] A mineral from mines in Chile, earthy 
in texture and of a red color : supposed to be 
an impure antimoniate of copper mixed with 
cinnabar. 

ammodyte, to. 3. In bot., a plant growing- 
habitually in sandy places. 

ammonal (am'o-nal), to. a high explosive 
mixture consisting of 3 parts of ammonium 
nitrate and 1 part of aluminium. 

ammonia, to. The great value of ammonia as a ferti- 
lizer, chiefly in the form of ammonium sulphate, render* 
the question of Its supply on a large scale one of much 
importance. Until recent years It was obtained mainly 
from the watery ammonlacal liquor which is a by-product- 
of the manufacture of coal-gas for illuminating purposes. 



ammonia 

This source of supply bas been serlonsly threatened by 
the extension, especially in the United States, of the use 
of carbureted water-gas. In making which little or no 
ammonia is obtained. Notable improvements, however, 
have been made in methods for the recovery of ammonia 
from the waste gases of colce-ovens, shale-works, and 
blast-fnrnacea^ and veiy considerable amounts are now 
obtained from these previously neglected sources. One of 
the most interesting results secured with the aid of the 
high temperature of the modern electric furnace is the 
synthetical production of ammonia from the nitrogen of 
atmospheric air and the hydrogen of water. Carbon in 
the form of coke is mixed with lime and the mixture in- 
tens^y heated in the presence of atmospheric nitrogen, 
giving rise to carbon-monoxid gas and calcium cyana- 
mlde (CaCNo). The latter, heated with water under 
pressure, yields calcium carbonate and ammonia (CaCNg 
+ 8H2O = CaCOs -I- 2NH3). It appears thai cyanamide 
itself may serve, when used directly as a fertilizer, to 
furnish assimilable nitrogen to growing plants.— Albu- 
minoid ammonia, the ammonia formed by the decompo- 
sition of organic matter when water, sewage, or other 
substances are distilled with an alkaline solution of potas- 
sium permanganate. The determination of albuminoid 
ammonia is used to secure information as to the amount 
of nitrogenous organic matter in potable waters or in 
sewage. — Ammonia coll, in refrigeration, a special kind 
of gas-piping bent into a coil and used in conveying and 
cooling ammonia. — Ammonia condenser, a large coil 
of pipe built up with the proper fittings, used in cooling 
and condensing hot aminonia gas as it comes from the 
compressor. Two types are in use. In one, called a sur- 
face condenser, the gas passes through the coil while cold 
water flows in a fllm over the outside surface of the pipes. 
In the other, called a j^pe condenser, double pipes, one 
within the other, are built up as a coil, the ammonia gas 
traveling through the smaller inside pipe and the cold 
water flowing in the opposite direction through the larger 
pipe^ cooling the ammonia gas and condensing it to a 
liquid which, when allowed to expand, may be used in 
making ice or cooling a cold-storage plant. — Ammonia 
fittings, couplings, elbows, tees, and other pipe-flttings 
of special shape, size, and weight adapted to pipes used 
in conveying ammonia as a liquid or a gas. See irpipe- 
/ittin^r.— Ammonia-nitrate process. See *process.~ 
Ammonia-soda process^ the chief method by which at 
present carbona1% of soda is made from common salt. Its 
essential feature is the action of ammonia and carbon 
dloxid upon strong brine under considerable pressure. 
Invented in practical form by E. Solvay.— Ammonia 
type, in chem-., the structure characteristic of the mole- 
cule of ammonia and analogous compounds, an atom of 
nitrogen or some other triad element united to three mo- 
nad atoms or radicals of electropositive character. Thus 
trimethylamine, NCCHs)^, and tri-ethylphosphine, F(G2- 
H6)3> ^^^ compounds of the ammonia type. — Aqua am- 
monise (ammonia gas dissolved in water) is used by 
lextile-colorists for neutralizing acids and when an alkali 
of milder character than caustic soda or potash is desired, 
as in the neutralizing of Turkey-red oil. It is also used 
as a fixing agent for certain metallic mordants. — Her- 
curic cmoild and ammonia process. See *process. 
— Metal-ammonia compounds, in chem., a large and 
complex series of substances formed by the union of 
ammonia in different proportions with the salts of cer- 
tain metals, as platinum, cobalt, and copper, new com- 
pound radicals being thus produced. : The term ammiine 
(not to be confounded with amine) has been proposed 
for these substances. 

ammoniater (a-m6'ni-a-t6r), n. l*ammoniate, 
V. (< ammonia), + -er^.] A substance which 
supplies ammonia to a compound fertilizer. 

junmonioplatillic (a-m6"ni-o-pla-tin'ik), a. 

Derived feom ammonium and' platinum Am- 

monioplatinlc cUorid, ammonium chloroplatinate 
(NH4)2FtCle, the double chlorid of platinum and am- 
monium : a sparingly soluble yellow crystalline precipi- 
tate often used as the. form in which to determine, in 
chemical analysis, ammonia or its constituent nitrogen. 

ammonite^ (am'o-nit), n. \ammon(ium) + 
4te^.2 A name applied to certain explosive 
materials, patented by Favler, containing am- 
monium nitrate with other substances, chiefly 
nitro- or dinitro-naphthalene. 

ammoniticone (am-mo-nit'i-kon), n. and a. 
lAmmonites + cone.'] 'I. n. A cone-shaped 
shell coiled in one plane, as in an ammonite ; 
the shell of an ammonite, ceratite, or gonia- 
tite. 

II. a. Having a close-eoiledi symmetrical 
shell, as the ammonoid cephalopods. 

ammonitiform (am-o-nit'i-f6rm), a. [NL. 
ammonites, ammonite, + L. forma, form.] 
Resembling an ammonite in shape, as the 
young of certain Gasteropoda. 

ammonitoid (a-mon'i-toid), a. and n. [ammo- 
Hit{e) + -oid.'\ I, a. Belated or belonging to 
the ammonites or Ammonoidea; resembling 
an ammonite. Zittel (trans.). Textbook of Pa- 
leon., I. 547. 

II. n. An ammonite (which see) or amom- 
noid. 

ammonium, ».— Ammonium bicbromate, ammo- 
nium pyrochromate ((NH4)2Cr207). By heating this 
salt nitrogen gas may be obtained, in accordance with 
the reaction (NH4)2Cr207 = Cr208-f4H20 4-N2.- Am- 
monium carbonate, (NH4)2C03, a commercial salt 
valuable in wool-scouring and also used in medicine 
and in common smelling-salts.— Ammonium chlorid, 
sal ammoniac, IIH4CL It is usually prepared from 
ammonium sulphate by heating with common salt, the 
ammonium chlorid subliming, and is used to some ex- 
tent in the exciting fluid of the Leolanchd galvanic cell, 
in the production of mordants, etc. It is obtained on a 
great scale as a by-product of the Solvay or ammonia 



41 

process for making soda from common salt — in this case 
used to recover ammonia, which is again applied in a re- 
newal of the process.— Ammonium cbloroplatinate. 
See itwmrrumioplatinic chlorid. — ^Ammonium hydrate. 
See ■kamnwnium, hydro!cid.—Ammomxan. bydroxid, in 
chem., the form in which ammonia is assumed to exist 
when dissolved In water, NH4.HO, resulting from the ac- 
tion of NH3 and H2O upon each other. The solution, 
the ordinary liquid ammonia of commerce, behaves in 
many respects like the solution of caustic soda (NaHO) 
or caustic potash (EHO), but decomposes, on being 
heated, into gaseous ammonia and water. Recent investi- 
gations of the physical properties of the solution make it 
very doubtful whether the hydroxid has any real exis- 
tence. Often improperly called ammonium %cfrate.— Am- 
monium magnesium pbospbate, in chem., a slightly 
soluble crystalline salt (NE4MgF04.6H20) frequently 
resorted to in chemical analysis as the form in which to 
separate magnesium from other substances. It is often 
met with as a constituent of urinary calculi. — Ammo- 
nium nitrate, in chem., the salt formed by the union of 
ammonia and nitric acid (ifH3-|-HN03= NHi.N03), 
chiefly noteworthy as the source from which, by cau- 
tiously heating it somewhat above its melting-point, nitro- 
gen monoxid or nitrous oxid, the so-called laughing-gas, 
is prepared tor use as a gaseous anesthetic, most com- 
monly by dentists.— Ammonium persulphate, a salt 
((NH4)2S208) sparingly used in the development of pho- 
tographic pictures.— Ammonium phosphomoiybdate, 
in chem., a salt of the composition (NH^)3P04-|-12Mo- 
O3, appearing as a bright-yellow crystalline precipitate 
insoluble in a nitric-acid solution of ammonium molyb- 
date. It is very commonly used in analytical processes 
as the form in which to separate the radical of ortho- 
phosphoric acid, for the determination of this radical or 
of the phosphorus it contains, and is of great value in 
connection with the analysis of fertilizers and of steel. 
^Immonium plcrate, a substance crystallizing in 
bright-yellow needles, burning on the application of 
flame, but exploding by shock less easily than other pic- 
rates : used in the preparation of Brug^re's and Abel's 
powders. —Ammonium platlnochloiid. Same as 
itam,m^mioplatinic chlorid. — Ammonium sulphate, in 
chem., the salt foimed by the union of ammonia and sul- 
phuric acid (2NH3 H- H2SO4 = (1!TH4)2S04). It is pre- 
pared on a larger scale than any other ammonium salt, 
chiefly for use as a fertilizer or an ingredient of mixed 
fertilizers. See Aommcmm.- Metal-ammonlnm com- 
pounds, in cAem., substances in which a metal may be 
viewed as replacing part or all of the hydrogen of the 
radical ammonium: as, dimercurammonium chlorid, 
.NH^Cl, which may be considered as ammonium chlorid, 
irH4Cl, with the i atoms of monad hydrogen replaced by 
2 atoms of dyad mercury. 

ammono-acid (a-m6"n6-as'id), n. A compound 
which in solution in liquid ammonia conducts 
itself in a manner analogous to the conduct of 
ordinary acids in water: as, acetamide, CH3- 
CONH2, which reacts with the ammono-base, 
KNECo, giving potassium acetamide, CHs- 
CONHK, and ammonia. 

ammono-base (a-mo'no-bas"),™- Aoompound 
which conducts itself "in a solution in. liquid 
ammonia as an ordinary base conducts itself 
in aqueous solution and which contains the 
group — NHo in place of the hydroxyl, OH, of 
an ordinary base : as, potassium amide, KNHg. 

ammonorbasic (a-mo-no-ba'sik), a. Designat- 
ing a compound related to an ammono-salt in 
a manner analogous to the relation of a basic 
salt to the salt from which it is derived: 
that is, an ammono-salt in which a part of the 
acid groups have been replaced by NH2 as 
OH replaces acid groups in the formation of 
ordinary basic salts. 

ammonoid, n. II. a. Pertaining to or having 
the charabteristics of the Ammonoidea. 

ammonol (am'o-nol), n. The trade-name of a 
remedy said to consist of aeetanilid, sodium 
bicarbonate, and ammonium carbonate. It is 
antipyretic and analgesic. 

ammonolysis (am-o-nol'i-sis), n. The decom- 
position of an ammono-salt in liquid ammonia 
in a manner analogous to the hydrolysis of 
salts in water. 

ammono-salt (a-mo'no-sftlt'''), n. A compound 
formed together with ammonia by the action 
of an ammono-acid on an ammono-base in a 
solution in liquid ammonia. 

Ammon's horn. Same as eomu Ammonis. 

ammotherapy (am-o-ther'a-pi), n. [Gr. a/^/wc, 
sand, -I- depairela, medical treatment.] The 
employment of sand-baths in the treatment of 
disease. 

ammunition-conveyer (am - u - nish ' on - kon- 
va"6r), n. In a man-of-war, a mechanical ap- 
pliance, moved by power, for transporting 
ammunition horizontally from the magazines 
to the bottom of the ammunition-hoists. 

ammunition-hoist (am-u-nish'on-hoist), n. A 
mechanical contrivance, worked by hand or 
power, by means of which ammunition is 
lifted from the magazines or passages in the 
lower parts of a war-ship and delivered in the 
vicinity of the guns, or on the decks upon 
which they are ^aced. 

ammunition-passage (am-u-nlsh'on-pas"aj), 
n. A passage arranged in the lower parts 



amoebocyte 

of a war-ship, beneath the protective deck, 
through which ammunition is transported from 
the magazines to the places from which it is 
sent up through the decks to the guns above. 

ammunition-room (am-u-nish'on-rSm), n. 
Any compartment on a war-ship in which am- 
munition is stored for use : usually made wa- 
ter-tight and provided with means for flooding 
with water in case of fire on board. The term 
includes magazines, shell-rooms, and fixed- 
ammunition rooms. 

ammimition-scuttle (am-u-nish'on-skut"l), n. 
In a man-of-war, a scuttle' in a deck or in the- 
bulkhead of a magazine through which ammu- 
nition is passed on its way to the guns. See- 
scuttle^, n., 1. 

Amnemonic agraphia. See ^agraphia. 

amnesia, n — Auditory amnesia, word-deafness. 

Amnesic amimia. See *a»»M»ia. 

Amnigenia (am-ni-je'ni-a), n. [NL., < L. am- 
nis, a river, -I- -genus, -bom.] A genus of ex- 
tinct peleeypod moUusks or clams allied to the 
family Unionidee and believed to be of fresh- 
er braeMsh-water habitat. Ammigenia Catskill- 
ensis is a characteristic fossil in the brackish-water One- 
onta sandstones ^iug at the base of the Catskill formation. 

amnio-allantoic (am"ni-o-al-an-t6'ik), a. Con- 
cerning or pertaining to the presence of an 
amnion and an allantois. 

amnion, n. 5. In echinoderms, the sac in the 
pluteus larva inclosing the developing echinus. 
— True amnion, the inner of the two embryonic envelops 
in reptiles, birds, and mammals, as opposed to the outer 
or false amnion. 

amniote (am'ni-6t), a. and n. [NL. amniotuSr 
< amnion, amnion.] I. a. Possessing an am- 
nion; amniotic. 
II. n. A member of the Amniota. 

Amniotic band, acord-like formation on the inner surface 
of the amnion, sometimes constricting a limb of the 
fetus.— Amniotic cord, in ruminants, a band of tissue 
persisting for a time after the closure of the amnion 
and chorion, and connecting these two structures. — Am- 
niotic dropsy. See Hdropsy. 

amniotitis (am"ni-p-ti'tis), re. [NL.,irreg. (af- 
tisr amniote) < 6r. afiv'wv, amnion, -t- -itis.'] In- 
flammation of the amnion. 

Amceba coli or dysenteries, an 
amoeboid organism believed to 
be causative of one form of dys- 
entery. 

amoebiasis (a-me-bi-a'sis), 
n. Morbid condition in- 
duced by the presence of 
amoebse. ' 

amoebic (a-me'bik), a. 
lammba+ -ic] Of, pertain- 
ing to, or characterized by 
the presence of amcebse. 
Also amebic Amoebic coli- 
tis, inflammation of the large in- 
testine caused by the presence of 
Amoeba coli or dysenierim; amoe- 
bic dysentery. Jour. Exper. Med., 
VI. 167.— AmcBblc dysentery, 
a form of dysentery due to the 

presence of Amoeba coli or dyseviterise in the intestine. 
See dyserttery, Jowf, Exper. Med., YI. 89. 

Amoeoida (a-me'bi-da), n. pi. [NL., < Amoeba 
+ -ida.] An order oi Bhizopoda. They have lo- 
bose pseudopodia, are with or without a shell, have one 
or more nuclei, and usually have a contractile vacuole. 
It includes the families Amaebida, ArceUidse, and .Eu- 
glyphidie. 

amoeboc^e (a-me'bo-sit), ». [NL. amoeba +■ 

4«/-<7. 



o\\ ^ 




AmtsbacQli, (Magailied,> 




Amcebocytes. 

Body wall of Clathrina coriacea, Mont., seen from the inside ia 

the region of the oscular rim, showing pores {p. /.,/*. 5.)i— **"" """'"■- 



cells removed to show the underlying parenchyma, 
bocyte; ap^xi, apical formative cell; bjc. ■"" 
cell; sp.c, spicule cell, or scleroblast. 
" Zoaiogy.") 



■the coUar- 

a'm-c, anioe- 

... basal formative 

(From Lankester's 



amcebocyte 

Gr. miToc, a hollow (a cell).] An amcBboid ceU 
or corpuscle, usually of rounded or lobose 
shape (frequently packed with granules or 
sometimes with particles of pigment), found 
everywhere among the cells and tissues and 
in the cavities of various in vertebrate animals. 
Such cells are known also, from their vagrant habits, as 
wandering cells. In some organisms, as sponges, they 
give rise to the genital products, and they aie also prob- 
ably concerned with the functions of nutrition and ex- 
cretion. Also spelled ameboeyU. 

amoebocytogenous (a-me*b6-si-toj'e-nus), a. 
[Nil., < amceba + Gr. Kvrog, a hollow (a cell), + 
-yevriQ, -producing.] I'D.pathol., relating to or 
producing amcebocytes. 

Amoebogeniae (a-me-bo-jen'i-e), n. pi. [NL., 
< amceba + -genus, producing.] A group of 
iSporo^oa having amoeboid sporozoites: equiva- 
lent to Myxosporidia. 

Amoebosporiaia (a-me'bo-spo-rid'i-a,), n. pi. 
[NL., < amceba + Gr. mropa, seed, + -idiffl.] 
A group of Gregarinida which have a multi- 
nucleate amoeboid form and increase by direct 
division or by falciform young coming from 
spores. They are found in the Malpighian 
tubules of some beetles. Same as *Schizo- 
gregarinse. 

amok (a'mok), fl. and n. [Malay dmol^, dmoq, 
pron. a'mok or a'moh: see amuck.} I. a. 
Same as amuck ( but a form nearer the original) . 
See amuck. 

H, n. An affray in which one or more per- 
sona,(Malays) run amuck. See the quotailon. 

An amok took place last night, by a Malay, which re- 
sulted in the loss of his own life and the wounding of 16 
persons. 

Straits Times, quoted in Giles's Glossary of Reference. 



42 




amok (a'mok), V. i. To run amuck (which see). 

amora (a-mo'ra), n.; pi. amoraim (am-o-ra'im). 
[Heb. 'o»Jdra, expounder, < Heb. Aram. 'omar, 
say, speak.] i. An officer who stood beside 
a public teacher or lecturer and announced in 
a loud voice, in popular language, what the 
teacher had just uttered in a low voice in aca- 
demic language: otherwise called 'translator' 
or 'interpreter.' — 2. One of the expounders of 
the Mishnah, successors of the tannaim. The 
expositions of these rabbis and the Mishnah constitute 
the oral law called TalmuA. The period of the amoraim 
began after the death of Kabbi Judah ha-Nasi (the Prince 
Judah), about 200 A. c, and extended to about 600 A. D. 

a,moral (a-mor'al), a. [a-i8 + moral.'] Devoid 
of moral quality; neither moral nor immoral ; 
non-moral. B. L. Stevenson, in Longman's 
Mag., I. 70. N. E. D. 

Hmonous, a. A simplified spelling of amor- 
phous. 

Amorgan (a-m6r'gan). a. [L. Amorgus, Amor- 
gos, < Gr. 'A/iopyiif .]' Of or pertaining to Amor- 
gos, one of the Cyolades, a group of islands in 
the .^gean Sea, or to an ancient civilization, 
preceding that of Mycenae, shown by numerous 
remains which have been found by recent ex- 
cavators. Amorgos is noted as the residence of the 
Greek poet Simonides (7th century B. 0.) and for the pro- 
duction in ancient times of a very fine kind of flax which 
was woven into garments and dyed red. 

The material employed, and the simple form of the 
vase, seem to show that it belongs to the later prae- 
Mycenean or Amorganpenod. 

A. J. Evans, in Jour. Hell. Studies, XVII. 350. 

Amorgian (a-m6r'gi-an), a. Same as Amorgan. 
amorism (am'o-nzm), n. [L. amor, love, + 

■ism.'] Love-making tendencies or disposition ; 

amatory intrigue ; gallantry. 

Full of the romance and colour and sparkle of that 
curious life— half old-world Spanish, half topsy-turvy 
Oriental in its fatalism and passionate amomm — which 
was to be found in California. 

Athemeum, Jan. 17, 1903, p. 77. 

amorist, «. 2. One who is given to writing 
love'sonnets or -songs. 

The Angel determines all conceptions of the poet, who 
is imagined aa a mild and amiable amorist. 

Athenxum, April 1, 1905, p. 390. 

amoristic(am-o-ris'tik), a. [amorist + -ic] 
Amatory. The' Academy, April 9, 1881. 

Amorphophallus (a-mdr-fo-fal'us), n. [NL., < 
Gr. d/iop<l>og, shapeless, + 0a;Uof, phallus.] A 
giant plant of the family Aracese from the 
eastern tropics, grown as a curiosity in hot- 
houses. It has immense spathes containing many ill- 
smelling flowers. The three most commonly cultivated 
species are A. Mvieri (commonly called *deml's-tangui), 
A. campamdatus, and A. giganteus. See cut in next 
column. 

amorpbophyte. (»-m6r'fo-fit), n. [Gr. i/iopipog, 
shapeless, + <lnrr6v, a plant.] A plant with 
flowers of irregular or anomalous form. Necker. 

amorphOSe(a-mdr'f6s),a. Amorphous. [Rare.] 



AmorphophttUus campanulatus. 
{After figure in Engler and Prantl's " Pflanzenfamilien.") 

amorphozoary (a-m6r-f6-zo'a-ri), n. [Gr. 
a/iopi^Q, formlessj' + NL. 'zoariiim, q. v.] An 
irregular or shapeless animal growth, as a 
sponge or a colonial coBlenterate. 

amorphus (a-m6r'fus), m. ; pi. amorphi (-fi). 
[NL., < Gr. 'afiopipoc, shapeless.] In teratol., a 
mole or shapeless monster. 

amortisseur (a-m&r-ti-ser'), n. [F., < amorUr, 
deaden: see amortize.] In eZec*., an induction 
motor secondary winiSng located in the pole- 
faces of the magnet-field of electric machines 
to dampen any tendency to oscillation. It 
usually consists of a ' squirrel cage,' or number 
of copper bars passing through the field-iron 
and connected with each other by end-rings. 

amortizable (a-m6r'ti-za-bl), a. That can be or 
is intended to be amortized or extinguished : 
as, a debt amortizable in ten years. 

amotion, n. 3. In law : (o) An unlawful taking 
of chattels. (6) The act of turning out an owner 
of an estate in land before the termination of 
his estate, (c) In corporations, removal of an 
official of a corporation before the expiration 
of the term for which he was appointed. 

amoyong (a-mo'yong), n. [Tagalog "amoyong, 
Bisaya amoyon, < Tagalog amoy, scent.] A 
name in the Philippines of Fissistigma fulgens 
{Melodorumfulgens of Hooker and Thompson), 
a large woody climber or small tree of the 
custard-apple family, having tawny-orange 
colored flowers and pod-like fruit inclosing a 
number of cinnamon-colored, somewhat aro- 
matic seeds, which are administered medici- 
nally in the Philippines under the name of 
grains of paradise. 

ampelidaceous (am-pel-i-da'shius), a. [NL. 
Ampelidace(ee) + -ous.] Belonging to the Am- 
pelidacese (that is, the Vitaceee) or vine family. 

amperage (am-par'aj), n. The strength of an 
electrical current measured in amperes. 
ampere-balance (am-par'bal'ans), n. An in- 
strument for measuring electric currents by 



.«, P 




Ampere-balance. 
a, a, fixed coils, between which are moving coils, 6, b. brought to 
a balance by sliding^ weight, w, on which is index, fi, indicating on 
scale, s. 

means of the attraction between a fixed coil, 
through which the current flows, and a mova- 
ble balanced coil which forms a part of the 
same circuit. 

ampere-hour (am-par'our), », In elect., a unit 
of quantity, the electricity transferred by a 
current of one ampere in one hour. It is equal 
to 3,600 coulombs. 



amphicreatinine 

Ampere's frame, rule. See *frame, *rulc. 

ampere-turns (am-par'ternz*), n. pi. A mea- 
sure of the magnetizing power, or magnetomo- 
tive force, of a current of electricity in a con- 
ducting-coil, equal to the product of a number 
of turns in the coil 'bj the current (in am- 
peres) passing through it. 

ampharkyocfiiome (am-far'M-o-krom), n. 
[Gr. d/iijii, on both sides, + apitvg, net, + 
Xpitfia, color.] In neural., a cell in which the 
nodal points of the nucleus are connected by 
deeply staining bands or bridges. 

ampheclezis (amf-ek-lek'sis), n. [Irreg. < Gr. 
'a/j»pl, on both sides, + CK^e^ig, selection : see 
eclectic] Sexual selection on the part of both 
male and female. Compare *gyneclexis and 
*andreclexis. "Ward, Pure Sociol., p. 361. 

amphiaster, n. 3. [i. c] A sponge-spicule 
consisting of a straight axis with a whorl of 
rays near each end. 

amphibia, n. pi., 2. Boullnger divides the Am- 
phSna into four orders, StegocephMia, Apoda, Caudata, 
and Eeamdata, the last three being the same as the 
Oymnopkiona, Urodela, and Anura of other vrriters, but 
bearing the names originaUy applied to them. Recent 
researches emphasize the distinctness of the Stegoce. 
phalia and show that they approach reptiles in some 
structural features. On this account it has been pro- 
posed by Seeley to place the two in one class, while Cred- 
ner would unite the StegocephaZia with the Shynchoce. 
phalia. The order Stegoc^halia is variously divided into 
from 2 to 5 suborders, mainly on characters fnmisfaed by 
the vertebrse. 

amphibichnite (am*fi-bik'nit), n. [Irreg. < 
Gr. ajju^i^ioQ, amphibious, + Ixvog, track: see 
ichnite.] A fossil marked by ti-acks of am- 
phibia. 

amphibole, n. — soda ampblbole, a variety of amphl- 
bole, or a species of the amphibole group, characterized 
by the presence of sodium as a promineut constituent : 
the species riebeckite, glaucophane, arfredsonite, and 
barkevikite belong here. 

amphibolic^, a. 2. Ambiguous; of a doubt- 
ful nature.— AmpUbollc fistula, an opening made 
in the gall-bladder of an animal for the purpose of ob- 
taining bile for physiological study. The common bile- 
duct is left intact, so that when the external opening is 
plugged the bile may flow away through the duct. 

amphibolitic (am-fib-o-lit'ik), a. [amphibolite 
+ -ic] In petrog., same as amphibolic. Gei- 
He, Text-book of Geology, p. 8()4. 

ampbibolization (am"fi-b61-i-za'shon),n. [flm- 
phiboliee + -ation.] In geol., the' metamor- 
phio process by which minerals of the am- 
phibole group are produced in rocks by the 
alteration of other minerals. 

amphibrachic (am-fi-brak'ik), a. [amphibrach 
+ -ic] Of or pertaining to the amphibrach ; 
characterized by amphibrachs. Scripture, Ele- 
ments of Experimental Phonetics, p. 510. 

amphicarpium (am-fi-kar'pi-um), n.; pi. am- 
phicarpia (-&}. [NL., < Gr. a/i^i, on both sides, 
-t- KapKdg, friiit.] In bot., an archegoniumthat 
persists after fertilization as a fruit-envelop. 

amphicarpogenous (am-fi-kar-poj'e-nus), a. 
[Gr. dfiij)!, on both sides, + itapwdg, fruit, + 
-yev^S, -producing.] In bot., developing the 
ftniit above ground and subsequently burying 
it, as the peanut. 

Amphicerus (am-fis'e-ms), n. [NL. (LeConte, 
1861), < Gr. d/jufitKepai; two-homed.] A genus 
of bostrychid beetles peculiar to North Amer- 
ica. jl.&teaud!atu« is known in the United states asthe 
apple-twig borer. It frequently injures apple-orchards 
by boring into the small twigs and causing them to break 
off. It also injures the canes of the grapes. 

Amphichelydia (am*fi-ke-lid'i-a), n. pi. 
[NL., < Gr. a/iipt, on both sides, + "x^^vg (stem 
X^M)-, assumed to be ;i;e>li«!-), a tortoise.] 
A name introduced by LydeHsLer and rede- 
fljied by Baur as a suborder to include fos- 
sil turtles or ehelonians having free nasals, 
a squamosoparietal arch, pelvis not ankyloseJ 
to the carapace or plastron, and an intergular 
shield. At present itembraces only a single family, the 
Pleurostemidse, containing several generalized forms from 
the Jurassic, Cretoceous, and Tertiary rocks. 

amphicondylous (am-fi-kon'di-lus), a. [Gr. 
d/i^i, on both sides, + nAvdvKog, a joint or knob 
(see condyle).] Having two condyles or ar- 
ticular facets, as the skull of mammals and 
batrachians : contrasted with *monocondiyUym. 

amphicotjrledon (am^fl-kot-i-le'don), n. [NL.. 
< Gr. afxiji'i, on both sides, + NL" cotyledon-'] 
The cotyledons when united so as to form a 
cup. De 'Fries. 

amphicreatinbie (am-fi-kre-at'i-mn), n. [am- 
jphi- + creatinine.] A base,'C8Hj 9N7O4, found 
in small amount in lean meat. It forms bright- 
yellow crystals and resembles creatine in its 
properties. 



amphictyonian 43 amphivasal 

amphictyonian (am-fik-ti-6'ni-an), a. Same Althongh the study of heredity is greatly complicated resenting the Sonejdas, or shrews, found fossil 

as (tmphtetyonic. " ^7 amvhimixU, this miDgling of the hereditary tenden- j^ tjjg Qugrcy phosphorites of Oligoeene age. 

A».«i.f««A^jj« /»„//£ • /■ j-\ 7 rxTT cies of two parents, and even the process of sezualre- >^ ■<6 - ^j t/iiuoi/i.-^ «.-<. 2- ^ s"*-^"^ "6^- 

AmplucyOIudse(am"fi-si-on'i-de),»i.i»i. [NL., production which accompanies it, afford us a much amphlspermOUS (am-fi-sp6r'mus), «. [Gr. 

<. Amphtcyon + -^ax.^ A family of Camiwro deeper insight into the process of heredity than we could a/i0(. On both sides, + ff7r^p/«z, Seed.] In hot., 

in which the characters of the teeth and base ever have obtained in any other way. having the seed closely invested by the perl- 

of skull are those of the dogs, while the struc- . Weumutnn (trans.), Germ-plasm, p. 2L g^jp ^thout modifloation of its form, as in an 

tnre of the limbs and the plantigrade feet are Ampninesian (am-fi-ne'sian), a. and n. [Gr. achenium. 

like those of the bears : found in the Tertiary '^l^h o" both sides, + vfjao^, island.] I. a. Ainpllisphseria(am-fi-8fe'ri-a),n. [NL.(Cesati 

rooks of North America, Europe, and Asia. Of or pertaining to the aborigines of Indonesia, and De Notaris, 1863), < Gr. ajlfi, on both sides, 

amphidepula (am-fi-dep'u-la), n. ; pi. ampM- Poljrnesia, and Micronesia, considered as one + a(pa'ipa, sphere.] A genus of sphaeriaeeous 

depulee (-le). [_amphi- + aepula.'] In em- racial division of mankind. fungi having mostly superficial scattered peri- 

bryol, a phase of the metadepula stage char- 11. n. A member of the Amphinesian race, thecia. The spores are two-celled and dark- 

aeteristic of the cyclostomes, ganoids, Dipnoi, Amphineura, «. pi. 2. A class or order of colored. The species are numerous and occur 

and Amphibia among vertebrates. Haeckel. marine Mollusca. They have a bilaterally symmet- chiefly on dead wood. 

.amphidesmOUS (am-fl-des'mus), a. [Gr. au^i, ^^J elongated body, with terminal mouth and anus; the AmphisphaeriaceSB (am"fi-sfe"ri-a'se-e), n. pi. 

*T~Tv^ ^ \ « "/, • L ^ rr 1 shell either lacking or consisting of 8 median pieces; rxTf y T l- i, ■ i -i a'i? m j> 

on both Sides, + (5e(7/i(if, a band.] Having a mantle nbt divided into paired lobes ; ctenidia absent oi- L^i^; < AmphisphsBna + -aceee.^l A family of 

ligament on each side. variously arranged ; and the odontophoie either present pyrenomycetous fungi, typified by the genus 

amphidetic (am-fl-det'ik), a. [Gr. a«0i, on both <"■ lacking. The class includes the ChitmidiB, Neo- Amphisphssria. 

sides, + *<!eT<if, bound, < <5«v, bind.] In the „"if"?;^*'J;°* ^^'"?*™5**'*?-, ^ rn - .,- amphispore (am'fl-spor), ». [Gr. a/i^i, on both 

pelecypod moUusks, extending on both sides amphmeurous (am-fi-nu rus), a. [Gr^ a/^<, ^^^ ^ ^„„^^ ^ ^^^e.] A unicellular spore 

of th4 beak : noting a type of ligament. ?" ''f ^ «"lf «' + T'""'' 'T'^' "®''''®-^ ^^^^ occurring in certain species of Puecinia, re- 

amphidetically(aS-fl-deVi-kal-T),adi.. In an l^° ]^tf^l^^L^Z\^T'^f..n^IJ!y^l1ff^^l sembling a uredospore in its mode of germi- 

amphidetic manner ; with the ligament on both ^ * ■ ' ^ charactenstios of the nation, but requiriig a period of rest before it 

sides of the beak, as in some moUusks. „Z^S!t^A^L1' / ^/^ - j j-n r/-. ■ ^' ''"U germinate. Amphispores are found in 

Amphidiscophora (am"fi-dis-kof'6-ra), n. pi. amphiodont (am fi-o-dont), a. [Gr. ou^t, on PutKyimia vexans and P. Tripsaei. 

[NL., < *amphidiscm, amphidisk, + &rl >w, !l°* h! f-?'. ^Ti!' ^°°*^:] ^ e»tom., having Amphistegina (am"fl-ste-ji'na), n. [NL., < Gr. 

< pipecv, bear.] An order of lyssacineThexl the dentition of the jaws intermediate between ^^f „„ ^^^h sides, + ariyv"^ roof, + -i«a.] 

actinellidan sponges having amphidisks always the teleodont and pnodont forms : applied to ^ genus of calcareous foraminifers, of the fam- 

present in the limiting membraoes and no hex- "^^^P stag-beetles of the family Lueamdx. jj Nummulitidx, having a lenticular test spi- 

asters in the parenchyma. It includes the ^J?^P?^'?pl°'^V*?^"^-® T"^^Y"" t'^t "'^^;^'.,°^ rally enrolled and chambered : very abundant 

family ByalonemaUdse. I'oth sides, + ocmg, a dwelling,] In %eht1i., j^ jf^g Miocene Tertiary. 

ampMdisbophoran (am"fl-dis-kof'6-ran), a. /™P''hl«wl^?f^.'^^"i 'rm "'/rt 7!1;'T Amphistichus (am-fi-stik'us), n. [NL., < Gr. 

anS n. I, a. Peri;aining to or having the char- Amphion (am-fi on), n [NL., < Gr. V^«w. hfi^i, on both sides, + <rn>f, a line.] A genus 

acteristics of the AmpUdiscophora. ? f ^^^ '? ^P"®*'" I^^f^'l -i^-f T'' "^""^ »* svirf-fishes, of the family Embiotomdse, found 

II. n. Any membev ot the AmphidiseopJiora. ptroduced by Pander for trilobites character- off the coast of Calif omia. A. argenteus is the 

Amphidozotlierilini (am"fl-d6-zo-the'ri-um), ized by their broad and short cephalon, 15 common species. 

™[NL., appar. a misprint for -'Amphidoxo- *°iL!^"??if„^!,1?m6nts, and py^^^ ampMstrongyle (am-fi-stron'jil), «. [Gr.d^^/, 

therium, < Gi. a^L^ido^og, uncertain, -P %/ov, ^f ended into spines. These trilobites are at both en!s, + orpoyyvM, round.] In the 

a wUd beast.] A genus of fossil moles from „:; Ji1j^^w™% 4.\ rn ■ a' v ix. nomenclature of the spicular elements of 

the Tertiary phospliorites of Querey, France, *W?"°2:*iT ^^ ^i, •' Cp'"//^'' °° ^°<^ sponges, a short monaxial rod with rounded 

supposed to be allied to the exiltingfeoWcfe^^ »' „ '' t V" ^.T;^' ?,,^®'"^--^ A zygospore or ^^^s Bee ^onge-spi(yuXe. 

of /apan and North America. ^1?»? if°f^t^i> *^-Tt J"l? f^fT amphistyly (am-fis'ti-U), n. lampMstyl(ic) + 

amphidromic (am-fl-drotn'ik), a. \_Gv. a^lSpo- lals: specifically applied to one of the two /] The state or condition of being amphi- 

^ol miming around: see amphidromia.r'Pe^- ffKK,} ^"f °^*^°.^. °* generations in the /tylic, or of having (as some sharks) the man- 

taining to cStidal lines arranged radially about il^i*?"^^ °* Coemdm. Haeekel. Compare jibular arch attached to the skull by a liga- 

a no-tide point. mononi. ,„ , . _„ , ,, , ,. ., ment and but slightly supported by the hyoid. 

amphigean, a. 3. In 60*., bearing flowers from amphlOX (am fi-oks), ». [Gr. a/^i. at both g^ j^^j^ j .^^.^.t^J^^^,,^) ;' 1^^^,.. 

Trootftocb ends, + ofif, sharp.] In the nomenclature of ifeg^^^(.gia). [^L., < Gr. d/.0Con both siSes, 

amphigenetic (am'fl-je-net'ik), a. [Gr. a^^i, *^e spicular elements of sponges, a slender + ^^ ^ ^^^^ -, ^j^ ^„j the layer of cells at 
on both sides, + genetic.-] By means of both S itds^ monaxial type, sharp at ^^^^ surrounding the endothecium in the cap- 
sexes. Amphigenetic reproduction is sexual Amlwi,fJv^j«» /„™ « .;t'=,5 .qs \ », txtt / suleofamoss. 
reproduction. ^J^n^^^I (^T'f ,!l'^lL^i P n" i amphiton (am'fi-ton), n. [Said to be < Gr. 

Amphigenia (am-fi-je'ni-a), ». [NL.: see 4toJ'*»o:c«« -H Gr -id^f (see -^cfes).] A genus i/^f/, at both ends, -I- rdi^of, a rope.] In the no- 

^pUqemys.y A genus of' extinct brachio- °L^?"TiSl''/L*^L**?ii''„^''"f ^^^^ tS^aclature of the'spieular elements of sponges, 

pols belongiig to the family Pentam^idie. t^^X r2l^}lf^!^^^rllZl^^^^^^^ a monaxial pencil-like rod with abruptly shfrp- 

the shells are of llrge size, and the ventral valve has a "^^^^^ 4' Pelagims, found in the open sea g^^^ ^^^^_ ^ g^g gponge-spimle. 

small spondylium or pedicle-pit resting on a very short oft Mawau, IS the typical species. aranhitri»Ti(» fam^S-trt'e^t n FGt auAi at 

vertical septum. These shells abounded in Devonian amphipeptone (am-fl-pep'tpn), n lampM- + Wen"r+ r^J aJrident.]' AnLe'^^en 

ptnn'liiffotiii. Cam fi-ien'ik^ a PGr audiytvic P^P^^/i /" ^^^ sense of Kuehne, the end- to a form of skeletal element in the silicious 

ampJUgemc jam-n-jen ik;, a. lur. afufiyevti^, product of peptic digestion, a hypothetical snono-ea which nrPRBntH thp a-rmRnranoR nf a 
of both kinds, + -Jc] In petrog., a term ap- mixture of anti- and hemi-Tientone Also am- ^^22^1 a^ presents tne appearance ot a 
Tilifid to spdimentflrvropka which are nartlv niixiure 01 anil ana nemi-peptone. Also am- vertical rod bearing a trident at each end« 
piiea to seaimentaxy rocKs wnion are pariiy pkopeptone. rea-arded as a mndifi cation of the tetraxial 

of organic and partly of inorganic origin, such amptiplatyan (am-fi-plat'i-an), a. [Gr. A/.^/, t™ of spfouie '^°^'*"'^^''"' °' ^^^ *^*'^^'^^ 
as numerous sihcious and calcareous deep-sea on botli sides, + wMtIc, flat",' -f- -an. ] Of verl aMhitH^nir ram"fl tii e'nik^ a ^Amr,hitri. 
deposits. Also amphogemc. tebra; having both of the articular faces of the ^'"V'O^nxmc^iim n-tn-e nit;, a. i_Ampn,itn- 

amnTiiffotiitA CaTn-fii'fi-nitl » ramnhinmf -i- '^eorBB, naying Doin or me articular laces 01 ine agree -f -jc] Of the nature of an amphitnsene. 

ampJUgenice cam-nj e-mr;, n. lampmgene -i- centra flat or plane. Owen. 9Tnnhit.rirTiniis ram-fi tri'kiisl a ffir liuihl 

4te^.^ In petrog., a name sometimes given, amnhintiPiiBtip (am-fiti-niis'tikt n TGr auAi ampnimcnous (am-n-tn Kus;, a. \\^. ajip, 

?sU^Llle4 e^ ^"' '''''' *° '^'""^ '?S&S*f}t"4X^^^^ ^t'hrflSlumreicTi^'rS "" ' 

a^£|^imS55'ni-a),». [NL.] Same SV^a^^P^e^s^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

A^S?V<"ty..,See*^....^. =t4 ^J^L 1?0?'^^^ *™'^- '"'"- et^Lt^^XonTeTt^ln^lKl 

^^^^'"^ti^tlA a sid^ + ai°P.MPOSitive (<m-fl-pbz;i-tiv), « ln_p%o^_g ^Xf *tL priL%|!'kxis ?s devdoStnto a 

C t!LJtf^"'l ThaTtta^e of the ^al^ noting a process invented by Sabatier in which cladome. Analogous t^^amphUriLe (which 

y6voQ, generation.] Ihat stage ot the mala- the picture is the result of a superposition or seel See also sSonae-smcule 

Gl^-''c™;f*».S^Jl """" .?*4?^^^ °^?^° '""^^^' -e Belative and ^Sidtv^A^^-^t'TA a. iampUtrocM 

aS^psTsTam-flX^sTsrr- [NL.. <Gr. ^^l^^^b^stTr^hen^pU^reSZron^S^oiff^^^ ^^^ Pertaining to "or "resembling am phi- 

au5/, on both sides, + yjixi, a taking, (.Aalieiv, five which is in course of formation, exercise upon it, "">'"»■ , , .. v iu 

take.] The transmission to an offspring and whatever be the developing agent otherwise employed, a amphl^le (am fi-til), ». [Gr. afi^c, at both 

i -V A^„Z.^A^^ia ,^^> /.i,.j.onfamc,n«c, «#^l»«+v, disturbing and Substituting actiou suoh that the develop- ends, + Tv/uoi, a KDob.] In the nomenclature 

to Its descendants of characteristics of both ^gj,,. q, <^^ nefrative is stSpped at the moment of con- of the snieular elements of snonees a slender 

parents : contrasted with i-monolepm. tact, and the chemical conibination which follows this °t"i^>ftP ™^r^„l™nH ^^ 

amDilimeSOdichotrisne (am-fl-mes-o-di-ka- contact gives rise to a positive. The substances which Straight, monaxial rod With swollen ends, bee 

+.,57sT,^ m rfJv niiihi at hnt.h BTidR -1^ iipnnr exercise this power are probably numerous. Lime-water, sponge-spvcuie. 

tri en), n. I W. afifi., at DOin enas, 7; /«fOf, solutions of ammonia, and silver nitrate possess it in ampUtypy (am'fi-ti-pi), n. The character of 

S^aomeSure ^f'the ;^riar' eCe"nt^ 'ofp^fdl^el^^!- ^'^ """^ "^ ^""^"^^ ='"*' ^"^^ "^^ el^^i^th type£ ^'See the extract, 

of SDOnees, a form of trisene having a thick Amphiprion (am-fip'ri-on), n. [NL., < Gr. In the arrangement of the reproductive organs one 

shaft orVabd from near the middle of which a,0T,.on both sides +.,<.., a saw.] A genus f^^t'.^^S^e'Yn^a^vTdtrS.tT^'efe,^^^^^ 

arise symmetric sets of branches by threes, of damsel-fishes of the family PowaceJift-jfte ; of the other. Usually one can he designated as having 

It is derived from the tetraxial type of spicular found on the coral reefs of the Pacific, and re- the normal arrangement, but the relative frequency may 

structure. Also called amp/itoier. See *a»M- markable for their varied coloration. besuch that neither can be said to be more typ^l than 

SXr, 3,' and sponge-spieuU. amphipyrenia (am-fl-pi-re'nin), n. [Gr. hp^l, the other. £«c*. Handbook of Med. Science, TII. 863. 

amphimixis (am-fl-mik'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. on both sides, + wofOiv, stone of a frmt (nu- amphivasal (am-fi-va'sal), a. Of or pertain- 

iiuAi, on both sides, + i"^f'f. a mingling.] In eleus), + -in.] In iot., a substance, related to ing to the presence of concentric fibrovascular 

Woi.', the mingling of the hereditary tenden- pyrenin, forming the nuclear membrane in the bundles. 

cies of the two parents in sexual reproduc- cell. Mioare, 1887. r^-r, , r^ ' .■ AmongtheCyperaceffiithasbeenfoimdthatomipAtwMaZ 

tion, considered abstractly, as distinct from AmphiSOreZ (am-fi-SO reks),«.. [Nlj.,<Gr.a/i0t, bundlesoccurinpracticallyall the nodes of plants bear- 

amphigony or the reproductive process. about, near, -1- li.sorex, a shrew.] A genus rep- ing well-developed leaves. Science, Jan. 27, 1906, p. wo. 



Same as *am- 



See *a»i- 




PanathenaicAinphoriskos. (From 
"Journal of Hellenic Studies," by 
permission of the Council.) 



amphogenic 

amphogenic (am-fo-jen'ik), a. 

phigenic. 
amphopeptone (am-fo-pep'ton), n. 

phipeptone. 
amphophil (am'fo- 

fll), a. [Gr. a/ifpu, 
both, + 0i'/of , loving.] 
Noting granules, in 
certain leneocytes, 
whieh have an affin- 
ity for both acid and 
basic dyes. 

amphophilic (am-fa- 
fil'ik), a. [Gr. a/t^u, 
both, + ^i%elv, love.] 
In cytol., eajyable of. 
being dyed with both 
acid an d basic stains : 
said of certain cells 
or parts of cells. 

amphophilous (am- 
fof'i-lus), a. Same 
as ^amphophilic. 

amphoiiskos (am-fo- 
ris'kos), ??. [NL.,'< 
Gr. a/ttjioptaKoc, dim. 
of d/njmpevc, am- 
phora.] A type of 
Greek vase resem- 
bling the amphora 
but much smaller, 
being about 3 or 4 
inches high. 

adiphotenc, a. 2. In 
chem., capable, in different reactions, of ex- 
hibiting both acid and basic character, as, for 
example, glycocoU or amidoaeetic acid. 

amphoteiite (am-f ot'e-rit), n. [As amphoter{ic) 
+ -iie2.] See *metedrite. 

amphoterogenic (am-fo-ter*o-jen'ik), a. [Gr. 
a/^^irepog, each of two, "+ yevog, Mud.] Inpe- 
trog., a term applied to sedimentary rocks re- 
sulting from the mixture of chemical and me- 
chanical deposits, as marl and loess. 

amphoterotoky (am-fo-te-rot'o-M), n. [Gr. 
atujidTepof, each or both, -f- rdiai;, production.] 
The production of both males and females from 
unfertilized eggs ; *heteroparthenogenesis 
(which see). See also normal *parthenogen- 
esis. 

amphotoky (am-fot'o-ki), »». [Gr. d^j^, both, 
+ rdnog, production.]' Same as ^amphoterotoky. 

amplezicaulilie (am-plek-si-kS,'lin), a. [am- 
plexicaul +-»»ei.] In hot, same as amplexicaul. 
Syd. Soc. Lex. 

Amplexopora (am-plek-sop'o-ra), re. [NL., < 
L. amplexus, embraced, + Gr". trdpog, L. porus, 
pore.] The typical genus of the family Am- 
plexoporidse. 

Amplexoporidse (am-plek-so-por'i-de), n. pi. 
[NL., < Amplexopora + -idse.'] A family of 
cryptostomatous Bryozoa which assume a va- 
riety of forms having simple zooeoial tubes, no 
mesopores, and abundant acanthopores. The 
species occur fossil in the Silurian and Devo- 
nian rocks. 

Amplexus (am-plek'sus), re. [NL., < L. am- 
plexus, i)p. of amplecti, embrace.] A genus of 
Paleozoic tetracorals of the family ZaphrenH- 
dse, having simple subcylindrical coralla with 
shallow calice, well-marked septal f ossula, and 
septa not reaching to the center. 

ampliation, re. 2. (V) In French law: (1) A 
duplicate of an acquittance or other instru- 
ment. (2) A notary's copy of acts passed be- 
fore him, delivered to the parties. Bouvier, 
Law Diet. — 4. In med., dilatation or diBten- 
tion of a canal or cavity. 

amplitude, ». 4. (c) In function theory, if a; = 
f + iri, let the polar coordinates of (f, rj) be 
p, 6, then any one of the angles B ot8 + Inw, 
where re is any positive or negative integer, 
may be called the amplitude of a;. — 6. In me- 
teor., the range or difference between the max- 
imum and minimum values of the temperature, 
pressure, or other meteorological element with- 
in a definite time, such as a day, a month, or 
a year. — Clllef amplitude, the vectorial angle 9q, when 
— T < So = "■ • abbreviated Am x, while any amplitude 
is am X. — Periodic amplitude, the difference between 
the maiimnm and minimum values computed by a Fou- 
rier-Bessel series, as distinguished from the non-periodic 

I amplitude, which is the difference between the absolute 
maximum and minimum values, or the means of all the 
maxima and minima. Observations made with maxi- 
mum and minimum thermometers give the tion-periodic 
amplitude; hourly oliservationB can give the periodic 
amplitude in temperature 



44 

ampulla, n. 6. hiBydrocoralUnm, a pit formed 
in the coenenchyma for the reception of gono- 
phores. 

ampullation (am-pul-a'shgn), n. An ampul- 
lary process or condition. 

In Callicthys the (anpuUation of the main canal is de- 
scribed as a remarkable phenomenon hitherto unrecorded 
in any other animal. 

Linnean ZoSl. Soc. Land., Oct., 1898, p. 184. 

amputating-knife (am'pu-ta-ting-nif*), re. A 
knife with a long narrow blade, used to divide 
the muscular tissues in the amputation of a 
limb. 

Amputation In continuity, amputation through the 
segment of a limb and not at a joint. — Dry amputa^ 
tion, an amputation performed with a minimum loss of 
blood.— Grltti's amputatloii, amputation at the knee- 
joinf^ the end of the stump being terminated by the pa- 
tella, which is turned imder the femur, and the opposing 
surfaces of the bones are denuded of cartilage, so that 
union occurs between them. — Inteimedlaiy amputa^ 
tion, amputation of a limb during the period of reaction 
following the shock caused by the injury, but before the 
occurrence of suppuration in the wound.— Primary 
amputation, amputation of a limb within a very short 
time after the receipt of the injury necessitating opera- 
tion — after the shock has subsided, but before the estab- 
lishment of inflammatory symptoms. — Secondary am- 
putation, amputation ])erformed some time after the 
receipt of the injury, when suppuration in the wound 
has begun.— Spontaneous amputation, separation of 
the dead portion of a limb in case of gangrene ; also, the 
division of a limb by constricting bands formed during 
intra-uterine life. Jour. Exper. Med., V. 105. 

ampyx, n. 3. In the anatomic structure of the 
Devonian fish Palmospondylus, an element of 
the anterior part of the skull. 

So far as it contributes to the floor of the skull it may 
be described as a transverse bar or fillet, somewhat higher 
in front than behind, providing a support on each side tor 
the terminal half of the low anterior cranial walls. The 
thickness of the bar, which for brevity may be called the 
'ampyXf*is considerable and it is extended downwards to 
the ventral face of the skull where it is seen as a very con- 
spicuous ridge. 

W. J. and I. B. J. Sottas, in Philos. Trans. Eoy. Soc. 
[London, ser. B, 196. 276. 

Amsler's Integrator. See *integrator. 

Amstelian (am-ste'li-an), a. and re. [D. Am- 
stel, a river.] I. a. Of or pertaining to the 
Amstel, a river in the Netherlands. 

H. re. In geol., a proposed division of the 
Pliocene in Holland. 

amuguis (a-mo-ges'), n. [Philippine Sp.] 
A name in the PhUippiues of Koordersiodenr- 
dron pinnatum, a valuable timber- tree belong- 
ing to the cashew family. It occurs also in 
Celebes and New Guinea, its wood, which is also 
called palosanto, is light red sometimes marked with lead- 
colored spots. It is used in ship-building_ and for the con- 
struction of buildings butjt does not resist the attacks of 
teiToites. 

amusement, re. 4. In music, a brief enter- 
taining piece, often one intended to give va- 
riety to technical exercises. 

amusia (a-mu'si-a), re. [NL.,.< Gr. a/iovao'i, not 
musical, < d- priv. + /loiiaa, muse : see muse, 
rmisic.1 Loss, through disease, of the ability to 
express musical sounds either vocally orinstru- 
mentaUy, to write musical notation (the 
power of ordinary writing being retained), or 
to appreciate musical sounds mentally. See 
*tone-deafness. 

amusingness (a-mU'zing-nes)^ n. Amusive 
quality or effect; the quality of affording 
amusement. 

amutter, (a-mut'er), ad».pftr. [a-^ + mutter.'] 
Muttering'; in a muttering state. Mrs. Brown- 
ing, Aurora Leigh, p.- 28. N. E. D. 

Amyaria (am'-i-a'ri-a), re. pi. [NL., < Gr. d- 
priv. + nvQ {iiv-), muscle, + -aria.] A group 
of acephalous mollusks having no adductor 
muscles. It includes the genus Chlamydocon- 
eha. Doll. 

amyarian (am-i-a'ri-an)^ a. [Amyaria + -ore.] 
Pertaining to or resembling the Amyaria ; hav- 
ing no adductor muscles. 

Amycteridse (a-mik-ter'i-de), n.pl. [NL., < 
Amyeterus 4- -idle.} A family 6f Australian 
short-beaked rhynchophorous booties, of which 
Amyeterus is the type. 

Amyeterus (a-mik'te-rus), re. [NL. (Sch6n- 
herr, 1826), < Gr. a/imriip, without a beak or 
nose, < d- priv. + jivkt^p, beak.] A genus of 
rhynchophorous beetles of the family CureuU- 
onidse, or typical of the Amycteridx, containing 
several Australian species characterized by an 
excessively short beak. 

amyelinic (a-mi-e-lin'ik), a. [Gr. d- priv. + 
/iveMg, medulla, + -«» + -»c.] In neural., with- 
out a medullary sheath: said of nerve-endings 
and embryonic nerves in vertebrates. 

Amjrgdalacese (a-mig-da-la'se-e), n. pi. [NL. 
(Beichenbach, l828), < AmygdaVas + -acem.'] A 



amylotype 

family of dicotyledonous, choripetalous plants^ 
of the order Bosales, the almond family, called 
by De Candolle Drupacex (which see), and in- 
cluded by many authors in the Rosacea as a 
subfamily. It embraces 7 genera, of which Amygdalut 
(almond, peach) and Prunui (plum, cherry^ are the only 
important ones, and about 110 species, mainly of the 
north temperatesone of both hemispheres, with a few in 
the tropica See Amygdalut, Prumu, and Bosaeea. 

amygdalectomy (a-mig-da-lek'to-mi), «. [Cfr. 
dfivydahi, tonsils, + iicroup, a cutting out, ex- 
cision.] Same as amygdalotomy. 

amygdallform (am-ig-dal'i-fdrm), a. [Gr. 
dfivySilri, almond, + L. forma, form.] Almond- 
shaped. 

Amygdaline fissure. See*^sjtre. 

amygdalolith (*-mig'da-lo-lith), re. [Gr. aiivy. 
dd/h), an almond, + ^og, stone.] A concre- 
tion in the substance of a tonsil. Buck, Med. 
Handbook, HI. 232. 

amygdalotome (a-mig'da-lo-tom), re. [Gr. 
dfivyScAa, tonsils, -f -TOfiog, < raftelv, cut,] Same- 
as tonsillotome. 

amygdophenine (a-mig-do-fe'nin), ». [L. 
amygd{ald), almond, + phenyl) + -iree.] 
Phenylglycolyl phenetidine, CeH4(OC2H5)- 
NHC0CH(0H)C6Hb. Its acetyl derivative is^ 
a febrifuge ; it is also antiseptic in its prop- 
erties. 

Amyl acetate, a compound, C2H302.C5Hii, prepared 
from f Qsel-oil or amyl alcohol and acetic acid. It is much 
used in the manufacture of lacquers, and is also used in 
a lamp for a primar;y standard iu photometry.— Auiyl- 
acetate standard, in photom., a standard of light con- 
sisting of the flame of an amyl-acetate lamp. The ac- 
cepted form is that devised by Von Hefner Alteneck. Se& 
-klight stamdard, 

Amylaceous bodies. Same as corpora amylacea (which 
see, under corpus). 

amylan (am'i-lan), n. [amyl + -an.] The name 
given to two compounds, known as a- and /J- 
amylan, found in wheat, rye, and oats. Tn 
composition and properties they somewhat re- 
semble dextrine. 

amylase (am'i-las), ». [amyl +-ase, as in dias- 
tase.] A ferment which will convert starch 
into dextrose : it occurs widely distributed in 
both the animal and the vegetable world. 
Same as diastase or amyloly tic ferment. 

amylate, n. 2. A metallic derivative of amy! 
alcohol : as, sodium amylate, OgSnONst. 

amylobacter (am^iJo-bak'tfer), re. [Gr. afoihin),. 
stMch, + ^aKTTipwv, a little rod.] See *amylo- 
bacterium. 

amylobacteriiun (am*i-16-bak-te'ri-um), re.; pi. 
amylobacteria (-a). [NL., < Gr. apvlmi, starch, 
+ ^aKTtjpun), a little rod.] A micro-organism, 
which has the power of producing butyric; 
acid from a large number of substances, in- 
cluding lactic, citric, malic, and other acids, 
as well as of splitting up certain peetic com- 
pounds associated with the cell-walls of many 
tissues. 

amylocoagulase (am^i-lo-ko-ag'u-las), «. 
[amyl -\- coagul{ate) + -ase, as in diastase.] A 
ferment wMch coagulates soluble starch: 
found in cereals. 

amyloid, a. and re. I. a. 2. In pathol., noting &■ 
degenerative change characteristic of larda- 
ceous disease (which see, under lardaceous).- 
JEncyc. Brit. XXXI. 548. —Amyloid bodies. 
Same as corpora amylacea (which see, under corpus). — 
Aimaold kidney. See irkidney. 

n. ■». 2. A precipitate obtained from a 
gelatinous solution of cotton which has been 
treated with concentrated sulphuric acid. 
Vegetable parchment is due to the partial 
transformation of the vegetable fibers into this 
substance. — 3. Xnpath<^., same as lardacein. 

amyloin (a-mil'o-in), re. [Gr. d/ivlov, fine . 
flonr,_ + -t«2.] A. name given by Brown audi 
Monis to a class of substances formed by the 
action of diastase upon starch. They have 
the properties of both maltose and dextrine. 

amylome (am'i-lom), n. [amyl + -ome (see 
-orna).] Xylem parenchyma which contains 
starch. 

amyloplastic (am»i-16-plas'tik), a. [Gr. a/tv- 
Aov, mie meal (starch), + Tr^aarog, < wMaaeiv, 
form.] Starch-forming. 

amyloplastid (ar-mil-o-plas'tid), re. [Gr. ifiv- 
/W, starch, + wAaoTdg, formed, + -id?.] A col- 
orless plastid which produces starch in plant 
cells. 

amylotype (a-mil'o-tip), n. [Gt. aiivlov, fine 
meal, + -rimog, type.] In photog., a picture 
printed by the action of light ms. paper which 
has been "washed in juice extracted from 



amylotype 

plants or from flowers or in an artificial color- 
ing substance. See *anthotype. 

lAmylum body. Same as Aomj/fcjjtoW.— Amylum 
center. Same as pyrenoid. 

JJLmynodon (a-min'o-don), n. [NL., irreg. 
<Gr. ajibveiv, ward ofE, + bSovg (odoi/r-), a 
tooth.] A genus of rhinoceros-like ungu- 
lates from the Eocene of North America. 

Amynodontids (am"i-no-don'ti-de), n. pi. 
[NL. iAmnodon (< 6r. a/iiveiv, ward oflE, -1- 
Moii, tooth + -idsB.'\ A family of ungulates, 
related to BMnoceros, from the Tertiary 
rocks of North America. They have on each ramus 
of the jaw 8 incisors, 1 canine, 4 premolars, and 3 molars. 
The manus is regarded as having had 4 digits and the pes 8. 

amyotrophia (a^'mi-o-tro'fl-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
d- priy. + /ii)f,_ muscle, + rpo^, nourishment, 

< Tptfuv, nourish.] Same as amyotroplnj. 
Jlmyoiropblc paralysis, paralysis resulting from mus- 
cular atrophy. 

amyrilene (a-mir'i-len), n. [amyr {in) + 41 
+ -ene.) A triterpene C30H48, formed hy 
the action i of phosphorus pentachlorid on 
amyriu. A dextro- and levo-rotatory a-amyril- 
ene and a dextrorotatory ;8-amyrilene have 
been described. 

Anabsena (an-a-be'na), n. [NL. (Bory, 1822), 
irreg. < Oti. avaSaiveiv, to go up : see anabasis. 
The name alludes to the mibit of the plants in 
coming to the surface of the water.] One of 
the blue-green algaa (Sehieophycex), consisting 
•of numerous oval or circular cells united into 
■a, filament, with intercalary heterooysts. it is 
distinguished from Noatoe by the absence of an envelop- 
ing gelatinous mass which Incloses a number of filaments. 
This genus is responsible for some of the bad odors and 
tastes frequently noticeable In water during the warmer 
months. 

anabix (an'a-biks), ».; pi. anabices (a-nab'i-sez). 
[NL., an arbitrary or mistaken formation, 
based, according to some, on Gr. avapimv, re- 
vive, but perhaps on avd^amg, a going up.] 
The part of certain cryptogamic plants, as 
lichens, liverworts, and club-mosses, that per- 
ishes below while vegetating above. 

anabo (a-na'bo), n. [Tagalog?] A name in 
the Philippine Islands of Abroma augusta and 
allied species, the twigs of which yield a 
strong, white bast-fiber which is easily sepa- 
rated and is superior to sunn-hemp. The plant 
is readily cultivated and yields three crops a 
year. See devil's-cotton. 

anabolergy (an-ab'o-lSr-ji), n. [Gr. ava^o'Ki/, 
a striking up (see ahaboUsm), + Ipyov, work.] 
Energy expended in anabolism. 

anab^istic (an-ab-o-lis'tik), a. {cmabol{ism) 
+ -ist + -Jc] Relating to or consisting in 
anabolism or constructive metabolism. Phil. 
Med. Jour., Jan. 31, 1903. 

anabranch (an'a-branch), n. [jsma-, in anas- 
tomosing, + briineh.'] A branch of a river 
which reunites with it lower down, thus form- 
ing an island known as a branch-island. Called 
"by the aborigines billabong. [Australian.] 

A curious history is given of the word "Anabraneh," 
■ which was applied by Colonel Jackson in the K. 6. S. 
Journal of 1834 to the branch of a river which reunites 
lower down with the main stream. 

Beog. Jour. (E. G. S.), XI. 319. 

anabrosis (an-a-bro'sis]), n. [NL., < Gr. ava- 
PpudLg, an eating up, < avajSijip^meiV, eat up, < 
avd, up, + piPp&aKeiv, eat.] In med., erosion 
of the surface ;■ ulceration. 

anabrotic (an-a-brot'ik), a. [anabrosis {-ot-) 
+ -Jc] In med,., relating to or consisting in 
anabrosis or superflcial erosion of the surface. 

anacampsis (an-a-kamp'sis)^ n. [Gr. avdKa/iij/ic, 

< avamfinrew, beiiid back, < av&, back, + nd/iir- 
Tsiv, bend.] Reflection as of light or sound; 
reaction ; reciprocation. 

anachloi^hydna (an-a-kl6r-hi'dri-a), n. Ab- 
sence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice. 

'anachoresis (an-a-ko-re'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
avax^piatC, withSrawing, retreating, < &va- 
Xi^pslv, withdraw, < ava, baok, H- xupelv, give 
way.] In bat, retrograde change in an organ 
or whorl. 

anachromaticl (an'^a-kro-mafik), a. [Gr. dvd, 
up, + xpo/m, color.]" Relating to an ascend- 
ing color scale. Buck, Med. Handbook, III. 
208. 

anachromatic^ (an-ak-ro-mat'ik), n. [aw-3 -I- 
achromatic] In photog., a corrective for 
achromatism. WooSbury, Diet, of Photog., 
p. 33. 

anachronismatical (an-ak"ron-iz-mat'i-kal), 
a. [Irreg. < anachronism + -at-ic-al.'] Same 
as anachronous. Barham, Ingoldsby Legends, 
p. 182. [Rare.] N. M. D. 



45 

anacidity (an-a-sid'i-ti), n. [Gr. av- priv. -I- 
E. acidity.'] Reduced or abolished acidity of 
the gastric juice or other fluid. 

anaclete (an-grklet), n. [Gr. dvd, back, -1- fca- 
'Aew, call.] die who is called back. 

anaclinal (an-a-kli'nal), a. [Gr. dvd, back, -1- 
K/Uveiv, bend.] " In ge'dl., transverse to the dip : 
said of a valley or a river which descends 
against the dip.— Anaclinal valley, a valley whose 
axial direction is not in accord with the dip of the un- 
derlying rocks. 

anacostia (an-a-kos'ti-a), n. A twiU-woven 
fabric with a worsted warp and a woolen weft. 

Anacrogynae (an-ak-ro-ji'ne), n. pi. [NL., < 
Gr. av- priv. -f- dxpov, apex, + ywfj, female.] 
In bot., a suborder of cryptogamic plants of 
the order Jv/ngermanniales, class Hepatiex, in 
which the archegonia are formed at a point 
below and remote from the apex. It embraces 
the thalloid genera of the Jungermanmacese, of 
simpler type than the *Aerogynse (which see). 

anacrogynous (an-ak-roj'i-nus), a. [Gr. dv- 
priv. -r &Kpov, apex, + yw^, female, + -ous.'] 
In hot, having the archegonia formed at a 
point below and remote from the apex, as in 
the Anacrogynse. 

AjaacyrtUB (an-a-s6r'tus), n. [NL., < Gr. &vd- 
Kvprog, curved upward or backward, < avd, up, 
+ Kvprds, curved.] A genus of South Ameri- 
can toothed shiners of the family Charaoin- 
idse. 

anadenia (an-a-de'ni-a), n. [NL., < Gr. dv- 
priv. + aoifv, a gland'.'] Insufficiency or ab- 
sence of glands, especially of the gastric glands. 

anadisene (an-a-di'en), n. [Gr. dvd, up, back, 
-t- *diatva, an "assumed form ('two-pronged 
staff'), from St-, two, parallel to Tpiaiva,a: tri- 
dent.] In the nomenclature of the spieular 
elements of sponges, a hexactine spicule hav- 
ing a straight rhabd or shaft and an anchor- 
shaped head. See sponqe-spieule. 

anadipsia (an-a-dip'si-a), n. [NL., < Gr. dva- 
intensive +" 61^, thirst.] Intense thirst. 

anadipsic (an-a-dip'sik), a. Pertaining to or 
characterized by anadipsia. 

anaerobe, n, — Facultative anaerobe, an organism 
usually requiring oxygen, which has become capable of 
living in either the presence or the absence of oxygen. 

anaSrobia^ (an-a-e-ro'bi-a), n. [NL.j abstract 
n oim, fern. sing. ofanaeroVi'us: see anaerobious.'] 
The ability (on the part of bacteria) to live in 

the absence of free oxygen Facultative anaS- 

robia, the possibility ol living in either the presence or 
the absence ot oxygen. 

anaerobic, a — Facultatively anaerobic, having ac- 
quired the ability to live in either the presence or the 
absence of oxygen. 

anaSrobically (an-a-e-rob'i-kal-i), adv. In an 
anaerobic manner. J^our. Exper. Med^ VI. 67. 

anaSrobiont (an-a-6r-o-bI'ont), n. Same as 
anaerobe. 

anaerobism (an-a'e-ro-bizm), n. [anaerobe + 
-ism.'] That faculty or" power of living without 
oxygen which is possessed by some micro-or- 
ganisms, particularly certain bacteria. 

anaero-oxydase (an-a^e-ro-ok'si-das), n. [Gr. 
dv-priv. -I- lii^jO, 33.r, + oiaydase.'] Sameas*^e»'- 



ansesthesia, » crossed ansesthesla, a condition in 

which ansesthesia exists on one side of the face and on 
the opposite side of the body.— General ausesthesia, 
total ana)sthesia, with loss of consciousness, induced by 
the inhalation of an anesthetic gas or vapor, such as 
chloroform, ether, or nitrous oxid. — Infiltration anaes- 
thesia, local ansesthesia induced by the injection into 
the subcutaneous tissues, in and about the seat of oper- 
ation, of large quantities of a very weak solution of co- 
caine or other local anesthetic. — ^Local ansBStliesla, 
ansesthesia of a circumscribed area induced by the hi- 
jection of a solution of cocaine, or other substance of 
similar action, or by the application of cold.— Medul- 
lary ansesthesia, anaesthesia induced by injection be- 
neath the membranes covering the spinal cord of a solu- 
tion of cocaine or other substance with similar action. 
The ansesthesia so produced is very wide iu its extent, 
but there is no loss of consciousness, as in general anses- 
thesia. — Mixed ansesthesia, general ansesthesia in- 
duced by one agent, as nitrous-oxid gas, and maintained 
by another, as chloroform or ether.— Primary anses- 
thesia, insensibility to pain occurring soon after the 
administration of ether is begun. It is of brief duration, 
but is usually long enough to permit of the extraction of 
a tooth or for the incision into a boil.— Spinal ansesthe- 
sia. (a) Ansesthesia of a circumscribed portion of the 
body due to a lesion of the spinal cord. (6) Same as 
medvUary *(miegtheaia.—Saxsioal ansesthesia, local or 
general ansesthesia induced artificially for the purpose of 
preventing the pain of a surgical operation. 

ansesthesiant, a. and n. See anesthesiant. 

ansesthol (an'es-thol), n. A mixture of chloro- 
form, ether, and ethyl chlorid recommended 
as an anesthetic in place of the mixture of 
alcohol, chloroform, and ether. 

Anagallis.(an-a-gal'i8), n. [NL., < L. anagallis. 



analophic 

< Gr. dvaya^Atg, pimpernel.] An annual, bi- 
annual, or perennial herb, cultivated in the 
open, a member of the family Primulaceie and 
sometimes called pimpernel. Only the annual spe- 
cies are known in Auienca. A. arvensis is. commonly 
known as poor man's weather-gloBS. Twelve species are 
known in the temperate zones of Europe, Africa, east 
Asia, and South America. 

anagap (a-na-gap'), n. [Philippine Sp. anagap, 
anagat, from a native dialect.] In the Phil- 
ippine islands, a tree, Pithecolobium lobatum, 
belonging to the mimosa family, having bipin- 
nate leaves with a single pair of leaflets and a 
large pod deeply lobed along its lower suture 
into round divisions. The wood is durable, 
flne-grained, brittle, and of a yellowish-gray 
color. It is used in construction and for fur- 
niture. 

anagenesis (an-a-jen'e-sis), n. [Gr. dvd, up, 
+ yivcaig, origin : see genette.'] Evolution by 
means of the acquiring of characters and of in- 
creasing complexity and differentiation. Hyatt. 

anagenetic (an^a-je-nefik), a. Tending to the 
advancement or propessive development of 
organisms. Hyatt, Biol. Lect., p. 146. [Rare.] 

anagerontic (an'^a-je-ron'tik), a. [Gr. avd, up, 
-I- ytpav (yepavT-),' &n old man: see geronUe.] 
Noting the early portion of the gerontic or 
senile period in the development of an organ- 
ism. Hyatt. 

anaglyph, n. 2. In photog., a kind of picture, 
invented by Duces du Hauron, with two images 
printed nearly in superposition, one in red and 
the other in greenish blue. On viewing this double 
image through a pair of eye-glasses, one blue and the other 
red, the image is seen stereoscopically. On reversing the 
glasses the opposite effect, or pseudoscopic vision, is the 
result. Three-color heliochromy has also been applied to 
the anaglyph. When two slides from a stereoscopic nega- 
tive, one with a red image and the other with a blue, are 
projected on a screen together, they appear stereoscopi- 
cally when viewed through colored glasses. 

anaglyphoscope (an-a-glif'o-skop), n. {ana- 
glyph + Gr. aiamelv, view.] ' la photog., a pair 
of eye-glasses, one red and the other greenish 
blue, for viewing anaglyphs so as to produce 
a stereoscopic effect. 

anago (a-na'go), n. [Jap. anago."] The Japa- 
nese name of an eel of the family Leptoc^hali- 
dss, Congrelhm anago, found at Nagasaki. 

anagyrine (a-naj'i-rin), n. [Anagyris + -JMe2.] 
An alkaloid, C15H22N2O, found in Anagyris 
fmtida. The free base forms a gummy, amor- ■ 
phous mass. It has a powerful toxic action. 

Anakim (an'a-kim), n. pi. [Heb. 'andktm, pi. 
of 'Andk; etyin. unknown: in one view, from 
'anak, neck. ] A pre-Canaanite tribe mentioned 
in the Old Testament, otherwise called ' the 
Anak' or ' the sons of Anak,' and, as usual in 
regard to outlying tribes of which little is 
known, reputed to be giants. 

Anal flands. See ■kgland.—kosl margin, the posterior 
margin of an insect's wing when expanded. — Anal nerve 
or vein, the posterior nerve or vein of an insect's wing 
when expanded. — Anal spot, in the Infusorixi, the spot 
where the waste-products of digestion are ejected. 
Parker and Haswefl, Zoology, I. 81.— Anal vesicle. See 
'kvesicle. 

analcite-basalt (a-narsit-ba-sait*), n. See 
*basalt. 

analcitite (a-nal'si-tit), ». [analHte + -ite^.'] 
In petrog., a basaltic rock rich in primary 
analcite and without olivin: proposed by 
Pirssouj 1896. 

analeptic, a. II. n. In med., a remedy which 
exerts a restorative or invigorating action. 
Buck, Med. Handbook, II. 694. 

analgene (an-al'jen), n. [_analg{ic) + -e»e.] 
Ortho - ethoxyanabenzoylaminoquinoline, Cg- 
HKN(OC2H5)NHCOC6Hg. It is a white crys- 
talline powder, insoluble in water, used in the 
treatment of neuralgia. 

analgesin (an-al'ge-sin), n. Same as anUpyrin. 

analgic (an-al'jik), a. [Gr. dva}i,y^g, painless, . 

< dv- priv. + SXyog, pain.] Same as analgetic. 
Buck, Med. Handbook, V. 865. 

analog, n. A simplified spelling of analogue. 

Analogous tissues, in pathol. , morbid tissues resembling 
in th^r structure normal tissues. 

analogy, ».— Convergent analogy, resemblance be- 
tween organisms or organs which is due to independent 
modification on similar lines and not to inheiitance from 
a common ancestor.— Elrkwood's analogy, in astron., 
a supposed but now discredited law, announced in 1849, 
connecting the distances of the planets and their masses 
with their axial rotations by an equation in form analo- 
gous to that which expresses Kepler's harmonic law. 

analophic (an-a-lof 'ik), a. [Gr. dvd, up, -I- 
Tidfog, crest.] In craniom., having the incisor 
crest in the anterior nasal aperture confined to 
the posterior part of the floor of the nares. 
Harrison Allen, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sei. X. 419. 



analphabetic 
analphabetic, a. Z. Non-alphiabetic ^Anai- 

ShaoetiC symbols, in plwnetics, symbols or signs \rhich 
not denote sounds, but components of sounds, each 
simple sound being represented by agroup of symbols re- 
sembling a chemical formula, in much the same way as 
Itv might he taken to represent * lip-teeth-voice.' 
analphabetism (an-arfa-bet-izm), n. 1. H- 
literaey; ignorance even of the alphabet. — 3. 
In phonetics, a system of representing the 
articulations of speech-sounds by means of 



4g anapborla 

[Gr. avd, back, + fierd, beyond, + -Spo^c, < anangioid (an-an^i-odd) «• [^r "v- priv. + 
ipaudv, ™.] in l^yol, having the nerves of aryecov, a vessel, + -wd.] Having no retinal 
the weaker pinnules anadromous and those of btoodj^essels.- AB^oid disk, the retmal d«k 

^^^^Tr2Ed^(^S^ ^SS^S^Sn^-^itlSna. 
??l?ir*l£*^l^°.°^f '5;ir*^J i5SLl mals in which the retina has no blood-vessels, 



see 



analphabetic symbols, proposed by Professor anamirtin (an-a-mer'tin), n. A crystalline ^'^S^- ... , Having no retinal 

I. Otto Jespersen of Copenhagen in 1889. See substance, bieflg^Oio, found in small amount, ^S^^f °"^„eST-lninrioid 

*analpMl!uc ,.,,.,., , T^"^ ^^'^'^^^AXnZ'tAtt'^Z^l" "''^"h^Xise creS^^^^ 
analysis,)!. 5. In cricitei, an itemized record Cocculus. It is slightly bitter and not poison- •»^!'".V"k. . „ ^=-,K-=., ^ ., — a^ d 

of the play of the bowler, intended to show ous. . 

particularlythenumberof runs scored by him anamnesic (an-am-ne'sik), a. [anamnesia + 

and the number of wickets obtained. — 6. In -ic] Endowed with a good memory; disposed 

to remember. G. S. Hall, Adolescence, I. 345. 

anamniote (an-am'ni-6t), a. and «._ [Gr. 



amniote ; having no amnion in the fetal state ; 
anamniotic. 
II. n. A member of the Anamnionata. 

■ ' [Gr. avd, up, 

back, + *^(iva«wa, assumed form ('one-pronged 
stai'), from //liwof, single, parallel to rp'uuva, a 
trident.] In the nomenclature of the spieular 



chem., intentionally produced decomposition: 
often applied to the ascertainment of the com- 
position of a substance, whether the constitu- 
ents are actually obtained in separate form or 
not. — Capillazy analysis, a system of chemical anal- 
ysis based upon the fact that solutions of different sub- 

stancesarepropagatedatdiffereutTelocitiesbycapiltey anamonsene (an-a-mon'en), », 
attraction through porous material : used chiefly m the «>'_"™v*"'^'rvy \ .. , n 

detection of different coloriug matters in a mixture. — 
Partition analysis, a calculus founded upon the theory 
of partitions, an important part of combinatory analysis. 
— Folariscopic analysis. See itpolarucoptc.— Spher- 
ical barmonic analysis. See *harmonic. 

Analytic proof, algebraical proof; proof depending upon 
a careful analysis of the problem : opposed to synthetic 
proof, which appeals to intuition or common-sense and 
is thus not strictly apodictic. 

Analytical reference, an entry in a library catalogue re- 
lating to a particular chapter or section of a book, and 
referring the reader to the heading under which the book 
itself is entered. Sometimes also called simply an 
anaij/tioai.— Analytical variation, variety. 
■Avariatian, -kvarielii. 

analytics, »• pi- — Thermal analytics, the mathe- 
matical or, more specifically, the algebraic analysis of 
the theory of heat. 

analyzer, n, — Harmonic analyzer, a device for 
determining the harmonic elements of a periodic curve. 



BpeciuUsed, typical Vespei-tilionidse occurred already in 
the Eocene. . . . The eyes of these nocturnal creatures 
are very small, anangima, and devoid of any traces of 
higher development, except that they are also without any 
traces of ancestral vestiges, besides the rather common 
rudiment of the hyaloid artery. 

^_ ,, _ Pftao». 3Va»«. iJoj/. Soc. iond., ser. B, 194, p. 68. 

priv. + ^'h. amniotus, amniote.] I. a. Not anantheriun (an*an-the'rum), «.; pi. awajj- 



thera (-ra). [NL., < Gr. a- priv. + NL. an- 
tlwra, anither.] In hot., a filament without an 
anther; a staminode. 

ananym (an'a-nim), n. [Erroneously for *an- 
onynfi, < Gr. avd, back, + bvofia, dvvfM, name.] 
A name written backward, as Noremae for 

J . , . 1.V - J Cameron. 

elementsof sponges, a tnasne which has under- anaoxytriaene (an-a-ok-si-tri'en), n. [Gr. avi, 
gone atrophy of two of its axial arms or clad- ^p ir,a(.]j + i;^r gLarp, + rpiaiva, atrident.] In 

iska, the third being reflected on the fourth, ■■'^' ' - ■ "^^- — ^ -' 1 ^^- i 

giving the spicale the form of a gafif-hook. See 



sponge-spicule. 
anamorphic (an-a-m6r'fik,), a. Pertaining to 
or resulting from anamorphism. Van Hise, 
U. S. Geol. Surv., Monograph 47, p. 169. 
See anamorphism (an-a-m6r'fizm), n. In geol., 
that variety of metamorphism which takes 
place below the zone in which cavities may 



the nomenclature of the spieular elements in 
sponges, a form of anatrissne in which the 
branches are all acute. See *anatrisme and 
sponge-spicule. 

anapaite (a-na'pa-it), n. [Named (by A. Sachs, 
1902) < Anapa (see def . ) + -Jte^. ] A hydrated 
phosphate of ferrous iron and calcium occur- 
ring in colorless triclinic crj'stals and also in 
massive forms: found at Anapa on the Black sea. 



exist. It results in the production of new anapanapa (a-na*pa-na'pa), n. [Hawaiian.] 




l> 



C" I I ■! I i'it^^ 




Michelson's Hannonic Analyzer. 
c, curve ; s, stylus. 

All periodic curves may he regarded as made up of one 
or more sine-curves, harmonically related to each other 
as regards frequency. By means of a machine so con- 
structed as to impart to a stylus a linear oscillatory mo- 
tion which is the resultant of the various simple harmonic 
motions which go to make up a given curve, it is possible 
to trace the curve in question upon a surface moving 
uniformly under the stylus. On the other hand, if the 
fonn of curve is given it is possible to determine by 
means of a suitable mechanism the amplitude and fre- 
quency of the elements of which it is the resultant. A 
machine of the latter description is called a hamumie 
analyzer. Such machines have been devised by Kelvin, 
Michelson, and others. That of Kelvin was constructed 
with special reference to the analysis of the tides. Since 
the number of harmonic elements in a periodic curve 
may be indefinitely great, the mechanical analysis is In 
some cases only approximate. The harmonic analyzer 
of Michelson, however, which permits of a determina- 
tion of 80 different elements, gives a very close approxi- 
mation for most curves. 

anamesitic (an-am-e-sit'ik), a. [anamesite + 
-ic] In lithol., having the structure or ap- 
pearance of anamesite. Smithsonian Bep., 1899, 
p. 233. 

anametadromous (an - a - me - tad'ro - mus), a. 



minerals under conditions of great pressure 
Fan Hise, U. S. Geol. Surv., Monograph 47, 
p. 167. — Zone of anamorphism, the deep-seated zone 
of the earth in which anamorphism takes place. 
anamorphote (an-a-m6r'f6t), a. [Prom the as- 
sumed stem of atiamorphosis.J Causing ana- 
morphosis ; distortive — Anamorphote lens in 
photog., a lens having a cylindric element and therefore 
distorting the image like a cylindric mirror. Wall, Diet, 
of Photog., p. 32. 

ananaplas (a-na-na'plas), n. [Tagalog (f).] A 
valuable timber-tree, AUnzzia procera, belong- 
ing to the mimosa family. Its heart-wood is hard 
and durable, of a brown color with alternate lighter and 
darker bands, and a straight grain. It is used for posts 
in house-building, and for making rice-pounders and 
parts of agricultural implements and machinery. The 
bark Is astringent and is used for tanning, and the tree 
yields a gum soluble in water. [Philippine Is.] 

Ananas oil, ethyl or amyl butyrate diluted with alcohol : 
used to imitate the odor of thepineapple in confectionery, 
soda-water syrups, and perfumery. Also called ananas 
OT pineapple essence.— ^sence Of ananas, an artificial 
flavoring essence possessing the odor of pineapple ; ethyl 
butyrat^ C3S7.CO.OC2H5 (which see, under butyrate). 

Ananchytidee (an-an-kit'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Ananchytes +-idse.'] A family of spatangoid 
echinoids, most of whose representatives are 
extinct and belonged to Cretaceous time. 

ananeanic (an'a-ne-an'ik), a. [Gr. avd, up, + 
veavias, a youth : see neanie.'] Noting the early 
portion of the neanie or youthful period in the 
development of an organism. Hyatt. 

ananepiastic(an*a-ne-pi-a8'tik), a. Noting the 
earliest expression of the nepiastic substage 
in the ontogeny of the compound individual or 
colony, as the bryozoanJ'enesteJte. See *nepias- 
tic. 

ananepionic (an-a-ne-pi-on'ik), a. [NL., < Gr. 
avd, up, + vijinoq, infant.] In the terms of aux- 
ology or the development of the individual, 
noting a growth condition approaching the 
nepionic stage. See *nepionic. Contrasted with 
•kparanepknic, which designates the phase which imme- 
diately follows the nepionic. The ananepionic stage is 
one of immature growth and directly follows the larval 
phase. The word was introduced by Hyatt with special 
reference to the stages of growth and decline in the fossil 
cephalopods. 

For about half a volution or less, the shell is smooth, 
although lines of growth become more pronounced. At 
more or less regiidar intervals stronger lines' of growth 



A name in Hawaii of a widely distributed 
shrub, Colubrina Asiatica, the bark of which 
is used for soap. 

anaphase (an'a-faz), n. [NL. anaphasis, < Grr. 
dvd, back, again, + ipdaig, appearance, phase.] 
In cytol., a stage in mitosis, or karyokinetic 




Anaphases of mitosis in cells (spermatocytes) of the 
salamander. iDruner.) Magnified. 
^. Anaphase ; divergence of the daughter-chromosomes, expos, 
in^ the central spindle as the interzonal fibers : contractile fibers 
(principal cones of Van Beneden) clearly shown. £. Later ana- 
phase (dyaster of Flemming) ; the central spindle fully exposed to 
view; mantle fibers attached to the chromosomes. Immediately 
afterward the cell dirides. 

cell-division, characterized by the moving apart 
of the chromosomes destined to enter the two 
„ - daughter-nuclei. Strasburger, 1884. 

appear (anon«»io»«). In the later portion of the nepionic anaphasis (a-naf 'a- n. [NL.] Same as 

sta^e(metaneplonic)longitudmalwnukles or nbs appear ""••f""""' y^a, ^a.,. a, ^ a,, .». l-''" j 
which characterize the ambital portion of the whorl, and anapnase. ^ ^ , . / 

may be traced upward to the suture between the two anaphla (a-naf 'i-S.), n. [Gr. av- priv. + a(^1, 
c auai zer ^^'""''^ 4m«r. ilTafc, Aug. 1903, p. 618. a touching, < aTTTcir, touch. Cf . Gr. (iva^f, not 

determin™ 3'?3'i8i*'l (*""^^'ii;&°)) '*■ C^'^- «i'- priv. + to be touched.] In patAoi^, loss of the^sense of 



Baldwin, Diet, of Philos. and Psychol., 



dyyuov, a vessel.] Saving no vascular system : touch. 

applied to certain polychBetous annelids in I. 39. 

which the coelomic fluid, whose corpuscles anaphoria (an-a-fo'ri-a), «. [NL., < Gr. 'ovo- 

contain hemoglobin, is carried to the various i^opoq, < dvaipipeiv, carry back: see anaphora.] 

organs of the body by the action of ciliate The tendency of the axes of vision in the two 

cell s which cover the peritoneum along certain eyes to assume too high a plane. Med. Record, 

deflnite tracts. April 18, 1903. 



anaphylembryonic 

anaphylembryonic (an''a-fil-em-bri-on'ik), a. 
Noting the earliest expression of the phylem- 
bryonic substage in the ontogeny of any or- 
ganism. See *p}vylembryonio. 

That it ia probably not the most primitive type of gas- 
tropod iB suggested by the consideration that the earliest 
stage {ana-phylembryonic) of the protoconch Is not coiled, 
but rather cap-shaped like modem Patella. 

Amur. Nat., Dec, 1902, p. 92L 

anaplasia (an*a-pla'si-a), n. [NL., < Gr. inict- 
vXuau;, reformation, adjustment, < avan^aaauv, 
reform, mold anew, < ava, again, + ir^ffffcjv, 
form.] 1. InpatfeoJ.,thesumofthemorphologi- 
eal, staictural, chemical, and other alterations 
which eeUs undergo when assuming the ehar- 
aoteristics of malignancy. — 2. Same as *a»a- 
plasis. 

anaplasis (an-aj)'la-sis), n. [NL., <Gr. avd- 
TrMaig, reformation, i dvatrMaaeiv, reform, re- 
new, restore.] In Hoi., the history or course 
of an organic type during the period or stage of 
its rise, as distinguished from the period of its 
full maintained vigor (metaplasis) and the 
period of its decline or decadence {*cataplasis). 
Uaeckel. 

Anapterygota (an-ap-ter-i-go'ta), n.pl. [NL., 
appar. < Gr. avd, back, again, + ■irTepvY(-yfiii, 
winged, < Trripv^ {iTTepvy-), wing.] A group of 
insects (including the orders Mallophaga and 
Siphonaptera and the suborder Anoplura) 
which contains only wingless forms, which, 
however, are supposed to have descended from 
winged ancestors. 

anapterygotism (an-ap-ter-i-go'tizm), n. 
[Anapterygota + -ism.2 In entom., a condition 
of winglessness attained, usually through apar- 
asitic life, by forms with a winged ancestry. 

In these facts we have a clue to the change from ex- 
opterygotism to endopterygotism, namely, by an inter- 
mediate period of cmapterygoUsm. 

Bneyc. Brit., XXIX. BOS. 

anapterygOtOTlS (an-ap-ter-i-go'tus), a. In en- 
tom., wingless, although derived from winged 
ancestors, as the Mallophaga, Siphonaptera, 
and Anoplura. 

These cases render it highly probable that insects may 
in some circumstances become wingless, thougli their 
ancestors were winged. Such insects have been styled 
ajiapterygotoits. JEnoye. Brit, XXIX. 603. 

anaptyzis (an-ap-tik'sis), n. [Gr. avanrv^ig^ an 
opening, unfolding, < avairrvoaetv, unfold, < avd, 
back, + irriaaetv, fold.] In phonetics, the in- 
voluntary utterance of an auxiliary vowel, 
especially before r, I, m, and n, in certain po- 
sitions, as in lucre, able, chasm, etc, 

aiiaQ.ua (an-S,'kwa), n. Same as anagua. See 



47 

speaks a language that does not belong to the 
Aryan family. Demker, Races of Man, p. 334. 

anascope (an'a-skop), n. [Gr. dvd, up, -I- oko- 
mlv, view.] An optical arrangement which 
enables one to view the image in a camera 
right side up. Woodbury, Bncyo. Diet, of Pho- 
tog., p. 35. 

Anaspida (an-as'pi-da), n.pl. [NL., < Gr. 01;- 
priv. -I- dffTTtf, shield.]' An ordinal term intro- 
duced by Traquair for a group of singular 
fishes, chiefly fii-om the Upper Silurian rocks 
of Lanarkshire, without paired fins and hav- 
ing a tubereled skin, a heterooercal tail, and a 
row of prominent processes along the belly. 
In some of the species, as Birkenia elegaTis, the branchial 
openings are a series of small lateral perforations. 

anaspfdean (an-as-pid'e-an), a. and n. I, a. 
Pertaining to or having the characters of the 
Anaspidea. 
II, n. One of the Anaspidea. 

anastasis (an-as'ta-sis), n. [NL., < Gr. dvd- 
araaig, a raising lip or rising up, < avicrdvai, 
stand up.] 1, In me<2., a condition of increas- 
ing health and vigor ; convalescence. — 2. Res- 
urrection. 

anastatic, a. 2. In hot., reviving after desic- 
cation, as so-called resurrection-plants. 

anastigiuat (an-as'tig-mat), n, [G. anastig- 
mat : see anastigmatic.'] A system of lenses in 
which the astigmatic aberration is overcome 
and a flat field obtained, it is of special use in 
photography. There are various forms with special trade- 
names, as coUinearg, planars, protars, una/rs, etc. — 
Convertible anastigmat (called in German satzana- 
stigmat), a combination of two Zeiss anastigmats which 
for many purposes can be used separately.— Double an- 
astigmat, a combination of two triple cemented lenses, 
each anastigmatically aplanatic. Such a system, invented 
by Van Hoegh, was put out in 1892 by the Goerz firm. 



anchor 

anatoid (an'a-toid), a. [L. anas {anat-), a 

duck, -t- Gr. cUoc, form.] Resembling a duck ; 

duck-like in form or character. 
Anatolian ware. See *ware^. 
anatomicobiological(an-a-tom'''i-k6-bi-o-loj'i- 

kal), a. Anatomical with a view to biology ; 

treating of biology as illustrated by anatomy: 

as, an anatomicobiological thesis. 
anatomicopathological (an-a-tom"i-k6-path- 

o-loj'i-kal), a. Relating to pathological anat- 
omy. 
anatomobiological ( a - nat " 6 - mo - bi - o - lo j 'i- 

kal), a. Same as ^ariatomicobiolbgical! 
an'atomopathologlcal(a-nat"o-mo-path-o-loj'- 

i-kal), a. Same as '*' anatomicopathological. 

Smithsonian Bep. 1890, p. 635. 

anatomy, >i.— Medical anatomy, descriptive anat- 
omy of the heart, lungs, and other parts, the diseases of 
which are not usually amenable to surgical treatment.— 
Morbid anatomy. Same as pathologicat anatomy. — 
Plastic anatomy, surface anatomy in its relation to art. 
-Practical anatomy. Same as anatmny, L— Surface 
anatomy, the study of the marldngs and configuration 
of the surface of the body. 

anatrepsis (an-a-trep'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. dvd, 
back, -t- Tpitpic, a turning.] In embryol., that 
movement of certain insect embryos which 
brings them back to the ventral surface of the 
yolk after they have moved away from it. 
Wheeler, 1893. 

anatrisene (an-a-tri'en), n. [Gr. dvd, up, back, 
-I- Tp'iaiva, a trident.] In the nomenclature of 
the spicular elements of sponges, a straight cy- 
lindrical rhabd at the end of which three prongs 
or cladisks bent backward make a form like 
that of an anchor with three arms. It belongs 
to the tetraxial system of spicules. See sponge- 




anarcestean (an-ar-ses'te-an), a. \Ana/rceste{s) 
+ -an.'] 1. Pertaining to "the Devonian ceph- 
alopod Anarcestes. — 2. Noting a condition or 
growth-stage in any goniatite equivalent, in 
flie development of the septa, to the mature 
condition in Anarcestes. 

Anarcestes (an-ar-ses'tez), n. [NL., said to 
be formed < Gr, dv- prjv. + Arcestes, a genus 
of ammonites.] A genus of ammonoid ceph- 
alopods or goniatites of primitive structure, 
having very simple septal sutures with single 
broad lateral lobes. It is of Devonian age. 

anarcestian, a. Same as ■*'anarcestean. 

anarithmoscope (an-a-rith'mo-skop), «, A 
magic lantern having slides which are changed 
automatically. 

Anarrhichthyinse (an-a-rik-thi-i'ne), n. pi. 
[Anarrhichthys + -»»»,] The subfamily of 
wolf-fishes typified by the genus AtmrrUch- 
thys. 

Anarrhichthys (an-a-rik'this), n. [NL. irreg. 

< Gr. dvapp{ixda6at), clamber up, + ixm, fish.] 
A genus of wolf-fishes of the tsucalj Anarrhich- 
adidse. it is distinguished by the very long and tapering 
tail, whence the name wolf-eel. A. ocellatui is found on 
the coast of California and reaches a length of 8 feet. 

Anarsia (an-ar'si-a), n. [NL. (Zeller, 1839), 

< Gr. avdpawg, unfavorable, hostile, < av- priv. 
-t- apmog, fitting < *apEiv, fit.] A genus of Mi- 
crolepidoptera, of the family Gelecthiidse, con- 
taining, among others, the very injurious A. 
lineatella, whose larva bores into the twigs and 
fruit of the peach in Europe and North Amer- 
ica. 

anarthropod (an-ar'thro-pod), a. and ». [As 
Anarthropod-a.] I, a. Without articulated ap- 
pendages; having the characters of the Anar- 
thrqpoda. 
II n. One of the Anarthropoda. 

Anaryan (an-Sr'yan or -ar'ian), a. [««-». + 
Aryan.] Non-Aryan ; noting a people which 



Double Anastigmat. 

Several forms with different trade-names have been 
since added by the same firm, each with its own special 
advantages.— Universal symmetric anastlsmat, a 
very rapid system of lenses covering a view-angle of 65° 
and consisting of two triple cemented lenses. 

anastigmatic (an-as-tig-mat'ik), a. [< an-5 -{- 
astigmatic.] Not astigmatic : applied to a lens, 

anastomosis, n. 3. In surg., the establishment 
of communication between two canals or two 
portions of the same canal, usually the diges- 
tive tract, not previously in continuity. 

Anastomotic artery, a term applied to several small 
arteries, in different portions of the body, which serve to 
connect two larger vessels. 

anastomotica (an-as-to-mot'i-ka), n. See ar- 
teria anastomotica,— AnastoToxMea, magna, (a) 
A branch of the brachial artery supplying the parts 
about the elbow and anastomosing with other branches 
of the brachial and of the ulna, (b) A branch of the 
femoral artery supplying the parts about the knee-joint 
and anastomosing with other articular branches of the 
femoral and tibial arteries. 

Anastrophia (an-a-stro'fi-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 

dvaarpcup^, a twisting about: see anastrophe.] 
A genus of pentameraceous braohiopods from 
the Silurian and Devonian rocks. 

anat. An abbreviation of anatomy and anatomi- 
cal. 

Anathema cup. See *cup. 

anathesis (a-natb'e-sis), n. [Gr. avdOeatc, a 
putting off, < avarStvm, put off, etc.: see anath- 
ema.] Vowel-mutation; umlaut: a proposed 
term, scarcely used. See mutation. 

Anatinacea (a-nat-i-na'se-a), n. pi. [NL., < 
AnaUna + -acea.] A suborder of EulamelU- 
hranchiata. it includes the bivalve mollusks which 
have the external branchial fold directed dorsally, not 
reflected, sexes united, male and female reproductive 
glands with separate orifices, mantle edges largely united, 
byssus generally lacking, two adductor muscles, pallial 
line variable, and shell usually nacreous within. Among 

■ the families included are Anatinidie, Pandoridse, Pho- 
ladomyidse,and Clavagellidie. Bothliving and fossil forms 
are found. 

anatinacean (a-nat-i-na'si-an), a. and n. I. 
a. Pertaining to or havlng"the characters of 
the Anatinacea. 
II. n. One of the Anatinacea. 



anatriptic (an - a - trip ' tik), a. [anatripsis 
(-tript-) + -ic] "Frictional; specfecally, in 
med.f of or pertaining to the use of rubbing or 
friction for remedial purposes. 

anauca (a-na-o'ka), n. . [Native name.] A 
tree of the bean family, Erythrina umbrosa, a 
native of northeastern South America, which 
is used as a shade-tree in the cultivation of 
cacao. Also called *6Mcare (which see). [Trini- 
dad.] 

anautotomic (an-a-to-tom'ik), a. Not self -in- 
tersecting. 

Anautotomic, unicuspidal, bicuspidal and tricuspidal 
quartics admit of a subsidiary division depending on the 
number of points of undulation they possess ; and it must 
be borne in mind that, although it is convenient to use 
the term point of undulation, it is the tangent at this point 
and not the point itself which is the actual singularity. 
Nature, Nov. 27, 1902, p. 80. 

anaxial (an-ak'si-al), a. [Gr. dv- priv. -I- L. 
axis, axis, + -al.] " Without a definite axis or 
axes ; of irregular or asymmetrical form. 

anaxile (an-ak' sil), a. [Gt. av- priv. -1- L. 
axis, axis: see axile.] Noting such inde- 
pendent elements or spicules of sponge skele- 
tons as do not show derivation from the uni- 
axial, tetraxial, or hexactinellid type. Such 
spicules are spherical, cylindrical, discoid, or 
stellate. 

anaxone (an-ak's6n), a. [Gr. dv- priv. + dfuv, 
axis.] In newol., having no neuraxon or axis- 
cylinder: said of certain nerve-cells. Buck, 
Med. Handbook, II. 334. 

anaxonial (an-ak-s6'ni-al), a. [Gr. dv- priv. + 
dftw, axis, + -dal.] Having no definite axes of 
growth. See anaxonia. 

ancecerite (an-ses'e-nt), n. [Irreg. < Gr. dy/c^, 
the bent arm, -I- 'kipag, horn, + -iie''^.] In 
crustaceans, a curved projection at the base of 
the peduncle of an antenna. 

Ancestral forms, the ancestors of an organism in any 
remote generation or generations considered collectively. 
—Ancestral heredity, Inheritance. See irinheritance. 

Anchieta bark. See *bark^. 

anchor^, n. 7. In the tug of war, the man at 
the end of the line, who is supposed to hold 
while the rest endeavor to pull. — 8, Same as 
chapelet, 4. — 
Anchor system, 
the mnemonic sys- 
tem according to 
which the ideas to 
be remembered 
are rendered read- 
ily recoverable by 
being deliberately 
associated with 
other ideas that 
are, either by fa- 
miliarity or by 
their striking 
character, already 
easily recoverable. Folding Anchot. 

Thus it is an ap- ^, anchor open ; B, anchor closed :_ C-. 
plication of the shifting-stock anchor v ' " * 




nth stock stowed. 



anchor 48 andrology 

snchorsystemtoTememberthemapofltalybyitsBiniilai^ ancisttoid (an-sis'troid), a. [Gr. ayKiorpoeid^c, male. Compare *gyneelexis. Ward, Pure So. 
% to a boot. Also oaUedjwon/iitem. -Folding ajichor. < ayK^m-pov, a fish-hook, + eWof, form.] Hook- eiol.,p. 361. 

a boat's anchor having aatock and fluftes which, when not V '^ j'^ i j ct " r^ • anHrn^a Cati-dri'al m »Z TGr avdoela rsnf 

in use, can be folded against the shanlt lor convenience shaped. Syd. Soc. Lex. ^^^^f^} -"Ap'^'Jit /^^L /a,T_\ ' '■; 
in stowing on board. Several styles are in U8e.-Sliiflilng- AnciStrUS (an-sis'trus), n. [NL., < ayiacrpov, pi. of avdpewc, adj., otmen, <. amjp (avOp-), man.] 
Etock anchor, a boat's anchor in which the stoclc is kept a fish-hook.] A genus of toothed shiners of the In Gr. antiq. , public meals, especially m Crete 

ih?'?hL'S'*/*''*°''''^''®°"°''V^*.Sv*°''°'S?'f¥°^* family Characinidie, found in rivers of South and Sparta. 

the shank lor convenience in handling. — StOCkleSB """"J ^"■<*' "■i-"--"'*) aniJrowm fan-dri'oTi'^ «, • nl andreia (-S\ rPo. 

anchor, a boat's anchor having pivoted flukes which laU America. . anOreioncan-an on;,ra., pi.a»omai-aj. ll-er- 
into the holding position without the aid ol a stock. ancona (an-ko'na), n. [ML. ancona, an image, haps for Orr. avdpct6>v, avdpcuv, Attic avdpijv, m., 
anchorate, a. 2. As applied to the spicules of a crucifix, prop!' *aneon ; cf. L. ancon, a eon- the men's hall (see andromtis) ; otherwise < Gr. 
the sponges, having a pronged anchor-shaped sole or volute, < Gr. oy/ciiw, a bend, a jutting *av6peun>, Cretan avdp^iov.a, public hall where 
arrangementat one or both ends, especiaUyin angle in a wall, etc. : see araco».] An altar- meals were served: see *OKrtreja.] A hall in 
the monaetinellids. piece or group of pictures elaborately mounted which public meals were served. 

II. n. An anchorate spicule. in an architectural setting. Whether Labyrinth, Palace, or Andreioni it is evideut 

■anchor-ax (ang'kor-aks) n. An anchor-shaped ^his altar-piece now hangs on the north wall ol the t*St*'|fe?o™^'tolL''«eat"&f o^^^^^^^^ '^°"" 
ax of stone, formerly used by the natives of choir ol the CoUegiata. It is a Gothic ancoTia in which *" ■"- '"''"'8a to the ^^*J«^ °*J^^^'ffr . 

Brazil. lour scenes are representod. ' « y , p. us. 

Anchor-bar (ang'kor-bar), n. A wooden hand- ^- J*™*''". *" Burlington Mag., I. 809. andrenoid (an'dre-noid), a. Having the char- 

spike used for prying the anchor off the bill- Ancona ruby. Same as rubasse. acteristics or appearance of a bee of the family 

board, that is, the resting-place of the fluke, ancoume (an-kS'ma), m. [Kongo name.] In Andrenidie. 

anchor-beam (ang'kor-bem), n. A steel or the Kongo region of West Africa, the fragrant Andreoli process. See_ *process. 
iron beam forming a'part of the anchorage of yellow resin of .4»co«wiea £tej»eana, a tree of andrewsite (an'drQ-zit), n. [Named after 

the cables or chains of a suspension-bridge. the family Balsameaceie. Thomas Andrews (1813-86).] A bydratedphos- 

-anchor-bed (ang'kor-bed), n. In shipbuilding, ancylite (an'si-lit), n. [Gr. dyttfcXof, crooked, phate of iron and copper occurring in bluish- 
a support or platform on the deck, forward, on + -ite'^.'] A hydrated carbonate of strontium green radiate forms : found in Cornwall. _ 

which the heavyanchors are secured when not and cerium occurring in from yellow to brown Andrias (an'dri-as), n. _ [NL., < Gr. avdpi&i, an 

in use. In war-ships these beds are usually re- prthorhombic crystals with curved faces: image of man, < dv^p (di'dp-)^ man.] Thege- 

eessed below the deck-level to keep the an- found in southern Greenland. neric name given by Tsehndi to the giant sal- 

chors out of the line of fire of the large guns. Ancylocladus (an-si-lok'la-dus), n. [NL. amander from the Miocene of CEningen, the 

anchor-bolt, n. 2. A long bolt which serves to (Kuntze, 1891 ; proposed but iiot established by remains of which when found were regarded 

hold down a steam-engine or other piece of ma- Wallich in 1832), named in allusion to the con- ^'s human and were characterized by Scnench- 

chinery to the masonry foundation on which it torted tendrils, < Gr. ayKvTiog, crooked, curved, ^^^ *s Soma diluvii testis. Andrias scheuch- 

rests. The bolt passes down through the bed- or base- + kUSos, branch.] An apocynaeeous genus of ^^^ attained a length of one meter, and there 

plate and far enough into the foundation to be securely plants improperly known as Willughheia. See ^ » smaller species of the same geologic age. 

lield at its lower end by plates or other holding-devices rj^""" ''"l'"r°*'J' '^"""" """ "■•"'»"■•'•'■'"'• "°° 3_j_--_y,*_|« /„„ j_a „„n'»._ilr\ » rfir «««« 

to anchor itin place. When the nut above the bed-plate .'*'»««fl'fe6«W- ., . ,, , ,,, . /^^^? o S^li i^V^^^^ „^t™^' A!^ ; •^'^ 

is tightened down, the machine Is securely lastened to Ancylopoda (an-si-lop'6-da), n. pi. [NL., < ("vdpo-), a male, + Kevrpov, center.] Centenng 

the mass ol the foundation. Gr. dy&Tioc, crooked, -t-" woiic (wod-), a foot.] around the male ; relating to the theory that 

anchor-bracket(ang'kor-brak''et),».Abracket An order of extinct ungulate mammals, pro- *!' animal lite normally centers around the 

or block which carries "the fulcrum of a lever; posed by Cope for such genera as Ancylothe- male. Ward, Pure Sociol., p. 291. 

a bracket to which the stationary end of a nwrn and CfeaMco«feeri?<TO, based on fragmentary androclinium (an-dro-klin'i-um), ».; pi. an- 

brake-band is attached. remains from the early Tertiary deposits. droclinia (-a). [NL. < Gr. dvlip (ai/Sp-), man 

anchor-crane (ang'kor-kran), n. In shipbuild- ancylopodous (an-si-lop'6-dus), a. Eelating (male), + Kkivji, coueh.]_ See cWmandrium. 

ing, a, crane mounted"on the deck of a ship for to or resembling in structure or appearance androconia (an-dro-ko'ni-a), n.pl. [NL., <Gr. 

handling the anchor from the hawse-pipe to the Ancylopoda. avi/p {avdpo-), male, + (f) miwf, dust.] Certain 

the bill-board or anchor-bed after the anchor ancylostome (an-sil'o-stom) n [Gr dy/aiJ^of specialized scales occurring in limited areas 

is weighed. See cut of ^batOe-ship. bent, -1- aT6im, mouth'.] A blood-sucking para- °° ^^^ m.-ass of the males of certain Lepidop- 

anchor-dragger (ang'kor-drag*6r), «. Onewho sitic worm of the genus PrecJwana, sometimes *f"l Theylunction as scent-scales and arise Irom scent- 

makes a business of ' dragging' harbors and found in the humf intestine. . fShave'k'S'o ^'e'ent^d ontorw VSf aTaddtliy 

other anchoTing-places for snips' anchors ancylostonuasis (an-si-los-to-mi'a-sis),^. (ifyaeaciades jnoMtata).— Androconia glands, groups 

■which have been lost during gales or other- [NL., < Anoylostoma (see def.) + -dasis.] A ol lormative specialized cells which secrete an odorous 

wise. W. M. Davis, Elem. Phys. Geog. disease characterized chiefly by a profound *'"i^- , j , ., ,■„ ■ , 

anchored, i>. a. 4. In 6«iaj-<fa, said of two anemia, sometimes associated with dirt-eating ^?'H°''^*°y (an-drok'ra-si), m. IQv.av^p 

object-balls which, with the cue-ball near, as cause or effect, due to the presence of one (""oP"-). man, -1- Kparew, govern.] Authonty 

straddle a short line close to the cushion, be- of several species of blood-sucking intestinal ?? if" . "y ™a"; hence, society organized on 

cause a player can hold them long in that po- parasites of the genus Aneylostoma. Also ™^ "^^'^ of male supremacy. Compare gyne- 

sition by playing alternately from side to called doohmiasis, uncinariasis, tunnel-disease, ''"cracy. Ward, Pure Sociol., p. 341. _ 

side. This is possible only in games of balk- brickmakers' OT miners' anemia, axid Egyptian ^1'^"^^^^"^'' (an-dro-krat ik), a. Pertaining 

line billiards, and since 1893 has been barred chlorosis. t° androcracy or the supremacy of man over 

among the best players. Anda-assu oil. See *oil. woman in social relations, or having the qual- 

anchor-light (ang'kor-lit), n. The light ex- andabatarian (an-dab-a-ta'ri-au), a. landab- ^^^^ ^^''°- supremacy. Ward, Pure Sociol., 

hibited on anchored vessels between sunset ata + -arian.'\ Pertaining to or characteristic Pj j. 

and sunrise ^Anchor-light law, that section ol the of an andabata or gladiator who fought blind- androdioecism (an* dro-di-e ' sizm), a. The 

international regulations ol July 1, 1897, which provides folded : hence misdirected • said of blind character of being androdioecious. 

^"/nl'fSonr''""'' ""''*'' '° '""^ * ""*""" "" *° ""■ Struggling endeavor. ' Andrcdiceemn. signifies that the same species has both 

anchor-line'(ang'kor-lin), «. A line attached andalusitic/an-da-lu-sit'ik), a. [andaluHte + «>ale and l>ermaphr^ite pl^^ 

to a small buoyW to one fluke of an anchor : aI'^^o^ Zlflt w-!:^^^"'« "'ir»'^''''*^^- ^ * • , !. .' , 

used in towing a raft of logs and to free the Andaman buUet-wood. See *bullet-wood. androgametangium (an"dro-gam-e-tan'n- 

onnliAr wViBTi fant tn rnr>ks nr <!Tiai»s ITT SI anaante, a. Special varieties ol movement or style um), n. ; pi. anarooOTOetonoia (-a). rNL.,<Gr. 

anchor wHen tast to rocks or snags. \M-^-\ are indicated by adding other terms, as : aniavu irni dvi/p (dvdp.) male -I- i-aucrac SBOuse fsee oam- 

anchor-money (ang'kor-mun"'i;, n. An Eng- moto, in flowing style, with some quickness ; andarUe ma. gJ! +Twrf„„ vb««pT 1%?,^<f^^^!y*^iZ 

lish colonial coinage, so named from its de- »°" "-"HP", i" flowing style, but not too slow ; andavu ***/' + ayyuov, vessel.] Same as anthendmm. 

vicB fii-Rt struck for Mauritius in 1820 cantaM^ with the movement ol a song ; andante maes- anorogamete (an-dro-gam'et), n. [Gr. av^P 

vice, nrst sirucK ror maunmis in ±o^u. ^ ^jj^ ^ ^j^j^j movement ; andante pastorale, in the (dvdo-) male -^ yauf^,^ sT>nii«B ^ane ijnmeM-i 

anchor-plate, K. 3. iVaw*., the metal resting- easy style ofa pastoral melody. (<^op), T^aiei- yafieriK, spouse (Bee gamete).] 

place for the fluke of the anchor when the lat- Andaauies wax See wax^ Inbot., a male sexual cell, 

ter is fished. See^fti,6(6). i^dtr^n nroceks Se7*»TOce^s antoogenetic (an'dro-je-net'ik), o. [Gr.di^p 

anchor-rod (ang'k^rod),^ The rod or bolt fffll^n -^a'^ic aiideX%ee *asperUe. ^Zt^'oZ^'l^J-ZT'^^L^:^^!'^. 

rn'^^^rornCtnSfh^fluSdatr "• C^»*™ + ^^3 ^olS^tio'^^/m^s'fffit^^u'li^a^fll'r 

an anchor-plate Dunett in tne tounaation. Same as *swnnarm,ne. notoky. See *homopart?ienogenesis 

anchor-wing (ang'kor-wing), n. The Austra- andorite (an'do-rit), n. [ Andor (Andor von androgonldium (an''dr6-g6-nid''i-um), n. ; pi. 

lian black-cheeked falcon, iJ'aico meto?70flrCT!^s : Semsey (?), a Hungarian) -(- -«te2.] A sulphid androgonidia (-a,). [NL.',<Gr dv*d(dvrfp-)male, 

so named from the fancied resemblance of its of antimony, lead, and silver occurring in + NL. gonidium.'j 1 One of the male cells 

outspread wings to the fiukes of an anchor. , steel-gray orthorhombic crystals with brilliant formed in Volvox which later subdivides into 

Anchovia (an-ko'vi-a), n. [NL., < E. an- metallic luster: found in Hungary and Bolivia, numerous spermatozoSids. Cohn.-^2. S&me 

chovy.'i A genus of anchovies of the family Also called sundtite and webnerite. as androspore. 

Engraulididse, now usually defined so as to in- Andresaceae (an-dre-e-a'se-e), n. pi. [NL., < andxogynic (an^drp-jin'ik), a. Having two 

elude nearly all the tropical species, it is dis- Andresea + -acex.'] A family of mosses con- sexes ; androgynous ; hermaphroditic Sud. 

tinguished Irom the anchovies ol temperate regions (in- taimng the genus .4nd»-easa only. For charac- Soc Lex 

rXft'orL^ *"' """ ™''"'™' ^° '^""^'^ '"^'"' *T '^^ ^'"*'-«r- .,---,!.• s androlepsia (an-dro-lep'si-a), n. [Gr. avSpo- 

aichovr«.-SUve^ anchovy, a name ol AneMvia ^^^,T+^°,^^ ^^''''^^aW^^2^lT^' "^ t^*^^*" ^^'''' ?"=="'^ °* "'«°-] ^ international Uiu,, 

frrownt.-- Striped andttovy, Anchmna brmmi, found on ««ceas -r -otw.j ueiongmg to or having the the seizure by one nation of the citizens or 

the Atlantic coast ol North America. Characters ot mosses of the family Andreaea- subjects of another, and the holding of them, 

Ancient house, one which has stood lon^ enough to ac- cese. to compel the performance of an act by the 

quire an easement of support. B<«<»«r, Law Diet Ajldroseales (an-dre-e-a'lez), ». _pZ. [NL., < latter in favor of the former. Also a»droLs!/. 

ancientism (an' shent-izm), n. [an^t + Andrexa + -otes ] An order of mosses coex- androlepsy (an'dro-lep-si), n. Same as *a«- 

-ism.2 Favor to things ancient; the belief that tensive with the family .4»K?re«ace«. drolepsia. . r u 

ancient times were better than the present, andreclezis (an-drek-lek'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. andrology (an-droro-ii) n TGr avho (avM 

J. W. PoweU, First An. Eep. Bur. Ethnol., av^p (av6p-), man, + E/c^lefff, selection.] Sex- man, -1- -^oym, <Uyetv,aveakS In the termi- 

p. 33. ual selection through choice exercised by the nology of J. W. Powell, the whole theoretical 



andrology 

science of individual man, physiological and 
psychological. 

Man 1b preeminently the psychic animal, so that hu- 
man psychology is sot over against the other attributes of 
man, which are grouped under the term somatology; 
therefore man studied as a human body gives rise to the 
science of somatology and the science of psychology. To 
these two sciences as a group I give the name andrology, 
while andrology and demology constitute anthropology, 
which Is the customary term ; but as the science is coor- 
dinate with the greater systems, I shall use the term 
anthroponomy, 
J. W. Powell, in Amer. Antliropologist, Oot.-Dec., 1901, 

[p. 604. 

andromedid (an-drom'e-did), m. [Lit. 'de- 
scendant of Andromeda' ; < Andromeda + 
-»(J2.] Same as andromed. 

andromedotoxin (an-drom"e-do-tok'sin), n. 
[Andromeda, a genus of plants, + toxin.] Same 
as *asebotoxin. Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agr. 
1897, p.. 97. 

andrombnoecism (an'^dro-mo-ne'sizm), n. [cm- 
dromoncec(ious) + Asm.]' The character or con- 
dition of being andromonoeoious. 

AndrmmoncRcism signifies that the same plant bears 
both male and hermaphrodite flowers. 

Henalaw, Origin of Floral Struct., p. 227. 

andronia (an-dro'ni-a), n. [NL., < Gr. avfjii 
(av6p-), man (?).] A name given by Winterl in 
1800 to a supposed new earth vrhich was shown 
by a committee of the French Academy of 
Sciences to be merely a mixture of well-known 
substances. 

androphobia (an-dro-fo'bi-a), ». [NL., < Gr. 
a.v//p {dvSp-), man, 4- -^o^ik, < tpopelv, fear.] 
Fear of or repugnance to the male sex. 

androphore, w. 1. (6) A stalk supporting an 
androecium. 

androphyl ^an'dro-fil), a. [Gr. av^p (avSp-), 
male, -I- ifmXkov, leaf.] A male sporophyl; a 
stamen. 

androplasm (an'dro-plazm), n. The material 
that IS supposed, by Haeckel and others, to 
enter int/O the composition of male cells and 
to give them their distinctive character, and 
to be unlike anythiug that enters into the com- 
position of female cells. 

This "sex-sense" of the two gonocytes, or elective af- 
finity of the male androplasm and-the female gynoplastn, 
is the cause of mutual attraction and union. 

Haeckel (trans.), Wonders of Life, p. 245. 

androrhopy (an-dror'p-ni), n. [Gr. avrip, male, 
-f- poidi, dx)wnward inclination.] The state or 
cohdition of a species in which the males de- 
part more widely than the females from the 
ancestral condition, as exhibited by the young 
of both sexes or by allied species. 

Androsace (■an-dros'a-se),*^. [NL., < L. andro- 
saces, <. Gt. av6p6aaKC(:', an uncertain plant.] A 
genus of small tufted perennial plants of the 
family Frimulacese, commonly called rock-jas- 
mine, cultivated in alpine gardens. The only 
species much known in the United States are A. larmgi- 
nosa, A. iarmentoea, A. camea, and A. eximea. There 
are about 60 species, most of which are found in the 
mountains of the northern hemisphere. 

androsporangiiun (an-dro-spo-ran'ji-um), %.; 
pi. androsporangia (-a). [Gr. aviip (avSp-), male, 
-I- NL., sporangium.] A sporangium contain- 
ing androspores. 

androtauric (an-dro-tfi'rik), a. [Gr. av^p (dvdp-) 
man, + ravpog, bull.] In Gr. anUq., a term 
applied to mythologio monsters in which the 
forms of bull and man are combined, as an 
androeephalous bull or a taurocephalous man. 

-ane. 3. A sufSx applied to the names of 
classes in the quantitative classification of 
igneous rocks. See *rock^. 

anecdoted (an'ek-do-ted), p. a. Made the 
subject of an anecdote. 

It is a story they tell in Kome, where everybody is 
anecdoted. »". D. Howells, Ital. Jour., p. 170. 

anectobranchiate (a-nek-tp-brang'ki-at), a. 
[Gr. dr-, priv. + kicrdQ, without, + jSpdyxta, 
gills.] Having no external gills, as the 
Melonitoida among echinoids. 

anelectrotonically (an-e-lek-tro-ton'i-kal-i), 
adv. In a manner having relation to anelec- 
trotonus. 

anemia^, «. — Brictanakers' ormlners' anemia, an- 
emia due to the presence of Ancyloitoma in the intestine. 
—Polar anemia, a condition of blood impoverishment 
to which explorers and others wintering in the polar 
regions are liable : probably due tolaok of fresh food, the 
inability to take sufBoient exercise, and the absence ol 
sunlight. — Primary anemia, anemia arising from no 
discoverable cause. — Secondary anemia, anemia due 
to some manifest cause, suoh as frequent losses of blood, 
malaria, cancer, etc. — Splenic anemia, a condition m 
which anemia Is associated with enlargement of the 
spleen, but without enlargement of the lymphatic glands. 

S.-4 



49 

Anemia^ (a-ne'mi-a), n. [NL. (Swartz, 1806), 
irreg. < Gr. ave/^uvj naked.] A genus of small, 
simply pinnate or decompound, schizssaceous 
ferns, characterized by having the ovate, ses- 
sile sporangia borne biserially upon the two 
elongate, rachiform-panioulate, lowermost piii- 
nse, or, if the genus is accepted in a wide 
sense, sometimes upon separate fertile fronds, 
strictly delimited, the bulk of the species usually referred 
here will be placed under OmithopterU, a genus techni- 
cally distinguished from the typical Anemia by its free 
venation. The species are mainly tropical American. 

Anemic gangrene. See -^gatigrene. 

anemobarometer (an"e - mo- ba- rom'e -tfer)^ n. 
An instrument consisting of two tubes leading 
from closed vessels containing barometers up 
to a free exposure to the wind. One tube opens 
to the windward so that its barometer indicates the static 
atmospheric pressure plus the wind-pressure ; the other 
tube opens to the leeward and gives the atmos- 
pheric pressure diminished by the wind-pressure or 
some portion thereof. From a comparison of the two 
readings one obtains the correct air-pressure and wind- 
pressure separately. As modified in 1887, only one tube 
is used, opening into the space between two horizontal 
planes. 

anemochore (a-nem'o-kor), n. [Gr. avE/iog, 
wind, + x'^P^'v, spread' abroad.] In phytogeog., 
a plant whose seed is disseminated by the wind, 
as by means of pappus, etc. /''. E. Clements. 

anemochorous (an-e-mok'6-rus), a. [anemo- 
chore -I- -ow.] Having tte character of an 
anemochore. F. E. Clements. 

anemogen (a-nem'o-jen), n. [F. an^mogdne ; 
< Gr. avepiog, wind, '+ -yevZ/c, -producing.] An 
api)aratus for experimentally produciiig, mea- 
suring, and studying currents of air analogous 
to the natural currents in the earth's atmo- 
sphere. 

anemometer, n. — Blram's anemometer, a special 
foimof wind-gage.— Call1>ratiou Of anemometer, the 
study of an ane- 
mometer bymeans 
of the standard 
whirling appara- 
tus so as to convert 
its instrumental 
readings into true 
wind-velocities or 
wind - pressures. 
— Hagemann's 
anemometer, a 
form of suction- 
anemometer ; a 
vertical tube 
whose lower end 
opens in a manom- 
eter aud whose 
upper end is ex- 
posed to the free 
wind and has a 
smalltip and an or- 
ifice across which 
the wind blows. 
The velocity of the 
wind is deduced 
from the suction 
or rarefaction pro- 
duced within the tube by the action of the wind. Special 
modifications of this Instrument have been introduced 
by Abbe and Dines.— Helicoidal anemometer, a modi- 
fication of Woltman's anemometer in which the radial 
arms are dispensed with and plates bent into helicoidal 
surfaces, similar to those of the screw-propeller, are used 
to receive the impulse of the wind.— Hooke's ane- 
mometer, the pendulum anemometer ; a plate of metal 
hung aa a pendulum broadside to the wind, and whose 
deflection from the vertical can be measured on a scale. 
First described in 1666.— Lander's anemometer, an 
anemometer (more properly anemograph) in which a 
delicately counterpoised rubber bellows is inflated by 
the pressure of the wind and lifts a small conical float 
suspended in glycerin so as to damp its oscillations. The 
movement of the float and the direction of the wind are 
both recorded.— KeflectitiK, anemometer, the name 
originally given to what is Ireteer known as Ai7n4's n^pho- 
scope.— Boblnson's anemometer, four hollow hemi- 
spheric metallic cnps revolving, when exposed to the 
wind, on a vertical axis, to which they are attached by 



angel 

arms crossing at right angles. The motion is transmitted 
by an appropriate mechanism to a hand over the dial 
where the velocity of the wind is indicated. 

anemophily (an-e-mof'i-li), n. lanemophiHous) 
+ -^3.] In i)Qt,j the fact or character of being 
anemophilous. 

anemopbobia (an"e-mo-f6'bi-a), n. [Gr. ave/iog, 
wind, -I- -(po^ia, fear.] ' A morbid fear of high 
winds.. G. S. Hall, Adolescence, 11. 185. 

anemotropic (a-nem-o-trop'ik), a. [Gr. ave/io(, 
wind, + rporrog, a turning.] Concerning or per- 
taining to the attitude or movement of organ- 
isms in relation to the direction of the wind. 

anemotropism (an-e-mot'ro-pizm), n. [anem- 
otrop{ic) + -ism.} The movement of organ- 
isms or the attitude of their bodies in relation 
to the direction of the wind. 

This peculiarity ... is an orientation of the body 
with respect to the wind. As it appears to be a true 
tropism 1 shall call it anemotropism, 
W. M. Wheeler, Archiv f. Entwicklungsmechanik, 8. 873. 

anencepbalotrophic (an-en-sef'a-lo-trof'lk), 
a. Characterized by anencephalotrophia or 
atrophy of the brain. 

anephebic (an-e-fe'bik), a. [Gr. avd, up, -1- 
i(p?!^o(, adult : see ephebic.'] The early portion 
of the ephebic or adult stage in the develop- 
ment of an organism. Hyatt. 

aneretic, a. See anseretic. 

anergia (an-er'ji-a), n. [NL., < Gr. dvepjia, a 
doubted reading, 'equiv. to depyia (at. doepyog, 
not done), < dv- priv. + epyov, work.] Lack of 
energy ; passivity. Also anergy. 

anergic (an-er'jik), a. [anergia + -Jc] Defi- 



[NL. anergia.1 Same 
An aqueous solution of 




Biram's Anemometer. 




Robinson's Anemometer. 



cient in energy. 

anergy (an-6r'ji), n. 
as ^anergia. 

aneson (a-ne'son), n. 
acetone-chloroform. 

anesthetic, a — Anesthetic ether, leprosy. See 
eOieri, 3 (6), lepra.— Schlelch's anesthetic mixture, a 
mixture of ether, petroleum ether, and chloroform, used 
by inhalation in the production of general anaesthesia. 

anethical (an-eth'i-kal), a. Devoid of ethical 
quality ; neither ethical nor anti-ethical. Ward, 
Pure Sociol., p. 303. 

aneuria (a-nu'ri-a), n. [NL., < Gr. dvevpog, 
without sinews (nerves), < d- priv. -t- vevpov, 
sinew : see nerve.] Lack of nerve force. 

aneuric (a-nu'rik), a. Lacking in nerve force ; 
neurasthenic. 

aneurism, n. 2. In thermom., an enlargement 
of the capillary tube of the thermometer. Tait, 
in Nature, XXV. 90 — External anenriBm, dila- 
tatiou of an artery outside of the visceral cavities of the 
body and therefore accessible to surgical methods of 
treatment. Also called surgical aneurism. — Gelatin 
treatment for aneurism, the administration of gela- 
tin, which has the property of rendering the blood more 
coagulable and therefore favors clotting wlthiu the 
aneurismal sac— Internal aneurism, dilatation of an 
artery within one of the cavities of the body and which is 
therefore not amenable to sui'gical treatment. Also called 
•kmedical aneurism. —Medical aneurism. Same as irb- 
temal -kaneurism, — Miliary aneurisms, minute aneu- 
risms affecting one or more of the small arteries of the 
brain, rupture of which is a common cause of apoplexy. . 
— Racemose aneurism, a condition of dilatation, 
lengthening, and tortuosity of the blood-vessels (aiteries, 
capillaries, and veins) of a part.— Surgical aneurism. 
Same as external -kaneurism. — Valvular aneurism, a 
cavity containing bl6od and sometimes pus, formed be- 
tween the layers of one of the valves of the heart. — 
Worm aneurism, an aneurism in horses caused by 
roundworm larvse belonging to the species Strongylus 
vulgaris. 

aneurism-needle (an'ii-rizm-ne"dl), n. A 
curved, blunt-pointed rod with an eye at the 
point, used for passing a ligature around an 
artery which it is desired to obliterate in the 
treatment of aneurism. 

angarep (an'ga-rep), n. [Native name in Abys- 
sinia (?). Appar. not in Egyptian Ar.] A light 
bedstead used by the Arabs, consisting of a 
simple framework set upon legs and covered 
with a network of green rawhide which hardens 
to the tightness of a drum when dry. On this 
is laid the mat. Sir S. W. Baker, Nile Trib. 
Abyssinia (ed. 1867), p. 113. 

angarilla (an-ga-rel'ya), n. [Sp. ; in pi. a 
hand-barrow, panniers, etc.] 1. A litter. — 2. 
pi. In South America, a pair of uncovered 
boxes made of rawhide, fastened to each end 
of a pole also covered with hide. The pole is 

S laced across the back of a mule or a donkey, so that the 
oxes or chests hang on each side of the animaL Chil- 
dren are frequently carried on long journeys in angaril. 
las. 

3. A net used for carrying things. 
angekok (an'je-kok), ri. [Eskimo angakoh.] 
Among the Eskimos of Arctic America, a medir 
cine-man ; a sorcerer ; a shaman. 
angel, n. 6. In modern theat. slang, one who 
ac^ances money to put a new play on the 



angel 

boards ; a financial backer. — 7. Same as angel- 
fish.— sisLck angel, a Bahaman name of the chirivita 
iPomacatithus paru) , a West Indian species of Chatodon- 
tidsP: 

angel-cake (an'jel-kak), ». White sponge- 
cake. 

angeldom (an'jel-dum), }». [angel + -clom.'] The 
realm of angels. 

All the light of angeldom. 
Mrs. Brovming, Drama of Exile, Chorus of Angels, sc. 3. 

angel-fish, n — Yellow ansel-fisb, the isabelita, 
HMocanthtu ciliariSt a gorgeously colored fish of the West 
Indies, of the family Chsetodontidse. Also called blue 



angel-food (an' jel-f 6d), n . Same as *angel-cake. 

angelica, n. — od of angelica, an essence or essential oil 
obtained from the seeds of plants of the genus Angelica. 

angelica-root (an-jel'i-ka-ret), n. The aro- 
matic root of Coleopleur'um Cfmelini and An- 
gelica atropurpurea. 

angelicin (an-jel'i-sin), n. [angelica + -in^.'i 



An amarwd, CigHopO. obtained from Cole- 
a± 126.50c. 



opleurum Gmelini. It is crystalline and melts 



Angelina (an-je-li'na), n. [NL., < Angelin, a 
Swedish paleontologist.] A gen as of trilobites, 
of which A. sedgwicM is an example, having a 
conic glabella with faint or no lateral fur- 
rows, long genal spines, 15 thoracic segments, 
and a small pygidium. It is of Upper Cam- 
brian age. 

angeline (an'je-lin), n. Same as *surinamine. 

angelito (an-he-le'to), n. [Sp., 'little angel'; 
dim. of angel, angel.'J A stingless honey-bee, 
belonging to the genus Melipona, found in 
tropical America. It forms its nests in trees, 
and keeps its honey in cups about the size of 
pigeons' eggs. 

angelograpny (an-je-log'ra-fi), n. A treatise 
on angels. [Kare.] N. E. D. 

Angelonia (an-je-16'ni-a), n. [NL.] A genus 
of perennial herbs and sub-shrubs of the family 
Scrophulariaeeee, with handsome, irregular, 2- 
lipped, axillary flowers, grown as pot-plants in 
warm glass bouses. There are about 24 species 
in the northern part of South America, Mexico, 
and the West Indies. 

angico (an-je'kd), n. [AEuropean (Sp.?)form, 
also angica, eanjiea, of a supposed native name 
in Brazil.] The name in Brazil and Paraguay 
for a tree of the mimosa family, Staehychrysum 
rigidum, which yields an extremely hard, dura- 
ble, dark-brown wood, and a gum similartogum 
arable. Both the gum and the astringent bark 
are used medicinally by the natives. See Pip- 
tadenia. 

angiectopia (an"ji-ek-to'pi-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
ayyelov, vessel, + inTOKOQ, out of place.] An 
abnormal position of one or more of the impor- 
tant blood-vessels. 

angiitis, n. — consecutive angiitis, inflammation of 
the vessels caused by extension of the process from neigh- 
boring inflamed tissues. 

angina, ».— Angina dyspeptlca, a spmious angina 
pectoris caused by gaseous distention of the stomach. 
—Vincent's angina, a sore throat resembling diphtheria 
but associated with the presence of a different var^bty of 
bacillus. 

anginiform(an-jin'i-f6rm), a. [L. angina,' 3,-a- 
gina, + forma, form.] Resembling angina, 
especially angina pectoris. 

angioblast (an' ji-6-blast), n . [Gr. d)'}'fioi', ves- 
sel, -I- p^arog, germ.] In embryol., an em- 
bryonic cell which takes part in the forma- 
tion of the blood-vessels and -corpuscles. 

angioblastic (an'ji-o-blas'tik), a. 1. Of or 
pertaining to angioblasts. — 2. Forming blood- 
vessels or -corpuscles. 

angiocarpic (an*ji-o-kar'pik), a. Same as 
angiocarpojis. 

angioceratoma (an'ji-o-ser-a-to'ma), TO. ; pi. 
angioceratomata (-ma-ta). [NL., < Gr. ayyelov, 
vessel, + nepag (nepaT-), horn, + -oma.] An 
eruption of homy reddish nodides caused by 
hypertrophy of the epidermis over circum- 
scribed dilatations of the cutaneous capilla- 
ries. Also angiokeratoma. 

angioclast (an'ji-o-klast), TO. [Gr. ayyelov, ves- 
sel, -I- itMardg, < iiKav, break.] An instrument 
shaped like a forceps, used to compress a 
bleeding artery. Biidk, Med. Handbook, IV. 
635. 

angioda (an-ji-6'da), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. ay- 
yelmi, vessel. The form suggests Gr. ayyetddijc, 
like a vessel, hollow, but the sense differs.] 
A collective name for those mammals in which 
the retina is provided with blood-vessels. 

angiofibroma (an-'ji-o-fi-bro'ma)^ m. ; pi.angio- 
nbromata (-ma-ta). [NL., < Gr. ayyelov, vessel. 



50 

-1- L. fibra, fiber, -h -awia.] A mixed angioma 
and fibroma. 

angioid (an'ji-oid), a. [Gr. *ayyeioetSr/g, ayyci- 
(j^f, < ayyelov, vessel, -I- tldog, form.] Resem- 
bling a blood-vessel or lymphatic. Bvck, Med. 
Handbook, VI. 955. 

angiolithic (an-ji-6-lith'ik), a. [Gr. ayyelov. 
vessel, -I- Xi'flof, stone.] Noting hardening of 

the vessels Angiolithic degeneration. See -kde- 

generation. 

Angioma serpiginoBum. [See serpigo.] An eruption of 
prominent red dots arranged in ring-shaped figures.— 
Cavernous angioma, avascular tumor containing large 
open spaces filled with blood. 

angiomatosis (an^ji-o-ma-to'sis), n. [NL., < 
a7igioma(t) + -osis.'] A general diseased state 
of the blood-vessels or lymphatics. 

angioneoplasm (an"ji-o-ne'o-plazm), TO. [Gr. 
ayyelov, vessel, + E. neoplasm.] Same as an- 
gioma. 

angioneurectomy (an"ji-o-nii-rek'to-mi), n. 
[Gr. ayyelov, vessel, -I- E! neurectomy.' Ex- 
cision of vessels and nerves ; specifically, ex- 
section of a portion of the spermatic cord as a 
means of inducing atrophy of the prostate 
gland. 

Angioneurotic edema, the occurrence of urticaiial 
swellings on the skin and mucous membranes, due to 
morbid vasomotor action. 

angioparalytic (an*ji-o-par-a-lit'ik), a. [Gr. 
ayyelov, vessel, + napaXvaif, paralysis, -1- -ic] 
Relating to paralysis of the vasomotor nerves, 
resulting in dilatation of the blood-vessels. 

angiopathy (an-ji-op'a-thi), TO. [Gr. ayyelov, 
vessel, -t- TToBoCi disease.] Disease of the lym- 
pathics dr blood-vessels. 

angiosclerosiS (an'ji-o-skle-ro'sis), TO. [NL., 

< Gr. ayyelov, vessel, -I- aiMipaaig, hardening.] 
Fibrous induration of the walls of the vessels, 
usually of the arteries ; arteriosclerosis. Jour, 
Exper. Med., V. 105. 

angiosclerotic (an'ji-o-skle-rot'ik), a. . Per- 
taining to or characterized' by angioselerosis. 
— Angiosclerotic neuiilSs^ degenerative inflammation 
of a nerve-trunk associated with angioselerosis of its nutri- 
tive arteries. 

The combination of arteritis with intense degeneration 
and inflammation of the nerves causes the angiosclerotic 
■neuritis of JotFroy and Achard, Dutil and Lamy, and 
Schlesinger ; the vasomotor and sensory irritation with- 
out the endarteritis causes acroparesthesia. 

Jour. Exper. Med., V. 106. 

angiospastic (an^ji-o-spas'tik), a. [Gr. ayyelov, 
vessel, -I- oTraariKdg, < atrav, draw.] Relating to 
stimulation of the vasomotor nerves ; causing 
contraction of the blood-vessels. Buck, Med. 
Handbook, IV. 550. 

anglospermic (an"ji-o-sper'mik), a. [angio- 
sperm -i- -jc] In the sphere'of or pertaining to 
the Angiospermee : as, angiospermic evolution; 
angiospermic anatomy. 

Angiosporea (an"ji-o-sp6're-a), to. pi. [NL., 

< Gr. ayyelov, vessel, -H oTrop'aj'a seed (spore).] 
A subtribe of cephaline Eugregarinse having 
well-developed spores with double sporocysts 
composed of epispore and endospore. It com- 
prises the families Gregarinidse, Dactylophori- 
dse, ActinocephalidaB, Acanthosporidse, and oth- 
ers. 

angiostenosis (an"ji-o-ste-n6'sis), TO. [NL., < 
Gr. ayyelov, vessel, -f- arevuaig, narrowing, con- 
traction.] Morbid contraction of the blood- 
vessels. 

angiosthenia (an*ii-o-sthe'ni-a), TO. [Gr. 
ayyelov, vessel, -I- akvo'g, strength'.'] Arterial 
tension. 

angiotelectasia (an " ji - - te - lek - ta'si - a), to. 
[NL., < Gr. ayyelov, vessel, + rijAe, far, +iKTaaig, 
extension.] Same as telangiectasia. 

angiotribe (an'ji-o-trib), n. [ Gr. ayyelov, ves- 
sel, -I- TpifieLv, rub, crush.] A strong forceps- 
like instrument used in surgical operations to 




Tuffier's Angiotribe. 



L 



Liquid 



\ 
\ 

\ 

\ 

e\ 
\ 



Angle of Contact, 



arrest hemorrhage by crushing the bleeding 
vessels with the tissues surrounding them. 

angiotripsy (au'ii-o-trip'si), to. [Gr. ayyelov, 
vessel, + Tpiij)ig, irpipeiv, rutj,, crush.] The use 
of the angiotribe in arrestii^ hemorrhage. 

Anglaise (ang-glaz'), to. [P. fem. of Anglais, 



angle 

English.] A country-dance ; also, the music 
for such a dance. 

angle^, «. 6. In projective geom., a piece of a 
flat pencil bounded by two of the straights 
as sides. See the extract. 

A portion of a sheaf of rays hounded by two rays of the 
sheaf as 'sides ' is called a 'complete plane angle.' This 
consists of two 'simple' angles which are vertically op- 
posite to each other. 

T. F. Holgate, Geometry of Position by Reye, p. 12. 

Angle of contact. (6) in the mechanics of li- 
quids, the angle 8 which the surface of a liquid 
in contact with a solid makes 
with the surface of the latter. 
The angle of contact may be 
greater or less than 90°. In the 
latter case the liquid wets the 
surface of the solid. In the 
former case it does not do so. — 
Angle of deviation, the angle 
which a branch or other organ 
makes with the axis of the plant 
to which it belongs.- Angle of 
emergence, in geol., the angle 
at which the path of an earth- 
quake-wave intersects the hori- 
zontal plane at the surface. 
Geikie, Text-book of Geol., p. 
366.— Angle of field, in pho- 
tog., width of angle ; the angle 
at which the circular picture of 
the object to be photographed, 
projected by the objective upon 
the ground-glass, appears as 
seen from the optical center 
of the lens.— Angle of heel, 
in naval architecture, the angle 
of transverse inclination mea- 
sured from the vertical when a 
vessel heels over from any cause. — Angle Of Ia£. See 
*2a;i.— Angle of lead. See *<eadi.— Angle of Louii 
or of IiUdovlCi, a bend in the sternum at the 
junction of its upper segment with the body, 
sometimes present in chronic affections of the lungs. 
—Angle of mandibles, in craniom., the angle 
formed by the lower surface of the lower jaw with the 
posterior border of the ramus. Also called gonial angle. 
— Angle of ordination, in analyt. geom., the angle 
made Dy the coordinate axes. — Angle of paiallellBm, 
the angle made by one of two parallels with a perpen- 
dicular to the other. Lobachevski writes it n(p). Inhis 
non-Euclidean geometry it is a function of p, the perpen- 
dicular. — Angle Of plunge, in geol., the angle between a 
dipping stratum and the surface of the ground. It difiers 
from true dip in all cases where the surface is not a 
horizontal plane, being greater if the ground rises in the 
direction of dip and less if it descends. — Angle of pro- 
jection, in the theory of lenses, the angle which tbe 
exit^pupil of a system subtends at the focus conjugate to 
the point (object) from which the light enters the system. 
—Angle Of shear, the angle through which a plane 
within a body subjected to a shearing stress (the plane 
having been originally perpendicular to the du'ection of 
the stress) is displaced.- An^le of slope, in geol., the 
angle formed by the intersection of an inclined sui^ace, 
as of a mountain, wi|;h tbe hoi-izontal plane. Compare 
angle of repose. — Angle of stability, in imch., the 
largest angle at which a body placed upon an inclined 
plane will remain at rest. Same as an{ile of repose or 
angle of friction.— Angle Of the iris, the angle at the 
peripheral portion of the anterior chamber of the eye 
formed by the cornea in front and the iris behind.— Angle 
of the vertical, in astron., the angle at any place be- 
tween the direction of gravity and a line drawn to the 
center of the earth. It is the difference between the 
astronomic and the geocentric latitudes, the former being 
always the greater. The angle is at maximum in latitude 
45° when it amounts to uy. It is zero at the poles and 
equator.— Angle Of upset, the angle through which the 
upper part of a portable balance-crane can swing, from its 
position parallel to the center line of the truck, before it 
would upset with the weight of the load.— Angle of view, 
in phctog., the central portion of the angle of field, which 
is distinct and sharp. It is extended by the use of 
stops.— Angles of displacement. See itdisplaeemenl. 
— ^Axlal angle, the angle between the optic axes of a 
biaxial crystal. — Bounding-angle, in shipbuilding, an 
angle-bar forming the boundary of a bulkhead- or flat by 
means of which it is attached to the other parts of an 
iron or steel vessel. — Brocard angle, the acute angle w 
related to A, B, C, the angles of a plane triangle, by the 
equation cot. co = cot. A + cot. B + cot. C. It is one of 
the three equal acute angles formed at the vertices by tlie 
sides of a triangle and the straight lines from a Brocard 
point to the vertices. See Brocard itpoint.— 'Brocaii. 
angle of a polygon, that polygon being cyclic, the com- 
plement of half the angle subtended by any side of the poly- 
gon, the vertex of the angle being at the symmedian point. 
-Epigastric angle, the angle which the ensifurm carti- 
lage makes with the body of the sternum.— Extinction 
angle. See *extinclion. — Gonlac aJlgle. Same as 
■Wangle o/mandibles.— Inscribed angle, an angle whose 
sides are chords from the same point on the circle.— In- 
ternal angle. S&me as interior angle. See angled, 1.— 
Limiting ailgle, in meeh., the largest angle with the 
normal at which a force can be applied to a ioty resting 
upon a horizontal surface without producing motion. Tlie 
limiting angle is independent of the size of the force and 
depends only upon the cpeflicient of friction of the quan- 
tity of which it affords a measure. It is equal to the 
angle of repose or angle of friction.— MaxlUary angle, 
the angle formed by lines drawn from the most prominent 
points of the forehead and of the chin to meet at the roost 
projecting point of the upper jaw.— Nasial angle. See 
*tMsial.— Non-repoBlng angle. See reposing *angle. 
—Polyhedral angle, a solid angle.— Reposing 
angle, in the design of parts of a machine which are to 
roll one upon another, an angle between the resultant 
pressm'e and the plane tangent to the bearing surface 
such that when a limiting value is exceeded there is no 



angle 

tendency for the rolling aurtiice to slip without rolling. 
When the angle is less tlian this limiting value the roll 
tends to slip and to become polygonal from wear. This 
angle may also be measured from the normal iustead of 
from the tajigent. It must be determined for any two 
materials by experiment, since it bears a relation to the 
so-called ain^U of friction or angle qfrepotie in experi- 
ments uu sliding. An angle beyond the critical value 
would then be called h non^epoHrtg angle, — Rolau^C 
angle, the angle formed by the upper edge of the hemi- 
sphere of the brain and the fissure of JSx>lando. — Soma- 
tosplanclmlc angle, the angle formed in the vertebrate 
embryo by the junction of the somatic and splanchnic 
layers of mesoblast.— Supplementalaugles, two angles 
whose sum equals two right angles. — Supplementary 
angles. Same as supplemental Aan^Ie*.— Tanchord 
angle, an angle between a tangent to a circle and a 
chord from the point of contact.— View angle, in photog., 
tlie angle inclosed by a lens, 
angle* (ang'gl), v. t. ; pret. and pp. angled, ppr. 
angling, [angle^, n.'] To lead off or deflect (a 
body or element) from a direction parallel or 
perpendicular to another body or element to 
which or from which it is to move: as, to 
angle a rope. 

The continuous change in direction experienced by the 
rope between the head-gear pulley and the drum in coil- 
ing on or off (the so-called " angling " of the rope) is a 
sooi'ce of wear when the depth becomes considerable. 

Eneyc. Brit., XXVII. 121. 

angle-bar, ». 3. In pnreWngr, an iron bar which 
turns at a right angle a printed web of paper 
and mates it with another printed web. 

Two general classes of the web press are made. In 
one, what is called the "angle-bar" is utilized to turn 
the sheets in order to assemble them from the different 
webs. The other is designated the " straight line," the 
sheet being run through the press without being diverted 
from a straight course. 

Cenius Bulletin 216 (June 2S, 1902), p. 63. 

angle-bearing (ang'gl-bap"ing), n. A crank- 
shaft bearing attached to an engine-bed, the 
center line of its joint being placed at an angle 
of about 45° with the bed, the purpose of which 
is to effect that disposition of the metal best 
calculated to withstand the resultants of the 
strains due to the motion of the crank and con- 
necting-rod. Lochwood, Diet. Meoh. Eng. 
Terms. 
angleberry (ang'gl-ber-i), n. [A perversion of 
anbury.'] A fleshy excrescence found growing 
on the feet and other parts of sheep and cattle. 
Also spelled anleherry. 
angle-board (ang'gl-bord), n. A board upon 
which pattern-makers plane their angles and 
hollows. It is traversed longitudinally with vee'd 
grooves of different depths to suit angles of different 
sizes, in which grooves the stuff is laid while being planed, 
a transverse strip near the end acting as a stop. Lock- 
wood, Diet. Mech. Eng. Terms. 
angle-blllb (ang'gl-bulb), n. A rolled bar of 
steel or iron, in the form of an angle with a 
bulb at the lower end of its long arm, used 
principally for deck-beams on steel ships. 
angle-cutter (ang'gl-kut'^r), n. A heavy 
machine used for cutting iron or steel angle- 
bars. 
angled, a. Z. A term applied to a billiard-ball 
which, when resting near the edge of a pocket, 
is so masked by the cushion that it cannot hit 
the desired object. 

angle-frame (ang'gl-fram), n. A type of con- 
struction for the frame or skeleton of motor- 
vehicles in which the members that carry the 
weight and transfer it to the supporting springs, 
and thus to the axles, are made of steel angle 
or channel shapes to give gi-eatest strength 
and stiffness with least weight of material. 
Sometimes for additional stiffness these angle- 
or channel -irons are reinforced with tough 
wood securelv bolted to the steel. Sci. Amer., 
LXXXVIII. 91. 

angle-gage (ang'gl-gaj), n. 1. A gage or 
standard carefully made to the exact value of 
the desired angle, used in testing the accuracy 
of the angles of screw-threads, cutting-tools, 
or machine-work of any kind.— 3. Specifi- 
cally, an instrument for setting the angle or 
incline of the top comb of a Heilmann cotton- 
combing machine . Thornley, Cotton-combing 
Machines, p. 166. 

angle-hoop (ang'gl-h6p), n. A hoop made of 
angle-iron. Such hoops are sometimes used 
for stiffening the furnaces in Scotch boilers. 
angle-joint (ang'gl-joint), m. In carp., a joint 
between two pieces which are mitered to- 
gether. . 
angle-meter, n. 2. An instrument designed 
to show the variations in angular velocity of 
the revolving shaft of an engine. Sci. Amer. 
Sup., Oct. 15, 1904. 
angle-mirror (aug'gl-mir"'or), ». A surveyor's 
instrument tor obsei-ving and measuring angles 



51 

and the positions of distant objects in relation 
to one another. It consists of two mirrors, one being 
sometimes adjustable to the other, supported in a metal 
frame. 

angle-plate (ang'gl-plat), n. An angle-chuck. 

angle-prism (ang'gl-prizm), n. An instrument 
similar to the angle-mirror, employing prisms 
instead of mirrors. 

angler, ». 3. A general name of the pedicu- 
late fishes, from the presence of a modified 
free dorsal spine, or ' fishing-rod,' above the 
mouth.— Marbled angler, Pterophryne histrio, a fish 
of the family Antennariidx, found in tropical pails of the 
Atlantic. It is remarkable, as are all of its relatives, for 
its form, color, and nest-building habits. 

Aaglesea penny. See *penny. 

angle-smith (ang'gl-smith), n. A blacksmith 
sMlled in f or^ng angle-bars, beams, and other 
profiled bars into the various forms in which 
they are used in shipbuilding. 

angle-valve (ang'gtvalv), n. A form of lift- 
ing- or spindle-valve, in a globular casing, 
in which the sjjindle or stem enters the valve 
in the same axis as one of the openings, and 
the other outlet is at right angles to the axis 
of the spindle ; much used with steam-radiators 
and in other places where a right-angled corner 
is to be turned and a valve is also required. 
The angle-valve opposes less resistance to the 
flow of fl.uid through it than the globe-valve. — 
Angle check-valve, an angle-valve which opens only 
to steam or water flowing in one direction.— Angle Stopi- 
valve, an angle-valve which has to be closed by hand to 
stop the flow in the pipes. 

angle-wheel (ang'gl-hwel), n. Any gear in 
which the teeth, instead of being parallel to 
the axis, make an angle with it ; a helical gear ; 
a twisted gear. 

angle-wing (ang'gl-wing), n. Any one of sev- 
eral species of nymphalid butterflies whose 
wings are angular and excised, as species of 
the genera Vanessa, Polygonia, Aglais, and Evr- 
Vanessa. 

Anglicist (ang'gli-sist), n. One who favors or 
supports some proposition or movement re- 
lating to English or the English: specifically 
applied in history to one of those who favored 
the proposal to make the English language (and 
not Arabic or Sanskrit) the vehicle of instruc- 
tion in those schools and colleges in India that 
were subsidized by the government during 
the administration of Lord William Bentinck 
(1828-35). 

In describing the controversy between the "Oriental- 
ists " and the "^Anglicists" [of the Committee of Public 
Instruction] which evoked Macaulay's famous minute 
. . . not a word is said [in Boulger's Life of Lord William 

Bentinck] of the champion Orientalist, Horace Wilson. 
Athmamm, Sept 24, 1892, p. 411. 

AngUcity (ang-glis'i-ti), n. [NL. *AngUcitas, 
< LL. Anglicus, Anglic] Distinctively Eng- 
lish quality, style, or character: as, Aiiglicity 
of speech . 

Anglo-African (ang'^glo-afri-kan), a. and n. 
I. a. Pertaining to Africans, or persons of 
African descent, living among English-speak- 
ing peoples, as the Africans in the United 
States. Eeane, Ethnology, p. 380. 

II. n. An AJfrican living among English- 
speaking peoples. 

Anglo-Ainerican pottery. See *poitery. 

Anglo-Asian (ang'glo-a'shian), a. and ra. I. a. 
Of or pertaining to England and Asia or to the 
Ei^lish in Asia : as, Anglo-A^ian enterprises. 
II. '!. An Anglo-Asiatic. 

Anglo-Asiatic (aEg"gl6-a-shi-at'ik), a. and n. 
I. o. 1. Of or pertaining to both England (that 
is, Grreat Britain and Ireland) and Asia. — 2. 
Belating to those Asiatics who are British sub- 
jects or are under British control, or who have 
become assimilated to the English in educa- 
tion, culture, etc. 
II. n. An Asiatic who is under British rule. 

Anglo-Australian (ang"gld-as-tra'Ii-an), a. 
and n. I. a. Pertaining to Australians of 
English descent. Keane, Ethnology, p. 380. 
II. n. An Australian of English descent. 

Anglo-Chinese (ang"gl6-chi-nes'), a. and n. 

1. a. 1. Of or pertaining to both England and 
China or to their inhabitants, etc. : as, Anglo- 
Chinese lelatioiis : an Anglo-Chinese alliance. — 

2. Established by the English in China or for 
the (Chinese: as. an Anglo-Chinese college. 
— 3. Written in English and Chinese, or pre- 
pared for the use of both English and Chinese 
readers: as, an Anglo-Chinese calendar; an 
Anglo-Chinese dictionary. 

n, n. A Chinese who is under British rule 
or who is a British subject: as, the Anglo- 
Chinese of the Straits Settlements. 



angular 

Anglo-Grallic (ang-glo-gal'ik), a. English and 
French ; common to England and France. 
—Anglo-Gallic money. See -knwney. 

angloid (ang'gloid), II. [angle'^ + -aid. The 
more proper form would be *angvloid.] A fig- 
ure determined by three or more rays from the 
same point, taken in a certain order and such 
that no three consecutive rays are coplanar. 

Anglo-Japanese (ang"gl6-jap-a-nes'), a. Of 
or pertaining to both England and Japan : as, 
an Anglo-Japanese alliance or understanding. 

Anglomanist (ang'glo-ma-nist), n. [Irreg. 
< Anglomania + -ist.] An Anglomaniac : as, 
a rampant Anglomanist. Macmillan's Mag., 
XLV. 475. [Bare.] N.E.D. 

Anglophile, Anglophil (ang'glo-fil), a. and 
n. [LL. Angli. Englishmen, -(- Grr. (pih)g, lov- 
ing.] I. a. F'riendlyto England and English 
institutions ; fond of English social life, man- 
ners, customs, etc. 

When prudence dictated assistance to the Dutch, the 
Huguenots, or the ' Anglophile ' pai*ty in Scotland — tSie 
vile but convenient adjective is Mi'. Beesly's — that aid 
was scanty and underhand. 

AthensEum, March 26, 1892, p. 40O. 

II. n. One who admires or is friendly to 
England ; a lover or admirer of English insti- 
tutions, social life, manners, customs, etc. 

Anglophone (ang'glo-fon), n. [LGr. 'kyyloi, 
L. Angli, the Angles (English), -I- ^(jmj, sound.] 
A person who speaks the English language. 
Deniker, Races of Man, p. 508. 

Anglo-Venetian (ang'gl6-ve-ne'shian), a. and 
n. I. a. Connected with both England and 
Venice; specifically of Venetian origin but 
domiciled in England : as, an Anglo - Venetian 
seaman. Geog. Jow. (E. G. S.), XIU. 205. 

II. n. A Venetian domiciled in or engaged 
in the service of England. 

Anglovemacular (ang"gl6-v6r-nak'u-lar), a. 
Of or pertaining to both English and' the ver- 

■ nacular : as, an Anglovemacular school. JEneyc. 
Brit., XXX. 467. [Bare.] 

ango (an'go), n. [Native name.] In Samoa, 
a name applied totheturmerio-plant (CwrcMwai 
longa), the fleshy rhizome of which yields a 
yellow coloring matter which the natives use 
in ornamenting their bark cloth and for paint- 
ing their skin. See turmeric and huldee. 

angosturin (an-gos-to'rin), n. [Angostura + 
-inl^.^ A compound, with the empirical for- 
mula CgHi205, found in Angostura bark. It 
is bitter and is apparently a glucoside. 

Angoumian (an-go'mi-an), a. and n. [F. 
Angoumois, a former name of the district (de- 
partment of Charente) in which Angouldme is 
situated.] I. a. In geol., noting a division or 
substage of the Cretaceous system as recog- 
nized by the French geologists and constituting 
the upper part of the Turonian: essentially 
equivalent to the English Middle Chalk of the 
Uwer Cretaceous. 
n. n. The Angoumian division. 

Angoumois grain-moth. See *grain-moth. 

Angrsecum (an-gre'kum), n. [NL.] A genus 
of epiphytal orchids of tropical Africa, Mada- 

fascar, and Japan. There are at least 25 species 
nown, of which the following are most common in 
cultivation in America ; A, articulatum, citratum, dis- 
tichum, ebumeum, Ellisii, HumboUii, faleatum, Leonis, 
nwdestum, pertusuin, and superbum. Most of these 
species need warm-house treatment. 

angrite ^ang'grit), n. [Angra (Angrados Beis 

in Brazil, locality of a meteorite) + -ite^.] 

See *meteorite. 
angster (ang'ster), n. [Late MHG. (Swiss) 

angster.] An early Swiss copper coin, struck 

in Zurich, of the value of half a rapen, or seven 

jtwelfths of a German pfennig. 

Angstrom pyrheliometer, unit. See *acti- 

nometer and *unit. 
Angulllula Stercoralis, a parasitic species of worm which 

has been found in the intestine in certain cases of tropical 

diarrhea. Jour. Exper. Med., VI. 84. 

anguilluloid (ang-gwil'u-loid), a. [Anguillula 
+ -Old. ] Eel-like ; resembling the Anguillula. 

angular, a. 5. In astrol., placed in one of the 
four angles of a nativity. Raphael, Manual 
of Astrol., p. 154. —Angular acceleration. See 
'ka/xeleratimi and unit of atigvlar ^acceleration. — 
Angular energy. See *en£rgy.—Angalax lead. See 
*ieadl.-Angular leaf-spot. See *leaf-spot.—ADealax 
momentum. See innomentum. — Angtdar point, the 
vertex; the point common to the two rays of jtn angle. 
— Unit of angular velocity, the velocity which causes 
a rotating body to turn through a unit angle in unit time ; 
an angular velocity of one radian per second. 

II. n. In ichth., a small tjone on the lower 
posterior corner of the articulare : same as 
angular lone. 



angulare 

angulare (ang-gu-la're), n. [NL. (se. os, bone) : 
see angularj] Same as angular bone (which 
see, under angular). 

angularization (ang''gu-la-ri-za'shon), n. The 
act of angularizing or rendering angular ; in 
deeoraUve art, the transformation of a curved 
motive into a rectilinear one by the use of 
anglesi Saddon, Evolution in Art, p. 112. 

angularize (ang'gu-la-riz), v. i. ; pret. and pp. 
angularized, ppr. angularizing. [angular + 
-ize.'] To render angiiJar. Haddon, Evolution 
in Art, p. 112. 

Anglllatidse (an-gu-lat'i-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Angulata, a group of the ammonites, + -idx.] 
A family of ammonoid cephalopods or ammon- 
ites. They have compressed urabilicate shells with 
strong continuous ribs crossing the whorls and inter- 
rupted on the outer edge by a depressed zone. The sep- 
tal sutures are highly complicated. Species occur in the 
Lias formation. 

auguliform (ang'gu-li-f6rm"), a. [L. angulu^, 
angle, + forma, form.] Bluntly pointed or 
bent. Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist, Jan., 1903, 
p. 114. 

angUStisellate (an-gus-ti-sel'at), a. [L. an- 
gustus, narrow, + sella, a saddle.] Having a 
narrow saddle : noting the form of the earliest 
septal suture in the coiled cephalopod shells 
and referring to the naiTow saddle or forward 
prolongation of the suture in crossing the 
outer curve or venter of the shell. Contrasted 
with latisellate and aseUate. .The angustisellate stage 
characteiizes only advanced and late forms of the ammon- 
oids. 

anhaline (an'ha-Un), n. [Anhalionium) -f 
-ine^.'] A crystalline alkaloid, Cj2H]5N03, 
found in Anhalonium fissuratum. It melts at 
115° C. It produces, in frogs, a paralysis of 
the central nervous system. 

anhalonidine (an-ha-lon'i-din), n. [Anhalonr- 
(iiim) + -id + -ine'^.'] An alkaloid, C12H15- 
NO3, found in Anhalonium Lewinii, a cactus 
trom which mescal buttons are obtained. It 
is crystalline and melts at 154° C. 

anlialoilil>e (an-hal'o-nin), n. lAnhalon{inm) 
+ -»»2.] Same as anhalonidine, 

anhedonia (an-he-do'ni-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
av^Sovog, giving no pleasure, < av- priv. + 
ilSovii, pleasure : see hedonism.'] In psychol., 
inability to feel pleasure: the opposite of 
analgesia. 

One can distinguish many kinds of pathological de- 
pression. Sometimes it is mere passive joylessness and 
dreariness, discouragement, dejection, lack of taste and 
zest and spring. Professor Kibot has proposed the name 
anfudonia to designate this condition. 

W. James, Var. of Religious Exper., p. 145. 

anbedral (an-he'dral), a. In mineral. andj>e- 
trog., characterized by the absence of the ex- 
ternal form of a crystal, though having its 
molecular structure. 

anhedron (an-he'dron), n. ; pi. anhedra (-dra). 
[Gr. av- priv. + eSpa, base (side).] A mineral 
individual, for example, a constituent of a 
rock having the molecular structiire of a crys- 
tal but not its external form. 

anbistic (an-his'tik), a. Same as anhistous. 

anbydrid, n — phosphoric anliydrid, phosphorus 
pentoxiil, P2O6. By union with the elements of water 
in different proportions it forms meta-, pyro-, and ortho- 
phosphoric acids. 

ailliydrochromic (an-hi-dro-kro'mik), a. Not- 
ing the acid (H2Cr207) wti.eb corresponds to 
ordinary red ehromate of potash. Also known 
as dichromic acid and pyrochromic acid. 

Anhydrous steam. See *steam. 

aniconic (an-i-kon'ik), a. [Gr. av- priv. -t-ei/oiii, 
an image.] Not presenting an image or por- 
traiture: in 6fr. antiq., applied to the rudest 
agalmata, or symbols of a divinity, consisting 
of a simple pillar or block without human at- 
tributes. See agalma. 

He [Dr. Waldstein] does, however, point oat that among 
the ten-a-cottas we have representations of the various 
stages of development of her [Hera's] agalmata : the rud- 
est of all, the aTiiftOTitc. ... He promises, moreover, to 
publish ... a curious pillar which may have been the 
actual aniktmic image of the goddess. 

Athenseum, July 1, 1893, p. 38. 

anidalin (a-nid'a-lin), n. Same as *aristol. 

aniP (an-il'), n." lanil{ine).'] A derivative of 
aniline containing the group NCgHs. 

anil (an'yil), n. [Sp. aflil, lit. indigo : see an- 
iline.] A Cuban name of the blue variety of 
the vaqueta, a bass-like fish of the West In- 
dies, Hypoplectrus unicolor (variety indigo of 
Poey). 

anilao (a-ne'lou), n. [Philippine name.] A 
name in the Philippines of Colona serratifolia, 
a shrub belonging to the linden family, the 
bark of which yields a strong bast fiber. 



53 

anllido. [,anil+ -id-+-oi.'] Noting the group 
NHCeHs, derived from aniline: as, anilido- 
acetic acid, CH2NHC6H5CO2H : also used as 
an adjective : as, the anilido-gronii. 

Aniline *black, •green, *orange, *proceBS. See the 
nouns.— ^lllne salt, a commercial name for the color- 
less crystalline salt formed by neutralizing aniline with 
hydrochloric acid. It has the formula O6H5NH2HCI, 
and is known chemically as aniline hydrochlorid. Large 
quantities are used in the dyeing and printing of aniline 
black. — Aniline spirits, yellow. See tin *spiriti, 
•kyeUaw. 

anilism (an'i-lizm), n. An illness caused by 
inhaling the vapor of aniline, not uncommon 
in workers in aniline-black dye-houses. It 
comes on suddenly, the lips turn purpi3, and 
temporary unconsciousness often ensues. 

Animal color. See *coior.— Animal Mngdom. Accord- 
ing to recent conservative estimates, the animal king- 
dom consists of about 386,000 species of living animals 
and about 160,000 described species of fossil animals, or 
of about 650,000 species in all.— Animal mechanics. See 
•mecAani<».— Al^mal mound. See the extract. 

The next class is composed of the "animcd mounds ," or 
mounds in which the gi-ound plan is more or less irregu- 
lar, and is thought to resemble animals, birds, and even 
human beings, though it is admitted that this resemblance 
is often imaginary, and that there is no evidence that the 
builders of these works intended to copy any such forms. 
. . . Mouuds of this class are common in Wisconsin, and 
are also found in Ohio and Geoi-gia. They are not burial 
mounds, though they are not unfrequently grouped with 
conical mounds that inclose human remains, as they are 
also with embankments and inclosures, — the grouping 
being always without any apparent order. 

Smithsonian Heportt 1891, p. 559. 

Animal photography. See -kpiiotography.— Animal 

pole. See *pole. 
animate, a. 4. In gram., referring to living 
things as indicated by a dififerenee of form in 
the designating word : said of gender in some 
languages. See the quotation. 

The distinction between animate and inanimate gender 
is still preserved in both Penobscot and Abenaki. 

Amer. Anthropologist, Jan.-March, 1902, p. 27. 

Animated oat. Same as animal oat ; see oat, 
1(6). 

animatism (an'i-ma-tizm), n. [animate, a., + 
-ism.] That form of animism in which objects 
and phenomena, are vaguely regarded as hav- 
ing personality and will-power, but not as pos- 
sessing separable souls. 

animato (a-ni-ma'to), a. [It.] In mi<«ic, lively ; 
with animation ; usually, somewhat quick and 
with spirit. 

animatog^raph (an - i - mat'o - graf ) ,n. [L. ani- 
matus, alive (see animate, a.), + ypaijielv, write.] 
1. A cinematograph. — 3. A special form of 
photographic camera for taking a series of pic- 
tures on films. 

anime, n — ^Brazilian anlme. Same as anime, 3. 

anime (an-i-ma'), a. [F., < L. animatus, ani- 
mate : see animate, a.] In her., animated, ex- 
cited ; showing a desire to fight : said of an ani- 
mal and represented by giving the eyes, etc., 
a tincture different from that of the body. 

animetta (an-i-met'a), n. [It.] A medieval 
term for the veil or" cloth used to cover the 
chalice or eucharistie cup. 

animi, n. Same as anime. 

Animikie (a-nim'i-M), n. [A local name.] A 
name proposed by T. Sterry Hunt in 1873, and 
used by the Geological Survey of Canada and 
by the Natural History Survey of Minnesota, 
for a group of iron-bearing rocks, slates, 
schists, and sandstones which form the middle 
subdivision of the Algonkian as the latter term 
is used by the United States Geological Sur- 
vey. In Canada the group is regarded as Cambrian in 
age, but in the Lake Superior district, especially in Min- 
nesota, where these rocks carry the iron ore of the Mesaba 
range, they are referred to the Precamhrian. 

animikite (a-nim'i-kit), «. [Said to be from 
Ind.animJfee, thunder, + -ite^.] Anantimonide 
of silver from Silver Islet, Lake Superior. 

animosity, n. 3. In Spinoza's philosophy, the 
desire by which each man endeavors to pre- 
serve his own being after the guidance of reason 
alone ; or, as sometimes interpreted, the stead- 
fast and intelligent purpose to promote one's 
own welfare. 

animotheism (an"i-mo-the'izm), n. [L. anima, 
soul, life (or animus, mind^), + dedg, God, + 
-ism.] The belief that all things, but especially 
plants, animals, and the heavenly bodies, are 
conscious or animate beings, and that they 
possess supernatural, divinepowers. See ani- 
mism. Ward, Dynamic Soeiol., II. 258. 

anis, n. A simplified spelling of anise. 

anisado (a-ni-sa'do), n. [Sp.: see anisated.] 
A native drink made in the Philippine Islands. 
It contains the poisonous principle of wood 
alcohol, and United States soldiers and em- 



anisol 

ployees have been forbidden its use. Army 

and Navy Journal, Dec. 7, 1901. 
anisamic (an-i-sam'ik), a. [anis(ie) + am(ine) 

+ -ic] Noting an acid, a derivative of tri- 

methyl benzene, found in balsam of Tolu and 

of Peru, 
anisated (an'i-sa^ted), p. a. [NL. *anisatuii, 

< L. anisum, anise.] Mixed or flavored with 
anise-seed. Syd. Soc. Lex. 

Anisian (a-niz'i-an), a. and w. A name given 
by Austrian geologists to a division of the 
Mediterranean Triassio deposits holding a 
position at the top of the Lower Trias; 

anisidine (a-nis'i-din), n. . [L. anisum., anise, + 
-idi-+ -ine^.] The methyl ether of aminor 
phenol, C6H4(NH2)OCH3. The name is ap- 
plied especially to the ormo compound, which 
is an oil that boils at 218° C, and to the para 
compound, a solid which melts at 56° C. and 
boils at 240° C — Anisidine ponceau, scarlet. See 
*scarlet. 

anisil (an'i-sil), n. [L. anisum, anise, + -il] 
The dimethyl ether of paradihydroxybenzil, 
CH3OC6H4COCOC6H4OCH3. It crystalUzes 
in golden-yellow neeales which melt at 133° C. 

anisiUc (an-i-sU'ik), a. Noting an acid, (CgHi- 
OH)2C(OH)C02H, the dimethyl ether of dihy- 
droxydiphenyl glycoUo acid. It is formed together 
with anisic acid when anisil is boiled with alcoholic pot- 
ash. It crystallizes in needles which melt at 164° C. It 
is named officially the dimethyl ether of diphenylolmeth- 
anolmethylic acid. 

Anisoceratidse (a - ni - so - se - rat'i - de) n. pi. 
[NL., < Anisoeeras (<Gr. aviaog, unequal, -I- m- 
pag^Kepar-), horn), + -idse.] A family of ammon- 
oid cephalopods or ammonites having un- 
coiled shells terminating in a crook, the volu- 
tions bearing tubercles and ribs. The species 
are found in the Cretaceous formation. 

Anisochsetodon (a-ni-so-ke'to-don), n. [NL., 

< Gr. aviaoQ, unequal, + Chseiodon.] A genus 
of butterfly-fishes of the family Chaetodontids. 

anisochela (a-ni-so-ke'la), n. ; pi. anisochelm 
(-le). Same as *anisocliele, 

anisochele (a-ni's6-kel), n. [Gr. awoof, unequal, 
+ XV^, a crab's claw.] In the nomenclature 
of the spieular elements of sponges, a C-shaped 
monaxial rhabd having different arrangements 
of the processes at the two ends. See sponge- 
spicule. 

anisocnemic (a-ni-so-ne'mik), a. [Gr. av- priv. 
-t- isocnemic] In anthozoans, a term used to 
distinguish a unilateral pair composed of two 
unequal mesenteri es : contrasted vrith isocn emic. 
Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist, Aug., 1902, p. 105. 

anisocoria (a-nl-so-ko'ri-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
avtaog, unequal, -1- K6pt/, pupil of the eye.] In- 
equality in size of the pupils of the two eyes. 

anisocotyly (a-ni-so-kot'i-li), 11. In hot, the 
unequal development of cotyledons in dicoty- 
ledonous plants. 

anisocytosis (an-i-so-si-to'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
aviaog, unequal, + kvtos, a hollow (a cell), + 
-om.] Inequsility in size of the cells of a 
system, specifically of the red blood-corpuscles. 

anisogamons (an-i-sog'a-mus), a. Character- 
ized by anisogamy, or" conjugation between 
sharply differentiated male and female gam- 
etes. 

anisogamy (an-i-sog'a-mi), n. [Gr. dv«70f, un- 
equal, -I- yd/tog, marriage.] In hiol., conjuga- 
tion between dissimilar gametes or reproduc- 
tive cells. 

anisoh3rpercytosis(an*i-s6-hi''p6r-si-t6'sis),«. 
[NL., \ Gr. dwooc, unequal, + intip, over, + 
KVTOQ, a hollow (a cell), + -osis.] An increase 
in the number of the leucocytes, with abnormal 
percentage relations of the neutrophilic cells, 
as regards the distribution of the different 
nuclear forms. 

anisohypocytosis (an'i-so-hi'po-si-to'sis), ». 
[NL., < Gr. dwffof, unequal. + iind, under, + 
iAtoq, a hollow (aeell), + -osls.] Adecreasein 
the number of the leucocytes with abnormal 
relations of the neutrophilic cells, as regards 
the percentage distribution of the different 
nuclear forms. 

anisoin (an-is'o-in), n. [L. anisum, anise, + 
-m2.] The dimethyl ether of paradihydroxy- 
benzoin,CH30C6HiCH3COC6H40CH3. Iteon- 
sists of needles which melt at 110° C. 

anisol (an'i-sol), n. [M&o anisoU \ ; 1,. anisum, 
anise, -I- -ol.] 1. Methyl phenyl ether. CeHs- 
OCH3, formed by distuUng anisic acid with 
barium hydroxid. It is an oil with a pleasant 
odor and boils at 154° C. — 2. A general name 
of derivatives of methyl phenyl ether. 



anisoline 

anisoline (a-nis'o-lin), n. [As anisol + -ine^.] 
A basic color of the xanthene group. It is 
comparatively fast to light. Also called rho- 
damine 3 B. 

Anisometric texture, in petrog., the texture of granular 
rocks when the mineral grains are of various sizes. It is 
contrasted with the isometrw granular texture, where the 
grains are approximately of the same size. 

anisometrope (a-iii"so-met'rop), «. [See ani- 
sometropia.i One who suffers from aniso- 
metropia, or inequality of refraction in the two 



It was thought that anismnetropes who fixed correctly 
could not have binocular vision. 

Optical Jour., June 2, 1904, p. 975. 

Anisomyaria (a-ni-s6-mi-a'ri-a), n. pi. [NL., 
< G-r. tviaoi;, unequal, + iivg (ftv-) muscle, + 
-aria.'] A group of the pelecypod moUusks, or 
^cepfeate, holding an intermediate position be- 
tween the Mon amy aria, or those with but one ad- 
ductor muscle, and the Dimyaria, or those hav- 
ing two, the normal number, fully developed. 
In the Anisomyaria the anterior adductors are much more 
prominently developed than the posterior. These muscu- 
lar differences have frequently been used as a basis of clas- 
sification ; but it is now recognized that the terms Mono- 
m/yaria and Anisomyaria designate different stages of 
degeneration in the musculature. 

anisomsrarian (a-ni-sd-mi-a'ri-an), a. and n. 
Pertaining to or having the characters of the 
Anisomyaria. Also used substantively. 

anisonormocytosis (a-ni'so-nor'mo-si-to'sis), 
». [NL.. < Grr. aviaog. unequal, -I- L. norma, rule, 
norm, -f- icvTog, a hollow (a cell), -I- osis.] A nor- 
mal number of the leucocytes with abnormal 
relations of the neutrophilic cells, as regards 
the percentage distribution of th« difEerent nu- 
clear forms. 

anisophylly (a-ni-sof'i-li)j n. [Gr. avimc, un- 
equal, + ipv?CM>v, leaf.] Dissimilarity in leaves 
due to difference of position, as in floating and 
submersed leaves. Krasser. 

Anisoplia (a-ni-sop'li-a), n. [NL. (Megerle, 
1825), < Gr. avtaoq, unequal, -I- 8jr/la, arms.] An 
important genus of lamelUcorn beetles of old- 
world distribution, it includes some serious pests, 
especially A, Auatriaca, which occasionally does great 
damage to the wheat crop of Russia. About 40 species 
are known. 

anisopod (a-ni'so-pod), a. and n. [NL. aniso- 
pus (.-pod), < Gr. aviao^, unequal, + nave (irod-), 
foot.]*I. a. Having unequal feet; specifically, 
having the characters of the Anisopoda. 
n. n. One of the Anisopoda. 

Anisopoda (a-ni-sop'o-da), n. pi. [NL., neut. 
pi. of anisopus (-pod/)': see *anisopod.'\ A tribe 
or suborder of arthrostracous crustaceans hav- 
ing a body more or less resembling that of an 
amphlpod, and the abdomen with two-branched 
swimming-feet which do not function as gjills, 
or with fin-like feet. It includes the families 
Tanaidee and Pranizidee. 

Anisoptera (a-ni-sop'te-ra), n. jpl. [NL., < 
Gr. avtaoQ, unequal, + "rrTepiv, wing.] A sub- 
order of insects of the order Odonata or drag- 
on-fiies. it includes the families in which the hind 
wings are slightly larger than the front wings, as distin- 
guished from the Zygoptera, in which the wings arc of 
equal size or the hind pair are somewhat the smaller. 

anisospore (a-ni'so-sp6r), n. [NL. *aniso- 
spora, < G-r. aviaog, unequal, + anopd, seed 
(spore).] A form of spore produced among 
colonial radiolarians by the union of gametes 
of unlike size, as microspores and macrospores : 
contrasted with Msospore, 3. 

Anisotremus (a-m-so-tre'mus), n. [NL., < Gr. 
dwCTOf, unequal, + rpTJim, hole.] A genus of 
grunts of the family Hsemulonidss, having 
numerous species in tropical America. They 
are remarkable for their broad bodies and sometimes for 
bright colors. A. 8urina7nen»i8, the pompon, is the com- 
monest species. 

anisotropic, a. 3. Having predetermined 
axes: opposed to »*o*ropJc — Anisotropic me- 
dium, a medium in which the strain due to a given stress 
varies with the direction in which the stress is applied ; 
an ceolotropic medium. 

anisotropical (a-ni-so-trop i-kal), a. Same as 
anisotropic; seolotropic. 

Mr. A. Broca a short time ago stated that in a powerful 
field there are produced simultaneously both ordinai-y 
cathode rays, around the field according to well-known 
laws, and another kind of rays following the lines of force. 
These phenomena Jiave likewise been investigated by Mr. 
Pellat, who accounted for them on the hypothesis of an 
anisotropical friction the cathode ray particles undergo in 
the magnetic field. 

Sci. Amer. Sup., Aug. 27, 1904, p. 



53 

certain differentiated animal ova : opposed to 
isotropy. 

anito (a-ne'to), n. [Tagalog ; perhaps altered, 
under 8p. influences, from an orig. *antu, Ma- 
lay antu, hantu, a spirit.] An ancestral spirit 
worshiped as a protecting household deity by 
the pagan Malay peoples of the Philippine 
Islands, and frequently represented by an 
image of wood or other material which is care- 
fully preserved. 

But, before Islam, ancestor worship, as has long been 
known, was widely prevalent. In almost every locality, 
every nut has its Anito with its special place, its own 
- dwelling ; there are Anito pictures ani images, certain 
trees and, indeed, certain animals in which some Anito 
resides. SmUhsmaan Rep., 1899, p. 622. 

ankee (ang'ke), n. [Indian name in Califor- 
nia.] The barn-yard grass Eehinochloa Crus- 
galli, the seeds of which are ground into flour 
by the Mohave Indians. [Southern Califor- 
nia.] 

anker, n. and v. A simplified spelling of an- 
chor. 

ankle, n.— cocked ankle, knuckling or partial dislo- 
cation of the fetlock-joint of the horse, an unsoundness 
predisposing the animal to stumbling and to fracture of 
the pastern-bone. 

anklong (ang'klong), n. [Also "anMung (?), Ma- 
lay and Jav. anklung.'] A musical instrument 
used in Java and other parts of Malaysia, con- 
sisting of bamboo tubes so cut that when struck 




anisotropically (a-ni-s6-trop'i-kal-i), adv. In 

an anisotropic manner. 
anisotropy, n. 3. In embryol., the condition 

of having the axes predetermined : apphed to 



Anklong. 
(After original in'therMetropalitan Museum, New York.) 

or shaken they give definite tones. Usually 
the tubes are in pairs tuned at the interval of 
the fifth. 

ankoot (an'kot), V. i. [Eskimo, angakut, 
angdkok, angekok, a shaman: see angekok.] To 
perform shamanistic ceremonies : a term used 
by whalers who frequent Hudson and Baffin 
bays. 

ankylite (an'ki-lit), n. Same as *ancylite. 

ankyloglossia (ang"ki-lo-glos'si-a), n. See 
*am,kyloglossus. 

ankyloglossus (ang" ki - 16 - glos 'us), n. [Gr. 
dyK.ih>(, bent, + yAoaaa, tongue.] Impeded 
movements of the tongue due to adhesions to 
the neighboring parts. Also called ankylo- 
glossia. 

ankylosed (ang'ki-lost), ^. a. [See ankyloses 
Grown together: said of bones which are 
primitively separate. 

Ankylostoma (ang-ki-los'to-ma), ». Same as 
Ancylostoma. 

ankylostomiasis, n. Same as *ancylostomiasis. 

anlage (an'la"ge) n.; pi. anlagen (-gen). [G., 
foundation, < anlegen, < an, on, + legen, lay, 
found.] In embryol.; the first indication of a 
developing organ in the embryo ; a rudiment, 
in the sense of a simple beginning. 

annaline (an'a-Un), m. [Formation doubtful.] 
A name sometimes given to an artificially pre- 
pared calcium sulphate used by paper-makers. 

annalism (an'a-Iizm), n. The writing of an- 
nals. W. Tayhr. [Bare.] N. E. D. 

Annam ulcer. See ^ulcer. 

Annealing lamp. See *lamp. 

annealing-machine (a-nel'ing-ma-shen"), «. 
A heating-furnace consisting of a long box of 
steel lined with some refractory material, open 
at each end, and fitted with a number of gas- 
burners. Within the furnace and extending beyond it 
at each end is a series of rolls connected by link-belting 
and turning together, all being supported by bearings in- 
side the furnace or by tables at each end outside the fur- 
nace. The bars, rods, strips, and tubes to be annealed 
are laid on the rolls outside the furnace, carried by their 
motion into and through the furnace at a speed just suf- 
ficient for the annealing, and discharged at the distant 
end. In another form, for large pipe, a link-belt con- 
veyer is used to carry the pipes through the furnace. 

annerodite (a-ner'6-^t),.». [Also annerodite, 
aannerodite, aanerodite; Annerod, Aannerod (see 



annulus 

def.) + -ite^.l A rare niobate of uranium, 
yttrium, and other elements, near samarskite in 
composition but related to columbite in form : 
found at AnnerSd, Norway. 

Anneslia (a-nes'K-a), n. [NL. (Salisbury, 1807), 
named in honor of Seorge Annesley (1769-1844), 
Viscount Valentia in Ireland and Earl of Mount- 
morris, who traveled and botanized in India.] 
A genus of plants belonging to the family Mi- 
mosaceae, to which Bentham in 1840 gave the 
name CaUiandra. See Calliandra. 

annexable, annexible (a^neks'a-bl, i-bl), a. 
That may be annexed or added ; attachable. 
Cockeram. 

annexive (a-nek'siv), a. Expressing or serv- 
ing to express annexion or addition ; additive : 
as, an annexive conjunction. 

annidalin (a-nid'a-Un), n. See *aristol. 

Anniellidse, n. pi" Same as Aniellidse. 

annihilability (a-m"hi-la-biri-ti), n. The 
capability of being annihilated'. Dr. H. More, 
Immortal, of the Soul, p. 228. 

annotative (an'o-ta-tiv), a. Of the nature of 
annotation : as, annotative remarks. 

annotine, n. 2. A tree that bears fruit of two 
years at the same time, the fruit of the past 
year persisting, while that of the present year 
is growing. 

announcement, n. Z. In card-playing, a bid ; 
a meld. 

The player [at boston] who makes the highest an- 
nouncement Is entitled, if successful, to the contents of 
the pool, and a certain number of counters from each of 
the players ; but if he be unsuccessful he must pay to the 
pool and to each of the other players a certain number 
of counters. American Hoyle, p. 243. 

annual. I. a — Annual equation. See -kemation. 
— ^Annual range, in meteor., that portion of the total 
yearly range which may be supposed to be periodic and 
the simple and direct result of the annual revolution of 
the earth in its orbit ; that portion of the annual range 
that is represented by the first term of the harmonic 
series or Fourier-Bessel series, depending on the simple < 
mean longitude of the earth in its orbit around the sun. 
—Annual vaxiation, in meteor., the departure from the 
annual mean ; the extreme total range during a year ; 
the diiference between the absolute maximum and abso- . 
lute minimum or between their departures from the an- 
nual mean. The normal annual variation is the average 
of the annual variations for many years and is less than the 
extreme or absolute variation for those years. — ^Annual 
working. See Irviarldng. 

II, n., 3. Plants become annuals because of the 
limitations of the seasons. Some plants die outright at 
the approach of cold or dry weather and leave only 
their seeds to carry the species over to another season ; 
these are the true annuals. Others, truly perennial in 
their native climates, become annual in short-season 
climates by being killed by frost ; these are plur-annutUfi. 
others carry themselves over by means of bulbs ; these 
are p8evd.annu(ilB.' 

annualize (an'u-al-iz), v. i. ; pret. and pp. an- 
mtalized, ppr. annualizing. To contribute to 
an annual publication; write for an annual. 
See annual, 4. [Rare.] 

annuity, n — consolidated annuities, certain annui- 
ties or annual payments representing interest on various 
stocks issued by the British government at different 
times and at different rates, which were consolidated, ' 
under an act of 1751, into one fund, commonly known as 
consols (which see). 

Annular kiln. See *KIn.— Annular ligament, id) A 
ligament attached at each extremity to a tubercle on the 
inner surface of the articular process of the atlas, which 
serves to retain the odontoid process of the axis, (d) 
The ligament which attaches the stapes to the rim of tiie 
fenestra ovalis. 

Annularia (an-u-la'ri-a), n. [NL. (Sternberg,. 
1822), <L. annularis, annular.] A genus of 
fossil plants of the family CalamariacesB, hav- 
ing slender, branching, usually striate stems 
bearing whorls of lanceolate or spatulate 
leaves with a median nerve, which are fused at 
their bases into a sheath or annulus. The fruit 
is a heterosporous spike or strobile. It is not yet certain 
whether the specimens referred to this genus represent 
independent herbaceous plants or the smaller ultimate 
branches of calamitean plants. They are very abundant in 
the Carboniferous formation and range from the Devo- 
nian to the Permian. 

Annulosiphonata (an"u-16-si-fo-na'ta), n. pi. 
[L. annulus, a ring, -t- iipho, siphon, pipe, -I- 
-ata^.] In Hyatt's classification, a group of 
extinct cephalopods, including straight and 
curved shells, in which the siphuncle is 
thickened by organic deposits into solid rays 
extending into the septal chambers. Actino- 
ceras and Hiironia are examples. The species 
are chiefly from Silurian rocks. 

annulus, n. 3. (d) In the Equisetacess. the 
sheath below the spike formed by the union 
of the bases of the leaves, (e) In diatoms, 
the rim of silex formed within the fnistules of 
some genera. (/) The fleshy rim of the 



annulus 

corolla in milkweeds. — 4. (c) One of the ex- 
ternal subdivisions of the hody of a leech, 
resembling a segment of the body of an earth- 
worm. A single annulus, however, does not corre- 
spond to an internal segment. From 3 to 5 or even 12 
annuli correspond to a segment in different genera. 

Anodal difTuslon, cataphoresis. 

anodic^, a. 2. Of or pertaining to the anode. 
— Anodic rays. In elect., radiations issuing from the 
positive terminal or anode of a vacuum-tube. 

anodyne, n Hoffmann's anodjme, a mixture ol 

ether, alcohol, and ethereal oil, the last-named constituent 
containing ethyl sulphate, much used in medicine as a 
stimulant, antispasmodic, and anodyne. 

anodjrnin (a-nod'i-nin), n. Same as antipyrin. 

anoesis (an-o-e'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. d- priv. -t- 
v6Tiai(;, understanding.] In psychol., a hypo- 
thetic state of consciousness in which there is 



54 anosinic 

II. a. A member of the order Anomalodes- 
macea. ^ 

anomalodesmaceous (a-nom*a-]o-des-ma - 
shius), a. [Gr. avufid'Xoc, irregular, -I- 6ec!/i6g 
or dsa/M, a band, + -aceous.'\ Same as *anom- 
alodesm,acean. 

Anomalon (a-nom'a-lon), n. [NL. (Jurine, 
1807), < Gr. "aviiimTMQ, neut. av6/M?L0v, irregu- 
lar : see anomalous.'] An important genus of 
hymenopterous insects of the family /cfenea- 
monidse and typical of the subfamily Anoma- 
linse. It comprises more than 150 species, many of them 
impoi'tant enemies of injurious insects. Most of the de- 
scribed species occui* in Europe and North America, but 
the genus is still more widely distributed. AnoplOgaster (an-op-lo-gas'tfer), n. [NL., < 

Anomalousdispersion. See ♦d»8pem'o».— Anomalous qj. i^oTrAof, unarmed, '+ yaar^p, belly.] 



anoplan (an-op'lan), a. andn. {Anopla + -(in.] 
I. a. Pertaining'to or resembling the Anopla. 
11. n. A nemertean worm of the section 
Anopla. 

Anoplia (an-op'li-a), n. pi. [NL., < Gr. avo- 
jrAof, not armed, < av-, not, + oTrXa, arms.] A 
tribe of lithistidan TetractinelUda, having no 
ectosomal spicules or microscleres. It contains 
the families Azoricidee and Anomocladidse, to- 
gether with extinct forms. 

anoplian (an-op'li-an), a. and n. {Anoplia + 
-an.] I. a. Pertaining to or having the char- 
acters of the Anwplia. 
II, n. One of the Anoplia. 



_ ____. double rettaotion. Se<i*refraction. 

sentience but no thought ; immediate experi- anomaly, n. 4. In meteor., the amount by which Atlantic 

enoe without reference to an object. Anoesis is \given observed quantity is greater or less y^o^f-nWa (kn-op-lof 'o-ra), ». [> 
sometimes predicated of primitive organisms, sometimes than an assumed ideal or normal value ; a de- ■^jjj^"*^"^3^j^ed + -<t>opoi "<<pepuv I 



of the mai^inal processes of the human consciousness, parture. 



It is used, more correctly simply as a limiting concep- Anomiacea (a-no-mi-a'se-a), M. pi. [NL., < Ano- 
'''^:,!^}?^^^!^^r^^];;'f'^^'!!^^: mia + -acL:\ a sub6raer of bivalve mol- 



But it is eonoeivable that they [items or particulars] 

should be given and no inte^ectual synthesis ensue ; 

such a consciousness has been happily named anoetic. 

Whether or no it actually exists is another matter : it is 

a conceivable limit, and has the theoretical usefulness of 

limiting conceptions generally. But relative anoeeift 

suffices here. Encyc. Brit, XS.X1I. es. 

anoestrous (an-es'trus), a. [Gr. av- priv. -t- 

olarpoi, vehement desire.] In zool., without 

sexual desire ; relating to the completed period 

of sexual desire in female mammals. —Anoes- 
trous cycle, a single completed period of sexual desire , , _ _ ■. 

not immediately followed by another. This comprises anomurc (an 0-mur) 

the irprooBstrum, •kcestrug, and irmetcestrum. ^ " " 

anoestrum (an-es'trum), n. ; pi. ancestra (-tra) 



[NL.: aee *an(estrous.'] In zool., an interval anomy, b. 3. As used by Pearson and others- 



See 



between periods in 'heat' when the female 
mammal has no sexual desire. 

anoetic, a. 2. lapsychoL, relating to or char- 
acterized by anoesis. G. F. Stout, Anal. Psy- 
chol., i. 51. 

anogenic, a. 2. In petrol, noting igneous 
rocks which originate by ascension from the anon, 
earth's interior : synonymous with erapiiw. ymously. 

anogenital (an-o-jen'i-tal), a. Relating to the anoopsia (an-o-op'si-a), n.^ [NL., < Gr. avu, 



genus of beryooid fishes found in the abysses 
of the Atlantic. 

[NL., < Gr. 

bear.] A 

genus of naiads ifrom the Triassic formation 

lusks of the irder FilibrancUata. it includes Anoplotheca (a"-"?:^*^ jl^^)' "■ ^^b'tt't 
forms which have the heart dorsal to the rectum, a single avowh>i, unarmed, -I- ft?/c7, ease.] A genus of 

convexoeoncave, spine-bearing braeniopods, 
having a median dorsal septum and the jugum 
articulating into a depression in the ventral 
valve : characteristic of Devonian faunee. 

anoplous (an-op'lus), a. Relating or pertain- 
ing to the Anopla; having the proboscis un- 
armed, as certain nemertines. 

anoplurous (an-o-pl6'rus), a. Resembling the 
insects of the hemipterous suborder Anophra. 

Anor group. See *group^. 

anorectal (a"n6-rek'tal), a. 'L. anus, anus, -I- 
NL. rectum, rectum.] Relating to both the 



forms which have the heart dorsal to the rectum, a single 
aorta, small foot, and verjrsmall anterior adductor. The 
shell is oyster-shaped, without hinge-teeth, and is at- 
tached by a calcified byssus which passes through a lobe 
in the right valve. It includes the single family Anomi- 
idx. 

anomocephalus (an^o-mp-sefa-lus), «. ; pi. 
anomocephali (-li). [Gr. avo/wc, irregular, + 
Kz<pa7.ri, head.] One with an irregularly shaped 
head. 

n. [As NL. Anomura.] 
One of the anomural or irregular-tailed crus- 
taceans ; an anomuran. 



a breach in the routine of perceptions, 
the extract. 

In our ignorance we ought to consider before experi- 
ence that nature may consist of all routines, all anowAAiB, 
or a mixture of the two in any proportion whatever. 

K. Fearaim, Gram, of Sci., iv. 15. 

An abbreviation of anonymous and anon- 



Therapeutic Gazette, 
[anorect-ous + -ic] 



anus and the genital organs ; noting the region 
of the body including these parts.— Anogenital 
band, the rudimentai'y perineum in the embryo. 

anol (an'ol), n. [aniise) + -ol.] Parapro- 
penyl phenol, CH3CH : CHCoHiOH, usually 
called para-anol. It crystallizes in leaflets 
which melt at 93°. Its methyl ether, anethol, 
is found in anise-oil. 

Anomala, «. 4. pi. A tribe of brachyurous 
crustaceans containing the families Dromidie, 
HomoUdse, and Baninidae. 

Anomalocladina (a-nom"a-l9-kla-di'na), n. pi. 
[NL., < Gr. ava/iaMg, irregular, -I- (t^ddof, twig, 
-1- -ina^.] In Zittel's classification, a suborder 
of tetractinelUd lithistid sponges. In this group 
the slceletal spicules are mostly short rays with inflated 
heads which are often digitate or branched and united 
with the processes of adjacent rays, 

Anomalociinidse (a-nom*'a-16-krin'i-de), n.pl. 
[NL., < Anomaloerinus (<'6r. ava/iaTioc, irregu- 
lar, 4- Kpcvov, a lily (see erinoid) + 4dse.] A 
family of fistulate crinoids having radial 
plates of very irregular form and arms with 
pinnules on one side only. It is represented 
by a single genus, Anomaloerinus, from the 
Silurian of North America. 

Anomalocystidse (a-nom^a-lo-sis'ti-de)^. pi. 
[NL., < AnomalocysUtes -t- -idse.] In Wood- 
ward's classification, a family of cystidean 
eohinoderms which have a compressed calyx, 
the sides of which are dissimilarly plated, gen- 
erally with two free arms and a short stem. 
They occur in rocks of Cambrian and Silu- 
rian age. Properly, in uneonlracted form. 



upward, -I- 6i/«f) vision.] Strabismus in which anorgic (an-6r'jik) 
the axis of vision is directed upward. 
Anopheles (a-nof'e-lez), n. [NL. (Meigen, 
1818), < Gr. dvu0E^TC) useless.] 1. Agenus of true 




Malarial Mosquito (.Anopheles maculipennis^. 

Male at left; female at right. Enlarged. (After Howard, 

U.S. D.A.I 

mosquitos (dipterous family CuUcidse), distin- 
guished from the typical genus C«tea; by the long 
palpi of the female. The mosquitos of this genus are 
the ti'ue secondary hosts of the causative organisms of 
malaria, which undergo their sexual development only in 
the stomach of an anopheles. From this fact it results 



anus and the rectum. 
May 15, 1903, p. 344. 

anorectic (an-o-rek'tik), a. 
Same as anorectous. 

anorganon (an-6r'ga-non), n. ; pi. anwgana 
(-na) . [NL. , < Gr. avdpyavov, neut. of avopyavo;, 
without organs, < dv- priv. -I- bpyavov, instru- 
ment, organ.] A body without organs, that 
is, an inorganic body. 

_ [Gr. ov(i/97(avof), with- 

out organs (inorganic), -I- -ic] A general des- 
ignation, proposed by Haeckel, for the sciences 
that deal with inorganic nature, as contrasted 
with the biological sciences. 

anorthoclase (an-6r'tho-klaz). It. [Gr. avopOof, 
not straight, + itXdatg, fracture. See ortho- 
close.] A triclinic feldspar allied to microcline 
but containing a considerable amount of soda : 
characteristic of certain igneous rocks, as the 
andesite of Pantelleria., 

anorthograpMc (an-6r-tho-graf'ik), a. [Gr. 
dv- priv. -I- orthographic] That deviates from 
or is at variance with orthography or the ac- 
cepted rules of spelling. 

anorthographical (ah-6r-tbo-graf'i-kal), a. 
Characterized by irregular or incorrect spell- 
ing; incorrectly spelled. 

anorthographically (an-6r-tho-graf'i-kal-i), 
adv. Irregularly as regards spelling. See the 
quotation. 

A fresco painting has been discovered . . . represent- 
ing the two martyrs, one of whom IHyacinthus] bears Ids 
name written artorthographically thus, laquintus. 

Athensum, July 14, 1894, p. 72. 



Anomalocystites (a-nom^a-lo-sis-ti'tez), n. 
[NL., < Gr. dvu^a/lof," irregular, + kvbth; blad- 



anortho^aphy (an-6r-thog'ra-fi), n. [Gr. dv- 
priv. -I- opdoypcKpia, correct writing.] Same as 
agraphia. 

anorthoscopic (an-6r-tho-skop'ik), a. [anor- 
thoscope + -ic] Pertaining to the anortho- 
scope or to the visu,al illusion which that in- 
strument produces. Amer. Jour. Psycliol., II. 

that these mosquitos convey the disease from malarial anorthOSe (an-or'thos), a. [Gr. dv- priv. + 



patients to healthy individuals. 

[I. c] An insect of this genus 



der, -I- -tTi;g, -ite^.] The typical genus of the Anophelins (a-nof-e-li'ne), n. pi. [ISTL., < .jie2, 

tarnQj Anrnnaloeystidse. ''■" "— '— -^ .---.t a t-j- — n — n =i__ 

Anomalodesmacea (ar-nom'a-lo-des-ma'se-a), 
n.pl. [NL., < Gr. dvufiakog, irregular, + iia'jia, 
a band, + -acea.] In Dall's classification of 
the Pelecypoda, an order comprising burrow- 
ing shells with nearly edentulous hinge, the 



+ -inae.] A subfamily of mosquitos 
(family CuUcidse), comprising Anopheles and 
its immediate allies. In both sexes the palp! are 
about as long as the proboscis, and the terminal joint is 
spatulate or clubbed in the male ; in the wings the first 
submarginal cell Is as long as or longer than the second 

^ _ _ _ ^ posterior cell. 

mantle lobes more or less completely united, anopisthographic (an-o-pis-tho-graf'ik), a. anosmatic (an-os-mat'ik), a. 

leaving two siphonal openings, a pedal open- '•'^- -- — ^- j- =--0- -^ j.i-- t---i- ... . . , , 

ing, and sometimes a fourth opening. The 

valves are generally unequal. The group includes many 

recent and late fossil forms, and in general expression is 

archaic, specially in regard to hinge-structure, which re- 

nrodiices that of the Silurian and Devonian paleoconchs. 



bp66(, straight, -I- -ose.] Same as *anorfhoelase. 
anorthosite (an-6r'tho-sit), n. [anorthose + 
-ite^.] In petrog., a granular or gneissoid ig- 
neous rock of eastern Canada, consisting chiefly 
of the plagioclase feldspar, labradorite. The 
name (first used by Hunt in 1863) is now applied t* rocks 
composed largely of any lime-soda feldspar (plagioclase). 
The anorthosites are regarded by some petrographers as 
the highly feldspathlc extreme of the gabbro family of 
igneous rocks. 



anomalodesmacean (a-nom"a-16-des-ma se 
an), a. and «. I. a. Having the characters 
of or pertaining to the Anomalodesmacea. 



- , _ _ . - . _ ., , „ -. [Irreg. < Gr. av- 

[Gr. av- pnv. -I- omadev, at the back, -I- ypd(peLv, priv. -I- ba/iii, smell, + -aUc A more correct 

write.] Not written or printed upon at the form would be anosmic, 'anosmetic, or *anos- 

back ; written or printed upon on one side only, motic] Having the sense of smell or the olf ac- 

as a proof or a broadside. tory organs small or wanting, as in porpoises. 

Ano^lagonus (an-o-plag'o-nus).^ n. [NL., < Amer. Anthropologist, Oct.-Dec, 1903, p. 638. 

Gr. avo7r?Log, unarmed, -1- Agonus.] A genus of anosmic (an-os'mik), a. [anosmia + -ic] 1. 

sea-poachers of the family Agonidee, found in Having no odor.— 2. Of or affected with an- 

the North Pacific. osmia. 



anounou 

anoiinou (a-no'o-no'o), n. [Hawaiian.] In 
Hawaii, a species of peppergrass, Lepidium 
Owaihiense, found in all the islands of the 
group. 

iuiQuetilia (an-kwe-til'i-a,), n. [NL. (De- 
caiane, 1848), named in memory of A. H. An- 
quetil-Duperron (1731-1805), a French oriental- 
ist.] A genus of dicotyledonous plants of the 
family liutaceee. 8ee Skimmia. 

Ansate fissure or sulcus. See *flssure. 

anselmino (an-sel-me'no), n. [It.] A silver 
coin of Mantua: so named from the effigy and 
name on the reverse. 

Anseremme limestone. See ^limestone. 

auserifonu (an-ser'i-form), a. [NL. anseri- 
formis, < L. anser, goose, + forma, shape.] 
Eesembling a goose; pertaining to the Anseri- 
formes, a group of birds which contains the 
ducks and geese. 

Anspach porcelain. See *porcelain^. 

ant^, n. — Black ant, Monomorium minutum, a com- 
mon species in the United States, frequently entering 
liouses. Also called little black ant.— Bulldog ant, 
any ant of ttie genus Myrniecia, which is conimed to 
Australia and Tasmania and contains about 30 species. 
Tliey form large mounds of earth for their nests, and are 
the most formidable of all ants, possessing large jaws and 
stinging severely. — Com-louse ant, litmus brttnneus, 
a small brown ant which nests in fields and cares for 
certain plant-Uce that feed on the roots of grains and 
grasses.— Imbauba ant, a Brazilian arboreal ant, of the 
genus Azteca, which forms small nests in the interior of 
plants and is thought to protect them from the attacks 
of the leaf-cutting ants.— Leaf-CUttingaut, Attafer- 
vens, a large brown ant which defoliates trees: common 
throughout Central America, and found also abundantly 
in southern Texas.— Mound-bUilcUng ant, Formica 
exuectoides, a species in the United States which builds 
large mounds. Some of these mounds are 10 or 12 feet in 
diameter. The head and thorax of this ant are rust-red 
and the legs aud abdomen are black.— Forcuplne-graBB 
ant, an Australian ant, Hypodinea flayipes, which 
makes its nest at the roots of the porcupine-grass, fre- 
<;uently covering the leaves with sand brought up from 
the ground.- Ked ant. See recti.- Shed-builder ant, 
Cremagtogaster lineolata, a species, common in the 
southern United States, which sometimes builds sheds, 
composed of a paper-like pulp, over herds of aphids or 
scale-insects, from which they obtain honeydew. Corn- 
stock.— SvaSbU yellow ant, Sokmpsis deWlis. 

anta^ (an-ta'), n. [Native name.] A name in 
northwestern South America of the ivory-nut 
palm, Phytelephas macrocarpa. See Phytele- 
phas. 

Antsean (an-te'an), a. [L. Antseus, < Gr. 
'AvraloQ.'] Of, pertaining to, or resembling 
AntBBus, a giant, in Greek legend, slain by 
Hercules. Antseus was invincible as long as he re- 
mained in contact with his mother Gsea, the earth ; but 
Hercules, who discovered the source of his strength, lifted 
him into the air and crushed him. 

antagonal (an-tag'o-nal), a. Antagonistic : as, 
"cmtagonal principles' of faith and sight," J. 
Woodford. N. E. D. 

antagonistic, a. 2. In the psychology of visual 
sensation, complementary : as, blue and yellow 
are antagonistic colors. 

Antarctogaea (an-tark-to-je'a), n. Imoogebg., 
a name proposed by Sclater for an area chiefly 
in' the southern hemisphere and embracing 
Central and South America, Australasia, Poly- 
nesia, and Austro-Malaysia. The association 
is based upon the faunal relationships. 

Antarctogeean (an-tark-to-je'an), a. Of or per- 
taining to the zoogeographical area known as 
Antarctogssa. Also Antarctogseal and Antarc- 
See the extract. 



55 

antecedent, a. 2, tn phys. geog., noting rivers 
or streams which have persisted in their 
courses in spite of an uplift of the land : thus 
the Meuse is an antecedent river, because it 
has persisted in its course by cutting a deep 
gorge through the uplifted area of the Ar- 
dennes. 

Streams which hold their courses in spite of changes 
which have taken place since their courses were assumed 
are said to be antecedent. They antedate the crustal 
movements which, but for preexistent streams, would 
have given origin to a very different arrangement of 
river courses. Chiiimtierlman$iS^Usiwy, Geol., 1. 161. 
Antecedent; diain^e, the^ drainaige' of antecedent 

' streams. — A^teceddnt vall^, a^'valley which has per- 
sisted throughout a period marked by crustal movement 
that has materially changed the attitude of the under- 
lying strata. 

antecilial (an-te-sil'i-al), a. [L. ante, before, 
+ dlium, eyebrow, 4-' -o?.] Same as *ante- 



The Antarctooamtt area thus includes what are regarded 
by Blandford, Lydekker and others as two separate 
realms, i. «., Neogasa (South and Central America) and 
Ifotogsea (Australasia, Polynesia and Austro-Malaysia), 
while Africa south of the Sahara was regarded as a re- 
gion or dependence of Arotogsea. 
' Science, Feb. B, 1904, p. 220. 

Antarian (an-ta'ri-au), a. and n. , I. a. Per- 
taining to or resembling the star Antares. — 
Antarian stars, stars of Secohi's third type, resembling 
Antares in having a fluted spectrum in which the dark 
flutlngs are sharply defined at their upper edge (toward 
the blue end of the spectrum) and fade out toward the 
red. They are far less abundant than Sirian and Arc- 
turlan stars, but still are not very rare. 
II. n. A star of the type of Antares. 

ant-cattle (ant'kaf'l), n. See ant-cow. 

ant-disk (^nt'disk), ». A circular space cleared 
of herbage around the nests of agricultural 
ants. Stand. Diet. 

anteal, a. 11. n. In ichth., the vomev; the 
anterior median bone of the cranium, imme- 
diately behind and below the maxillary bones. 
Starks, Synonymy of the Fish Skeleton, p. 508. 

Antebrachial index. See*index. 

antebrachium, n. 2. In ichth., the hypercora- 
eoid, a bone of the shoulder-girdle. Starks, 
Synonymy of the Fish Skeleton, p. 522. 



anteciliary (an-te-sil'i-a-ri), a. In the Lepi- 
doptera, situated before'the ciliary band, that 
is, before the band in front of the marginal 
fringe of the wings. Proc. Zool. Soc. Land., 
1902, n. 118. 

anteclypeus (an-te-klip'e-us), n. In entom., 
the anterior part of the" elypeus when that 
sclerite is divided into two parts. 

antecrochet (an-te-kroch'et), n. [L. ante, be- 
fore, -f- crochet^.'] A fold of enamel directed 
posteriorly from the anterior cross-crest, or 
protoloph, in such a tooth as the molar of a 
rhinoceros. Sometimes erroneously spelled 
anUcrochet. See out under *iooth. 

antecubital (an"te-kii'bi-tal), a. [L. ante, be- 
fore, -I- c«6itMS,f orearm : see cubitus.'] In anat., 
situated in front of the cubitus or forearm. 

antedoctorial (an"tf-dok-t6'ri-al), a. Prior to 
becoming a doctor. 

Our doctor in his wntedocttyriaX age was a student in 
Leyden. SoutliiCy, Doctor. 

anteSssive (an-tf-es'iv), a. [Irreg. < L. ante, 
before, -I- esse, be, -t- Ave."] In gram., noting 
the case which expresses position in front of. 
Amer. Anthropologist, Jau.-Maroh, 1903, p. 26. 

antefix, n. 2. An ornament on a vase so placed 
as to conceal the part where the handle joins 
the body. 

antefixal (an-te-flk'sal), a. [antefix + -at] 
Of, pertaining to, or of the nature of an ante- 
fix. S. Birch, Anc. Pottery, II. 7. N. E. D. 

antefnrcal (an-te-ffer'kal), a. [antefurca + 
-al.] In entom., "relating or pertaining to the 
antefurca. 

antehumeral (an-tf-hu'me-ral), a. In entom., 
situated in front of' the fo"re legs. Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1902j I. 77. 

antelios (au-te'li-os), n. [Gr. avrrikuoi;, opposite 
to the sun, < ami, opposite, -1- ^X«of, sun. Cf . 
anthelion.] The point in the heavens opposite 
to the sun.. [Eare.] 

antelo^e-beetle (an'te-lop-be''''tl), n. Aii 
American beetle, Borcus parallelus, of the 
family Lucanidee, with shorter jaws than the 
stag-beetles proper of the genus Zucanus. 

antemedial (an-te-me'di-al), a. In entom., 
situated before the middle," or cephalad of the 
theoretical middle transverse line, of the 
thorax: especially used in eoleopterology. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, 1. 184. 

antemedian (an"te-me'di-an), a. Same as 
^'antemedial. 

antenna, n. 2. (6) In BoUfera, a sjjur-like pro- 
cess bearing a tuft of setse and projecting from 
the mid-dorsal line close to the troohal disk. 
Same as coZcar 1, 4.^-4. In e/eci., the vertical con- 
ductor used in wireless telegraphy to send out 
electric waves (fiender) or receive them {re- 
ceiver). Phys. Bev., Sept., 1904, p. 197. 

Antennal gland, lobes. See ■''gland, ^lohe. 

Anteimary feet, the second and most important pair of 
swimming-feet in the Nauplius larva of crustaceans. 
These feet become the antennae of the adult.- Antennary 
gland. See *gland. 

antennular (an-ten'u-lar), a. Of the nature 
of or resembling an aiitennula or small an- 
tenna : as, antennular organs. Huxley. 

anteuodal (an-te-no'dal), a. [L. ante, before, 
-f- nodus, node.] In en'iom., situated before the 
nodus: referring to a vein, or nervure, or 
space, as in the wings of dragon-flies. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, I. 49. 

ante-partum (an-te-par'tum), a. [L. ante 
partum, before delivery.] In dbstet., prior to 
the delivery of the child. 

antephenomenal (an"te-fe-nom'e-nal), a. [L. 
ante, before, -I- NL. phsenomena : see phenom- 
enon.] Antecedent to phenomena; related 
to consciousness, considered as generating 



anthem 

phenomena, as a condition to contemplating 
them. 

antephenomenalism (an'te - ff - nom 'e - nal- 
izm),». The character of being antephenom- 
enal; the state of consciousness in so far as 
it generates phenomena. 

anteposition, ». 3. In jjaifeoZ., a forward dis- 
placement in the horizontal plane, especially 
a misplacement of the uterus. 

anteriad (an-te'ri-ad), adv. [anteri(or) + -ad^.] 
Toward the anterior end or surface of the body ; 
anteriorly. 

The rudiment of the gall-bladder which in the previous 
sta^e is very shallow and basin-like, and opens dorsad 
within the primary evagination of the proton, is, in ttie 
present stage, a somewhat deeper evagination of the 
ventral part of the posterior wall, and opens anteriad. 
Tra/ns. Amer. Micros. Soc, Nov., 1903, p. 66. 

anterodistal (an"te-r6-dis'tal), a. [L. 'an- 
terus, assumed positive of anterior, anterior, 
+ distal.] In entom., situated at the front end 
and away from the body. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1902, II. 275. 

anterodistally (an"te-ro-dis'ta.l-i), adv. In 
entom., at the front end and e"xtending away 
from the body : as, an antennal joint prolonged 
anterodistally into a strong spine. Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1900, I. 26. 

anterodorsal (an"te-r6-d6r'sal), a. Situated 
in front and on or toward "the back. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1903, I. 282. 

antero-external (an"te-i6-eks-t6r'nal), a. Sit- 
uated in front and on the outer side. Amer. 
Jour. Sci., Jan., 1904, p. 29. 

anterofixation (an"te-ro-fik-sa'shgn), n. [L. 
*anterus, positive of anterior, anterior, + E. 
fixaUon.] Fixation anteriorly, as of the uterus 
to the anterior abdominal wall in cases of retro- 
version of that organ. 

anteroflexion (an'te-r6-flek"shgn), n. A bend- 
ing forward. 

antero-inferior (an"te-r6-in-fe'ri-or), a. Situ- 
ated in front and below or on the under side. 
Buck, Med. Handbook, II. 413. 

antero-internal (an"te-r6-in-ter'nal), a. Situ-- 
ated in front and on the inner side. Amer. 
Jour. Sci., Jan., 1904, p. 32. 

anterolaterally (an"te-r6-lat'e-ral-i), adv. In 
an anterolateral position or manner. 

anteromedial (an"te-r6-me'di-al), a. Situated 
in front and toward the median line. Also 
anteromesial. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, 1. 258. 

anteromesial (an'^te-ro-mes'l-al or -me'zi-al), 
a. Same as *anteromedial. 

anteroposteriad (an"te-r6-pos-te'ri-ad), adv. 
[anter{ior) + posteri(or) + -ad^.] From in 
front backward, that is, from the anterior 
to.ward the posterior end or surface of the body j 
anteroposteriorly. 

The vitelline veins extend antero-posteriad in the ex- 
treme dorsal portion of the septum transversum. 

Trans. Amer. Micros. Soc., Nov., 1903, p- 58. 

anteroposteriorly (an'-'te-ro-pos-te'ri-or-li), 
adv. From the front to the back; fore and 
aft. 

anteropygal (an"te-r6-pi'gal), n. The median 
bony plate of a turtle's carapace immediately 
behind the posterior neural plate, which is 
borne upon the spinous process of a vertebra. 
In the cut under Chetonia, the line from Py runs to the 
anteropygal. The pygal plates are unsupported by any 
vertebrse, and may be three in number, in which case they 
are termed anteropygal, posteropygal, and marginal-py* 
gal. 

anterosuperior (an'te-ro-su-pe'ri-or), a. Situ- 
ated in front and on the upper part. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, I. 133. 

anteroventral (an"te-ro-ven'tral), a. Situ- 
ated in front and below or toward the ventral 
side. Buck, Med. Handbook, VII. 708. 

anteroventrally (an"te-r6-ven'tral-,i), adv. 
Forward and downward, or ventrally. 

antescript (an'te-skript), n. The writing which 
precedes (some other writing) as a prefatory 
note, or all that part of a letter which precedes 
the postscript, if there is one. Mrs. Browning, 
Letters, II. 164. [Bare.] J^. E. D. 

anthem, ». Hence — 2. A song or hymn ex- 
pressive of praise, patriotism, loyalty, etc., and 

set to music N'ational anthem, a song or hymn 

adopted by a particular country, either officially or by 
common consent, as a distinctive expression of devotion 
to it or to its ruler, such as "God Save the King," the so- 
call^l national anthem of the British people, and the 
"Star-Spangled Banner," the national anthem of the 
United States. The former is said to have been written 
and composed by Henry Carey (1698-1743) and first sung 
by him at a patriotic dinner in 1740. The "Star-Spangled 
Banner " was written by Francis Scott Key (1780-1843) in 
1814, while a prisoner on a British ship; was set, by his 



anthem 

desire, to the tune of "To Anacreon in Heaven," com- 
posed by John Stafford Smith (1760-1886) ; and was first 
Bung in Baltimore by Ferdinand Durang. 

anthemene (an'the-mea), n. [Anthemis + 
-ene.] A hydrocarbon, CjsHag, found in the 
blossoms of Anthemis nobilis. It melts at 64° C. 

anthemic (an'the-mik), a. Pertaining to or 
derived from Anthemis Anthemic acid, a color- 
less, silky, crystalline principle of bitter taste contained 
in Qerman camomile (Matricaria Chamomilla) and in 
Anthemis arvensie 

anthemidin (an-them'i-din), n. A tasteless 
crystalline principle contained in German 
camomile (Matricaria Chamomilla). 

anthemol (an'the-mol), n. lAnthemis + -oJ.] 
A compound, CioHigC), found in the oil of 
camomile as esters of tiglie and angelic acids. 
It is a viscous oil with an odor like camphor. 

antheridiophore (an-the-rid'i-o-for), n. [NL. 
antheridium + Gr. -^opoQ, < ^ipeiv, bear.] A 
gametophore bearing antheridia only. 

antherless (an'th6r-les), a. [anther + -less.'] 
Without anthers ; anantherous. 

antheromania (an"ther-o-ma'ni-a), ». [NL., < 
antliera, anther, + Gr. /iavia, mania.] In hot. , 
an excessive development of anthers. 

antherpetic (ant-her-pet'ik), a. Preventive 
or curative of herpes. 

anther-smut (an'th6r-smut), n. A fungus 
( Ustilago violacea) which attacks the anthers of 
the carnation and of other nearly related 
plants. 

Anthias (an'thi-as), n. [NL., < Gr. avBiaq, a 
sea-fish, Labrus or Serranus anthias, prob. < 
avBog, a flower.] A genus of brilliantly colored 
fishes found in warm seas, the species longest 
known being the barbier, A. anthias, of the 
Mediterranean. 

anthion (an'thi-on), n. [Gr. avri, against, + 
8slov, sulphur.] The trade-name of a solution 
of potassium persulphate used by photog- 
raphers to remove from their prints the last 
traces of sodium thiosulphate employed in 
washing. 

anthocarp (an'tho-karp), n. [Gr. av6og, flower, 
■ -I- KapwoQ, fruit.] ' Same as pseuctocarp. 

anthocarpium (an-tho-kar'pi-um), n. ; pi. an- 
thocarpia (-a). [NL.] Same as *anthoearp. 

anthocaulus (au-tho-k4'lus), n. ; pi, anthooauU 
(-U). [NL., < Gr. &v6og, flower, -t- KoxUq, stalk.] 
The pedicel or stalk of the trophozooid, the 
upper part of which becomes expanded and 
disk-shaped during development and is finally 
set free as the adult Fungia 

Anthoceros (an-thos'e-ros), n. [NL. (Lin- 
nsBus, 1753), referring'to the long-horned cap- 
sule ; < Gr. avdog, flower, + xepas, homed.] 
A genus of bryophy;tie plants, type of the fam- 
ily AnthoeerotacesB. it is distinguished from the 
other two genera of the family by having the prolonged 
capsule inclosed in a sheath only at the base, and by the 
clearly developed columella. There are 79 species, found 
growing on moist ground (rarely on decaying logs) in 
nearly all parts of the world. 

Anthocerotacese (an-thos^e-ro-ta'se-e), n. pi. 
[NL. (Sohiffner, 1895), < "Anthoceros (Antho- 
cerot-) + -acese.'] A family of bryophytie 
plants of the class Hepatic^, typified by the 
genus Anthoceros and containing the two other 
genera Notothylas and Dendroceros. it is char- 
acterized by the thalloid proembryonal generation, mo- 
noecious reproductive organs, the antheridia inclosed at 
first in the depressions of the thallus, the archegonia de- 
pressed, and the sporogonia with the Z-lobed capsules 
much prolonged beyond the thallus. There are more 
than 100 species, small plants resembling liverworts, 
widely distributed over the globe. 

Anthocerotales (an-thos'''e-r6-ta'lez), n. pi. 
[NL. (Sohiffner, 1895), < 'Anthoceros (Antho- 
cerot-) + -ales.] An order of cryptogamie 
plants of the phylum Bryophyta, class Bepat- 
iesB, coextensive with the family Anthocerota- 
cese, and regarded as intermediate between the 
Marchantiales and the Jungermanniales. 

antbocerote (an-thos'e-rot), ». [NL. Anthoce- 
ros.] A plant of the family Anthocerotaeeee. 
Amer. Nat., June, 1904, p. 479. 

anthocodium (an"th6-k6'di-um), «.; pi. antho- 
codia (-a). [NL., < Crr. awfof, flower, -I- kuS'm, 
lUideui, li'ead, esp. of a poppy or similar plant.] 
The free distal, tentacle-bearing portion of the 
body, as in alcyonarian polyps. Compare 
*anthostele, 

anthocyan, n. 2. A red coloring matter de- 
veloped in the young leaves of shade-loving 
plants when exposed to more light than they 
usually encounter.— 3. A preparation from 
the juice of the sweet or purple violet used m 
making syrup of violets and to color and flavor 



56 

liquors. Also anthokyan. Thorpe, Diet. Ap- 
plied Chem., I. 174. 

anthocyathus (an-tho-si'a-thus),>i.;pl. antho- 
cyathi (-tM). [NL.," < Gr. avdoc, flower, -I- 
KvaBoQ, cup.] The free discoid adult formed 
by the expansion of the upper part of the caly- 
cle of the trophozooid ia Fungia. Compare 
*anthocauliis. 

Anthodon (an'tho-don), n. [Gr. avBog, flower, 
+ bSovQ (oSavT-),' tooth.] A genus of thero- 
morphous reptiles of the family Paretagaand* 
from the Karoo formation of South Africa. 

antho-ecologist (an"tho-e-kol'o-jist), n. A 
student of flowers as correlated with their en- 
vironment ; a floral ecologist. 

antho-ecology (an"th6-e-kol'o-ji), n. [Gr. avdoQ, 
flower, -I- ecology.] 'the study of flowers in 
correlation with their environment; floral 
ecology. 

anthogenetic (an-thp-je-net'ik), a. Of or per- 
taining to anthogenesis. 

anthomaniac (an-tho-ma'ni-ak), n. [antho- 
mania + -ac (after majiioc).] One who is 
extravagantly fond of flowers. B. Smith, 
Moneyed Man, II. 321. [Rare.] N. E. D. 

Anthomedusse (an"tho-me-dii'se), n. pi. 1. 
An order of Sydromedussi marked by a regu- 
lar alternation of a sterile hydroid generation 
with a sexual generation of medusoids or other 

fonophores. Rigid permanent gouothecse and hy- 
rothecee Into which the hydroids are completely re- 
tractile are not formed. The sense-organs of the medu- 
soids are ocelli, and the generative organs lie in the 
wall of the manubilum. The hydroid may be colonial or 
not, fixed or free. Same as Gynmoblastea. 
2. [I.e.] The medussebuddedfrom polyps of the 
Tubularix, as distinguished from those budded 
from the polyps of the Campanularise. Com- 
pare LeptomedusiB. Baedkel. 

anthony (an'to-ni), n. [Orig. Anthony pig, 
also Tantony pig.] The smallest pig of a litter : 
from the fact that one of a litter was vowed to 
St. Anthony, patron saint of swineherds. 

anthophagOUS (an-thof'a-gus), a. [Gr. avdog, 
flower, + {jiayelv, eat.] blower-eating. 

anthophobia (an-tho-fo'bi-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
of0of, flower, + -0o/3k, < ipojielv, fear.] A mor- 
bid dislike or even fear of flowers. 

Anthophorab'ia (an"tho-fo-ra,'bi-a), n. [NL. 
(Newport, 1849), irreg.' iAnthopiiora + Gr. 
pioc, life.] A curious genus of hymenopterous 
parasites of the family Chalcididse. its species 
live, as A.retv^a, iuvthe nests of the wild bees of the 
genus Aiithopkora. They are remarkable in structure, 
the males having no compound eyes. 

Anthophoridse (an-tho-for'i-de), n. pi. [NL., 
< Anthophora + -idie.'l A family of solitary 
bees, of the superfamily Apoidea. it com- 
prises forms usually thickly clothed with hair and usually 
burrowing Into the earth, where they form earthen cells 
which they supply with pollen and honey for the sus- 
tenance of their young. 

Anthophyta (an-thof 'i-ta), ». pi. [Gr. avdoq, 
flower, + <^vt6v, plant.] 'The flowering plants: 
only occasionally used. A. Braun. 

a,ntnophyte (an'tho-fit), n. [Gr. a,vdog, flower, 
-I- ipmiv, plant.] One of the flowering plants. 
See * Anthophyta. 

anthopoma(an-tho-p6'ma), ».; ipl. anthopomata 
(-ma-ta). [NL., <<jrr. avdo'c, flower, -t- na/ia, lid.] 
One'of the spicular defenses, as calicos and 
opercula, found among the alcyonarian polyps. 

anthoptosis (an-thop-to'sis), n. [NL., < Gr. 
avBoc, a flower, -f- irraaii, a falling.] The fall 
or shedding of flowers. 

anthostele (an'tho-stel), n. [Gr. avdog, flower, 
-f- aTijMi, a pillar : see stele.] The proximal 
portion of the body of an alcyonarian polyp by 
which it is fused to the neighboring members 
of the colony. Compare *anthocoMwm. 

Anthostoma (an-thos'to-ma), n. [NL. (Nit- 
schke, 1869), <Gr. dvfof, "flower, -t- ardim, 
mouth.] A large genus of pyrenomyeetous 
fungi, mostly saprophytic. The perithecia are bur- 
ied in the bark or wood and are provided with necks. 
The spores are simple and are brown or black in color. 

Anthostomella (an"th6-sto-mel'a), n. [NL. 
(Saccardo, 1875), < AntJiostoma + 3im. -ella.] A 
large genus of pyrenomyeetous fungi having 
the perithecia covered by the epidermis of the 
host and a thin circular layer of dark mycelium. 
The spores are simple and are brown in color. Most of 
the species are saprophytic, but A.pisana attacks and 
kills the leaves of Cham^rops humius, 

anthotype (an'tho-tip), n. [Gr. dvflof, flower, 
-1- TvTTog, type.] A. furtive photographic print 
produced by the action of light upon paper 
treated with the expressed juice of flowers or 
plants. The petals of fresh floweijs are crushed to a 
pulp and moistened with water or alcohol ; the juice ex- 
pressed is strained through cloth and spread upon paper ; 



Anthrapalaemon 

and the paper thus prepared is exposed beneath a nega- 
tive. The light produces a change of color. The antho- 
type process was discovered by Sir John Herschel. Ee- 
cently the use of artificial coloring matters, as quinoline 
blue, curcuma, and a rapidly fadmg led, has been sug- 



anthracene, n. 2. A poisonous ptomaine ob- 
tained from cultures of the anthrax bacillus. 
—Anthracene acld-Uack, etc. see *aeid-hlaek, etc. 

anthracitization (an"thra-si-ti-za'shon), «. 
[anthracite -I- 4ze + -ation.'] The process of 
changing lignite or bitumin o us coal into anthra- 
cite. Athenseum, Oct. 17, 1903. 

anthracnose, n. 2. A name given to those 
diseases of plants which are caused by the 
attacks of fungi of the genera Glmosporium 
and Colletotrichum. Among the important diseases 
caused by Gloeosporium are : anthracnose of the almond, 
due to &. a/mygdalvn/wm ; anthracnose of the apple, 
caused by Q. fructigenum; anthracnose of the black- 
berry and raspberry, caused by O. Venetum ; anthrac- 
nose of the currant, caused by 6. Ribis; and anthrac- 
nose of the rose, caused by 6. RoHse. Among the diseases 
produced by Colletotrichum are : anthracnose of beans, 
caused by C. Linderrmthianum ; anthracnose of cotton, 
caused by C. Qoeaypii; anthracnose of the hollyhock, 
caused by C. Malvarum; anthracnose of melons, caused 
by C. lagenarium; and anthracnose of tomatoes, caused 
by C. phomoides. 

anthracnosis (an-thrak-no'sis), n. [NL.] Same 
as anthracnose. 

anthracolithic (an"thra-ko-lith'ik), a. [Gr. 
avdpa^, coal, + ?iWos, stone.] In geol., con- 
taining anthracite coal : specifically applied by 
the Geological Survey of India to a series of 
Permian strata metamorphosed to mica schists, 
with graphitic and anthracitie seams. Nature, 
May 26, 1904, p. 86. 

Anthracomartus(an "thra-k6-mar'tus),M. [NL. 
< Gr. avdpa^, coal, + (?) /idprvg, a witness.] 
A genus of fossil spiders in which the cephaP 
othorax is quadrangular and the abdomen is 
composed of 7 segments. It is found in the 
coal-measures of North America and Europe. 

Anthraconectes (an'^hra-ko-nek'tez), n. 
[NL., < (Jr. avBpa?, coal, -l-""i^/cr!?f, a swimmer.] 
A genus of extinct merostome crustaceans 
from the coal-measures of Illinois. 

anthraconene (an-thrak'o-nen), n. [Gr. avOpa^ 
(avdpaK-), coal, -I- -»- -I- -ene.] A resin found be- 
tween the coal strata near Schlan, in Bohe- 
mia. It is brownish black or, in thin layers, 
hyacinth-red. 

Anthracosia (an-thra-ko'si-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
avBpa^, coal, -I- L. -"o«(«s) + 4a^.] A fresh- 
water or estuarine genus of pelecypod mol- 
lusks, allied to living unios, found in the 
Carboniferous and Permian rocks. 

anthracotic (an-thra-kot'ik), a. [anthracosis 
(-ot-) + -ie.] Relating to or affected by an- 
thracosis. Jour. Exper. Med., V. 156. 

anthracotypy (an'thra-ko-ti*pi), n. [Gr. av- 
8pa^(a.v8paK-), coal, -I- rimog, type.] Printing 
by means of powdered charcoal or other colors ; 
inphotog., a process of reproducing subjects in 
tint oh thin transparent paper. The image on a 
bichromated gelatin film is treated with warm water, 
which causes it to swell and become sticky at the parts 
not affected by light. These parts are thereby adapted 
to receive and hold powdered colors, which by printing 
may be transferred to pajter. 

anthxaflavic (an"thra-flav'ik), a. [Prob. < an- 
thra(cene) + L. favus, yellow.] Noting an 
acid, ] .6-dihydroxyanthraquinone, CgHsOH- 
(CO)2C6H30H. It is isomeric with alizarin, 
and crystallizes in yellow needles which melt 
above 330° C. 

anthranil (an'thra-nil), n. [anthra{cene) + 
anil (indigo).] TTie anhydrid of anthranilie 

CO 
or orthoaminobenzoic acid, CfiHi < I . It is 

NH 
an oil with an odor resembling that of oil of 
bitter almonds. 

anthranilie (an-thra-nil'ik), a. [anthranil -t- 
-ic] Noting an acicf, orthoaminobenzoic acid, 
C6H4(NH^)C02H : so named because it was 
first obtamed by boiling indigo with potas- 
sium hydroxid, it has acquired great commercial 
importance in the manufacture of synthetic indigo. It 
melts at 115° C. and has a sweet taste. f 

anthranol (an'tkra-nol), n. [anthran{il) + -ol.] 
A substance, 9-hy"droxyanthracene, 

CeHi <^(^-^)>C6H4. It crystallizes in needles 

(-/ 
whi ch m elt, with decomposition , at 163°-170° C. 
Anthrapalaemon (an"thra-pa-le'mon), n. 
[NL., irreg. < Gr. avBpa^, coal, -I- NL. PalsB- 
mon, a genus of crustaceans.] The generic 
name of an extinct crawfish from the coal- 
measures of Illinois and Scotland. 



anthrapurpurin 

anthrapurpnrin, anthrapurpurine (an'thra- 
pfer'pu-rin), n. \anth^a(eene) + purpurin"^ 
A mordant color, a trihydroxyanthraquinone, 

■ C6H30H(CO)gC6H2(OH)2, iaomerie with pur- 
purin: sometimes called isoptirpurin, itisap- 
plisd in the same manner as alizarin, but produces a 
yellower or more flery red. The so-called yellow 'shades 
ot alizarin often contain anthrapurpnrin. See iralizarin. 

anthraquinolineCan'thra-kwin'o-lin), n. \an- 
thra(cene) + guinolme.]' A base, Ci7HiiN, 
formedbydistiUing alizarin 'blTiewitliziiic-duftt. 
It melts at 170° and boils at 446° C. It is related to both 
anthracene and quinoline in its structure. 

Anthraquinone red. See *redi. 

anthrarobin {an"thra-ro'bin), n. [anthracCene) 
+ Boh(inia) + -wi^.H A compound, 1.2-dihy- 
droxyanthranol, or 1.2.9-dihydToxyanthracene, 

C6H4<^°^>CH2(OH)2, formed by the reduc- 

CH 
tion of alizarin. It crystallizes in yellow leaf- 
lets or needles which melt at 208° C. Also 
called desoxyalizarin. 

anthrarufin (an"thra-ro'fin), re. lanihra(cene) 
+ ruf{pus) + ■drfi.'i A compound, 1.5-dihy- 
droxyanthraquinone, HOC6H3(CO)2CgH30H, 
isomeric with alizarin. It crystallizes in yel- 
low leaflets which melt at 280° C, and is used 
as a dyestuff. 

anthrasol (an'thra-sol), n. An oily substance 
possessing soothing and aitipruritio powers. 

anthrol (an'throl), n. [anthrlaeene) + -ol.'] A 
substance, 2-hydroxyanthracene, C6H4(CH)2- 
CeHsOH. It consists of leather-colored leaf- 
lets or needles which decompose at 200° C. 

anthrophotoscope (an-thro-fo'to-skop), n. 
[Irreg. < Gr. audpuiro^, man, '+ photoscope.] A 
photographic instrument having rotating glass 
disks on the marginal edges of which back- 
grounds and figures are mounted : these, when 
viewed through a long-focus lens, produce the 
effect of a peep-show. Also used in rephoto- 
graphing to change tbe grouping or back^ 
ground. 

anthropic, a- 2. [cap,] In geol., a term in- 
troduced by Sir J. W. Dawson to designate the 
human period, or the period of such Pleisto- 
cene and recent deposits as are found to con- 
tain human relics. It was divided by him into 
an early, or Palanthropio, and a late, or Nean- 
thropic, stage. See human ^period. 

anthropinism fan-thro'pin-izm), n. [Gr. avdp'i- 
■Kivof, of man (< avtppanog, man), + -ism.} The 
habit of considering everything as subordinate 
to man, or of considering things in relation to 
man and his needs and destiny, (xrant Allen. 
[Rare.] 

anthropinistic (an-thro-pin-is'tik), a. Of the 
nature of anthropinism ; considering things 
from a purely human standpoint, or in their 
relation to man only, firant Allen. [Rare. ] 

anthropism (an'thro-pizm), n. The doctrine 
or opinion that man is essentially different 
from, and contrasted with, everything else in 
nature, and the end for which the natural 
world was made. 

anthropistic (an-thro-pis'tik), a. Of or per- 
taining to the doctrine or opinion of anthro- 
pism. . 

anthropocentricism (an " thro -po- sen tn- 
sizm), n. The doctrine or opinion that the 
world, or the universe, has been made for man, 
and for the pui-pose of securing human welfare. 

anthropoclimatologist (an " thro - po ; kli - ma- 
tol'o-iist), n. One who makes a special study 
of tte relations of the weather or the climate 
to mankind. 

anthropoclimatology (an"thro-p9-kh-ma-toi - 
0-ii), n. [Gt. dv0pu7rof, man, + climatology.] 
I'he study of the mutual relations of climate 
and mankind, including all human interests ; 
the environment of a race or a nation ; the in- 
fluence of climate on the evolution of man. 

antliropocosmic(an'''thr6-po-koz'mik), a. [Gr. 
avBpu'Kot, man, + Kda/iiK, world.] Of man and 
nature. J. G. Schurman. 

anthropofagy, ». A simplified spelling of a»- 
thropophagy. ' - , 

anthropogeographer (an'thro-po-je-og ra- 
fer), n. A person who is versed in anthropo- 
geographical science. Brinton, Basis of Social 
Relations, p. 181. 

anthropogeographic (an"thr6-po-je-o-graf ik), 
a. Of or pertaining to anthropogeography. 

anthropogeography (an"thr6-po-je-og ra-fi), 
n. I Gr. avdp(M-o(, ma.r>, + geography.] Geog- 
raphy as related to man and the conditions 
of his habitat. 



57 

In our" estimation, anthropogeography is a convenient 
term imder which to include all those aspects of geog- 
raphy that deal with the relations of humanity, as a 
whole or divided into communities, to the earth, with 
which alone physical geography has to deal. "Applied 
Geography" might be taken as an alternative term, 
tliough on the whole it has a wider scope. " Political 
Geography " may be regarded as a subdivision or special 
application of anthropogeography, and therefore Prof. 
Katzel's latest work is a natural sequel to that on the 
more general subjects. Geog. Jour. (R. G. S.), XIII. 171. 

anthropoidometry (an"thro-poi-dom'e-tri), n. 
[Gr. avSpuTToeidrK, like a man (see anthropoid), 
+ -/ierpta, < jierpov, measure.] The measure- 
ment of the bodies of anthropoid apes. Amer. 
Anthropol., Oct.-Dec, 1903, p. 708. 

anthropolatric (an-thro-pol'a-trik), a. Of or 
pertaining to anthropolatry. 

anthropouth (an'thro-po-lith), n. Same as 
anthropoUte. 

anthropologically (an "thro - po - loj ' i - kal - i ), 
adv. In an anthropological way or direction. 

anthropology, n — criminal antliropology, that 
branch of anthropology which deals with the physical 
and mental characteristics of criminals. — Culture an- 
thropology, that branch ot anthropology which deals 
with the mental life of mankind, or with human activi- 
ties: opposed to physical anthropology, or somatology, 
which deals with the physical characteristics of man. 

anthropometer, ». 3. An instrument used for 

anthropometric measurements. 
anthropometrician (an "thro-po-mf-trish'an), 

n. [anthropometric + -ian.'] Same as aniivro- 

pometer, 1. Smithsonian Rep., 1890, p. 563. 
anthropometrics (an"thTo-po-met'riks), n. 

Same as anthropometry. 
anthropometrist (an-thro-pom'e-trist), n. 

One versed in anthropometry, or engaged in 

anthropometric investigations. 

Anthropiymetrista think growth in'height to be more or 
less antagonistic to growth in girth. 

G. S. Hall, Adolescence, I. 10. 

anthropomorph (an'thro-po- 
morf), re. [Gr. av0puffo,uop0of, 
of human, form, < avBpomoi, 
man, + /iopij>^, form.] An ele- 
ment in decorative act, de- 
rived from the human form., 
Saddon, Evolution in Art, 
p. 41. 

anthropomorphism, n. 3. 
In pragmatisUc philos., that 
philosophic tendency which, 
recognizing an absolute im- 
possibility in the attainment 
by man of any conception 

; that does not refer to human 

" life, proposes frankly to sub- 
mit to this as a decree of ex- 
perience and to shape meta- A""\^;p7,°'^p^^ p^"- 
physics to agreement with it. 
The term was first used in this sense by F. C. S. 
Schiller (Riddles of the Sphinx). See *humun- 
ism. 

anthropomorphological (an"thro -po -m6r -fo- 
loj'i-kal), a. Characterized by or of the nature 
of antfiropomorphology. 

-anthropomorphologically (an'thro -po -mor- 
f o - loj i - kal - i), adv. With anthropomorphic 
language. " McCosh, Divine Gov., p. 475. 

anthropomorphously (an"thro-po-m6r'fus-li), 
ado. In an anthropomorphous manner. 

anthropopsychic (an'''thro-po-si'kik), a. Of or 
pertaining to *anthropopsyehism (which see). 

anthropopsychism (an"thro-p6-sik'izm), n. 
[Gr. midpunog, man, + fvxv, soul, + -ism.] 
The doctrine of a God who is anthropomorphic 
in the vaguely magnified sense of bein^ per- 
sonal and spiritual, but not necessarily m the 
sense of having a human body : a term pro- 
posed by the Duke of Argyll, somewhat unnec- 
essarily, since none but the most primitive men 
believe in any other anthropomorphism than 
this. 

anthroposociologist (annhro-po-so-shi-ol o- 
jist), re. [Gr. dvdpavoq, man, -I- sociologist.] A 
sociologist who is primarily an anthropologist 
and who explains social phenomena for the 
most part by anthropologic principles; espe- 
cially, one of a group of writers, headed by 
Lapouge, who base their classification mainly 
on the cephalic index and hold that the doli- 
chocephalous races are superior and are des- 
tined to dominate all- others. Ward, Pure 

Sociol., p. 231. - - I,. „- "s 

anthroposociology (an"thro- po-so-shi-ol o-ji), 
n [Gr. avdpuwoc, man, + sociology.} boeiol- 
ogy as studied primarily from the point of view 
of the physical oharacteristicfe of population 
constituting social groups; specifically, the 




anti-apex 

science, or alleged science, which classifies the 
human races primarily by the cephalic index, 
arranging those of Europe in a hierarchy with 
the dolichocephalous races at the head. Jour. 
Polit. Econ., Dec, 1900, p. 76. 

anthropoteleological(an"thro-po-tel"e-o-loj'i- 
kal), a. [Gr. avdpavog, man, + teleological.] 
Pertaining to the teleological working of the 
human mind which adapts means to ends : dis- 
tmgm8h.ed.tiom.*theotekological, which applies 
to the teleological working' of the divine mind. 
Ward, Dynamic Sociol., I. 28. 

anthropoteleology(an"thr6-po-tel-e-oro-ji),». 
[Gr. avSpomoc, man, + teleology.'] Tte doctrine 
that the human mind always works teleologi- 
cally. Ward, Dynamic Sociol., I. 28. 

antnropotheism (an"thro-po-the'izm), n. [Gr. 
avBpomog, man, -I- 8e6c, God, + -ism.] A stage 
in the evolution of religion in which deities are 
conceived in the image of man and are often 
believed to be the surviving spirits of once 
powerful men. Ward, Dynamic Sociol., II. 257. 

anthropotoxin (an'thro - po - tok'sin), n. [Gr. 
avBpaizog, man, + To^{ui6v), poison, + -in^. ] A 
poisonous substance given off from the lungs. 

anthropozoic (an"thro-po-z6'ik), a. and n. 
[Gr. av6pai70(, man, 4- fw^, life.] I, a. Of 
the time of the existence of man; belonging to 
those recent geologic formations which have 
been deposited since the appearance of man 
upon the earth. 

II, «.. [cap.] The final member in the series 
Azoic, Eozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Csenozoic, 
Anthropozoic, or Psychozoic. 

anthropozoomprphic (an" thro- po- zo- o- m6r'- 
fik), a. [Gr. avSpuTToc, man, -I- f^ov, animal, 
-I- /lopipv, form, -I- -ic] In anthrop., partaking 
of the character of both man and animal: said 
in reference to animals which are believed by 
primitive tribes to be, or to have been, endowed 
with all the characteristics of their species and 
also with those of human beings, and to be 
able to assume animal or human form at will. 
It is rather a worship of the ancestors of the Snake 
clans, which are anthropo-zoomorphic beings, called the 
Snake youth and the Snake maid. 

An. Rep. Bur. Anwr. Ethnol,, 1897-98, p. 10O8. 

Anthuxium, re. 2. \l.c.] A plant of the genus 
Anthurium. A. Veitchii &nd A. jyarocgweanwrn are cul- 
tivated lor their foliage ; others, conspicuously A. Ait- 
drsmmim, for their showy spathes and spadices. The 
last-named has the spathe cordate and spreading, some- 
times very large, of an orange-red color varying to white. 

anthurus (an-thu'rus), re. [NL. < Gr. avOog, 
flower, -i- ovpa, tail.] A cluster of flowers at 
the end of a long stalk. Jackson. [Rare.] 

anthypophoretic (anf'hi-pof-o-ret'ik), a. Of 
the nature of an anthypophora. Urguhart, 
Works, p. 292. 

anti (an'ti), n. [Short for anti-monopolist, -pro- 
hibitionist, -imperialist, etc., according to the 
case.] One who is opposed to some proposed 
or undertaken course of action, policy, mea- 
sure, movement, or enactment, as, for example, 
to imperialism. [CoUoq.] 

anti-. (3) In ehem., a prefix used to indicate that two 
groups or two atoms which might react with each other 
are so separated in space that they do not readily do this. 
It is contrasted with the prefix eyn-. Thus in antiben- 
zaldoxime, CbHb-CH, the H and OH do not readily com- 

flON 

bine to form water, while in s^benzaldoxime, CgHs-CH, 

II 
such a combination takes place easily. NOH 

anti-abrin (an-ti-a'brin), re. [anti- + ab'rin.] 
The antibody to abrin. 

anti-albumid (au-ti-arbii-mid), re. A product 
of albuminous digestion characterized by its 
resistance to proteolytic ferments. 

anti-albumose, re. 2. In immun., a specific pre- 
cipitin corresponding to albumose. 

anti-amaryllic (an'ti-am-a-ril'lk), a. Noting 
a serum suggested for the treatment of yellow 
fever. Also anti-amarillic. 

anti- amboceptor (an - ti - am'bo - sep - tor), ». 
The antibody to an amboceptor. 

anti-antibody (an-ti-an'ti-bod-i), re.; pi. anti- 
antibodies (-iz). The antibody to any adapta- 
tion-product. 

anti-antidote (an-ti-an'ti-dot), n. A sub- 
stance that inhibits the action of an antidote. 

anti-antitoxin (an"ti-an-ti-tok'sin), n. An 
antibody resulting on immunization with an 
antitoxin, which counteracts the effect of the 
latter. 

anti-apex (an-ti-a'peks), re. The point oppo- 
site the " apex of the sun's way," toward 
which his motion in space is directed. Amer. 
Jour. Sci., Aug., 1903, p. 136. 



Antiarcha 58 antihemolytic 

Antiarcha (an-ti-ar'ka),- ». j?Z. [NL., said to anticipatorily (an-tis'i-pa-to-ri-li), adv. In anticytotoxin (an-ti-si-to-tok'sin), n. 8ame 

be < Gr. dvri, against,' + ap^yd^, rectum.] An anticipation ; beforehand. 'BtisMn, Notes, I. 71. as *antiajtolysin. 

ordinal term introduced by Cope for a group [Rare.] N. E. D. antidiabetic (an-ti-di-a-bet'ik), n. An agent 

of extinct ostraeoderm fishes characterized by anticipatoriness (au-tis'i-pa-to-ri-nes), n. In or medicine that will prevent or cure diabetes', 

their heavily plated head and abdomen. The psyehol., a complex feeling accompanying the specifically, a drug which diminishes the elim- 

head is articulated to the trunlt and two paddle-like pec- antecedent image in volition. ination of sugar. 

^^y.'''^^^Z^^:^''^Si^VtJ.^'%.tnrfpt ,^- -t«-dent image is not a volition, unless it in- anti-diastase (an-ti-di>s-tas), n An antibody 

richthys anil Asterolepie all its representatives are re eludes a certain realized anticipatoriness, which we may which inhibits the action ot diastase, 

stricted to the Devonian lonnations. describe roughly as -thE thought of a real happening.' AntidiCOmarian (an"ti - di - ko - ma'ri - an), n. 

antiarigenin (an"ti-a-rij'e-mn), «. lantiar ^\f ^"''^»*' '"*™'^- *° P»>''*°'-- P- ««»• Same as JriiMcoitanamte. ' 

+ L. -gen, produce," + -i)(2.] A crystalline antlClzS (an tik-iz), i). ».; pret. and pp. aji- antidiphtheritic (an''ti-dif- or -dip-the-rit'ik), 
compound, C21H30O5, obtained by the decom- ticized, ppr. antimzing. [antic + -»«e.] To „. ^„^u- + diphtheriiis + -ie.] Antagonistic 

position of antiarin. It melts at about 180° C. play antics ; cut capers ; caper about ; frolic, to the toxin of diphtheria : as, antidiphtheritic 

anti^arthrin (an-ti-ar'thrin), rt. [Gr. avH, Browning, Prince Hohenstiel, 1.1307. [Rare.] gerum. 

against, + apdpov, a, joint.] A compound ^-..{P-. ^. „ , „ ^««idip/i(A«Wtic serum has, in the few short years of 

formed by the condensation of tannin and anticlinal, a — An'ticlmal cells, parent-cells that per- its existence, so thoroughly proved its value and leliabil- 

saliffenin It is iispd as. a rATnerlv in nciite sist and do not produce antipodal cells. They may be (a) ity that the failure of other antitoxic serums to produce 

and Xnnl,. Lift ^^H vlff„^»H^^ inert (b) active (albuminigenousX or (c) cotyloid. Yeeque. equally good results has resulted in disappointment, and 
and Chrome ^out and rheumatism. -Anticlinal planes. , Same as *a»rfic!inaJ woJte.- in some distrust of serum therapy in general. 

antl-autOlysin (an'ti-a-tol i-sin), ». An anti- Anticlinal vauey, a valley whose general course follows Therapevtic Gazette Feb. 16, 1903, p. 97. 

body which will inhibit the action of the cor- the arch of folded strata: contrasted with a synclinal antidote, «.- Chemical antidote, an antidote which 
rfiHtioTirlinir aii+nWain ^^V' '^^'"^ lollows the trough. -Anticlinal vertebra. comMnps Jhemicanv^ith^hTnoiam^ an innocu- 

responclmg autolysin. See *»er«e6ra.- Anticlinal walls, walls cutting the comtaMs chemically with the poison to toim an innocu 

antibacterial, a. 2. Preventing the action surface, or periclinal walls at right angles. Also an«- °"i.j°'"P°"i . .^ ... .... 

or development of bacteria. Med. Record, elinalvlaneg. antidromal, a. -Antidromal torsion, a twisting of 

Mar. 28, 1903, p. 511. anticfinorium (an-ti-kli-no'ri-um), ». ; pi. atwming stem or organ m a direction opposite to that ot 

antibacteriolytic (an'''ti-bak-te"ri-o-lit'ik), a. antielinoria (-a). [NL., < anticlme + -orium.-] antidrome (an'ti-drom), n. and a. [Gr. avrl- 

ianti- + hacteriolyUc.'] Antagonistic to bae- A mountain formed by an anticline ; a series Sooimc : see anUdromous.'] I. m. Same as */ie*- 

teriolytic action. of folds in which the anticlinal type predomi- erodrome. 

antiballooner (an'ti-ba-16n'6r), n. In textile- nates: a series of great arches with many jj „ Same as o«fi«?roTOO«s 

manuf., a device employed on a ring-spinning minor undulations. The blaze reaction, whether unequivocal (homodrome) 

frame to restrict the centrifugal bulging of antl-ClOCKWlSe (an-ti-klok wiz), a. and adv. or equivocal (aratidrome), requires short strong currents 

the yarn during spinning. Nasmith, Cotton I. a. Noting or characterized by a rotatory for its manifestation. Nature, Sept. 18, 1902, p. 191. 

Spinning, p. 356. , motion contrary to that of the hands of a anti-enzym (an-ti-en'zim), n. The antibody 

antibenzenepyrine (an'^ti-ben-zen-pi'rin), n. clock : as, an anti-clockwise direction. to an enzym. Also antiferment. 

[Gr. avTi, against, + E. benzene + dr. irvp, II. adv. In an anti-clockwise manner. We have already seen that bacteria aie not digested in 

fire, + -ine^.'] The trade name of a material anticoagulant (an'''ti-k6-ag'ii-lant), a. and n. the alimentary canal and it is a familiar fact that ascar- 
for use in scouring clothing and textile fabrics \anti- + coagulant.'] I. a. Possessing the prop- Wes can survive the digestive jmces and it has recently 
generally, it is used in order to avoid or to diminish erty of v.^vAvas or preventing coagulation, "S.!^^ '^%Xt^t ^Sat fs'mTrl^Sip°o?tatt\S3 
the danger of flre from using ordinary benzin, which is especially Ot the blood. Buck, Med. Handbook, interesting is the fact that the human stomach wall con- 
liable to become ignited by electric sparks produced by V. 493 tains an anti-enzyme to its own ferment. 
ffs'ifd"?rctS'^?6S'6rpe?ctt.tSrrs?S II.». Any agent wMch retards orprevents Xa»«« April4,i903 p 946. 
gravity .700, 20-25 per cent, hydrocarbon oil of specific coagulation. antl-epitneuai (an-ti-ep-i-the li-al;, a. Noting 

gravity .825.-8.30, and 10-12 per cent, magnesia soap. anticoagulin (an'''ti-ko-ag'u-lin), ». An anti- a serum obtained on immunization with epi- 

antibiotic, a. 2. In Mol., injurious or deadly body to a eoagulin. ' " thelial cells and accordingly containing epi- 

to the living substance: as, an arettftjoijc antiC(Elous(an'''ti-se'lus), o. InorwiW*., noting theliotoxins. 

secretion. that condition of the intestine in which its anti-expansionist (an'ti-eks-pan'shon-ist), «. 

Glandular powers directed to the production of a ^"^^^ ^^^ united by the mesentery and are al- In recent United States polities, one who is 

bactericidal, or at least antibiotic substance. temately turned in opposite directions. opposed to the expansion of the United States 

Pftaos. rrans. JJoy. Soc. (London), 1894, ser. B, 186. 312. anticoherer (an'''ti-kp-her'6r), n. [anti- + by acquisition or conquest of new territory 

atitiMpriTinrrTininV Can'ti hlnn n rai'ik^ n coherer.] A device which, like a coherer, is a beyond the seas, 
and « ff +yrorrAS + L^V "^^tector of electric waves, but whose resist- antifebrine (an-ti-feb'rin), n. Acetanilide : 

Curative ^ Ltarrh 0^07 ^rrhel Buck ^'""e ^^ increased by them. employed in medicine as an antipyretic. 

Med Handbook I 103 S°"°"''^*- ^"''"'' anticomplement (an-ti-kom'ple-ment), ». The antiferment, ». 2. A specific antibody which 
TT' » A remedv nosspssinff thic tironertv antibody to a complement. Substances of this will inhibit the action of the corresponding 

o««V/,^'™ i^^'t- ^^^ ■\ „ T „Trh„^-^/ ■ \ order result by immunizing animals with normal serum; ferment. The gastio-intestinal mucous membrane and 

aullDOOy lan ti-ooa-i;, n. , pi. antiooaies (-iz^ they inhibit the action of the corresponding complements, possibly all the tissues of the animal body probably pro- 

[anti- + body.] A body or substance which anticor (an'ti-kor*), m. [Also antieore, antecor, t«<^' themselves against autodigestion by such means, 
inhibits the action of another substance. Also anticour- anti- + L cor heart] A circum- antife'ver-tree (an-ti-fe'v6r-tre), n. Same as 
called antisubstance and, as a general term, scribed swelling or 'slough on the neck of a fever-tree, 1. 

adaptation-product. See *adaptation-product horse in the region of the collar, resulting from antlfony, «. A simplified spelling of am%fe(»iy. 

and Hmm'unity. pressure of badly fitting harness or from irritat- antifrasis, n. A simplified spelling of anUph- 

The reaction' is caused by the development within the ing masses of dirt, sweat, or hair under the '"/?*• . ■ c , ■ ^ 

blood-serum of the injected animal of an a?iii-6odj/ or a harness antlircezing (an-ti-fre zing), J), a. Not capable 

property or substance which causes a certain reaction A_tJ„„n'i-i crrrm-n Sep *n™«nl ot freezing: preventive of freezing, 

wjththeserum homologous to the one injected. AntlCOStl grOUp. bee ■'groups. antifflolml™ ran-ti-rfoh'i-i linl « A sT>finJfin 

Med. Record, June 13 1903, p. 953. anticrecp (an'ti-krep), a. In mech., prevent- antlglODUim (an-ti-gloD Y-^mi,n. A specitic 
. , ^. ^,-, ., , ^ r .• _L ing creeping: applied specifically to devices for J>r??iPitp corresponding to globuhns. 

antlbrqnuc (an-ti-bro'mik), a. andn. [antt- + keeping the rails of a railway from creeping Antlgonia (an-ti-go'ni-a), n. [NL., < (?) Gr. 

Gr./3p(J/«)f, smell, + -«c.] I. a. Deodorant. or moving lengthwise, and for diminishing the 'Avnyowf or 'Afn)'(}i7?, a personal name.] A 

II. n. A deodorant. lengthwise motion of flat leather belts upon genus of fishes allied to the boar-fish, Capros, 

anticatnode (an-ti-kath'od), ». The plate, their pulleys. found in tropical seas. The color is salmon- 

often of platinum, placed opposite the cathode „„*j.j^_«g ■/g^jj.ti.ijjip'tik) „ [Qp i^^/ red and the body is much compressed, being 

in a vacuum-tube, on which the cathode rays, against" + /cpijrrdf, hidden.] In 'hiol., serving deeper than it is long. 

or streams of electrified particles, impinge to conceal or fitted for concealing one organ- Antlgonild8B(an-ti-go-ni'i-de),«.jpi. Thefam- 

and thus produce the Rontgen rays. jg^ to the disadvantage of another : as con- ^l/ ot boar-fishes. The principal genera are 

anticeltma (an'ti-sel-ti na), ». A compound ot trasted with procrypUc serving to hide an Capros ana Antigonia. Also Caproidae. 

urea and mercury which does not precipitate organism for its own 'welfare. -Anticryptlc ^°*^°P?»er-plant (an -ti-go 'fer-plant), n. 

albumen : used hjrpodermically in alfections of ooFors, in zosl., those colors which cause an aninM to [<»»<»- + goplier + plant.] Same as mole-tree. 

the cornea and iris. resemble its surroundings, or some other species, and antigtavltate (an-ti-grav'i-tat), v. i. [anti- + 

anticephalalgic (an'''ti-sef-a-larjik;, a. and n. thus facilitate the capture of prey. Thus some spiders gravitate.] To rise from the surface of the 
[Gr aj^n, against + .e^Xi^Xyia, headache + "i^Trins^cS.Vht alwe^f sorai?2or^^^^^^ earth ; to be repelled, instead of being attracted 

-tc] I. o. Preventive or curative ot headache, snow in winter and the earth in summer that it can ap- like ordinary matter, in a gravitational field 

II. n. A remedy possessing such properties, proach itsprey unnoticed. . of force. 

antichlorin (an-ti-kl6'rin), m. Same as anii- anticyclic (an-ti-si'klik), a. In mai/j., two on The author refers to Hovenden's theory of a substance 
chlor a circle, the other two inverse as to that circle : or fluid which, when uninfluenced by external forces, 

antichretiC (an-ti-ki-e'tik), a. [antichresis said of four points. rises from the surface of the earth or "a«%ram«a«««" 

"e^)+ LjVf the nature of antichresis :as, anticyclonar(an-ti-si'klo-nal), a. Same as ^.. , ^. ^';""': "n^. June, 1904, p. 250. 
an anfc/srertc agreemeut or contract. an«c!/ciowic.-Anticyclonal gradient, the baromet- antinalation (an ti-ha-la suon), a. Counter- 

atitiphromeCan'ti-krom), ». [anti- + chrome.] ric gradient directed away from the center of an anti- acting the ettects Ot Halation — Antlhalatlon 

A „^o „^,^T, tr, oortoin niirmpnta whioh are cyclone, especially in the outer portions ot the anti- plate, a photographic dry plate so prepared that the rays 
A name given to certain pigments wnien are „y„,o„e. reflected from the glass-support do not affect the sensi- 

free from the defects of those m which chrome anticyclonic, «.-Galton'santicyclonlc law. See "7. «'™- , . , ,,. ^- ,,- -. 

or chromium IS an ingredient. *law. antlhemolysm (an''ti-he-mol'i-sin), «. In 

antichymosin (an-ti-ki'mo-sin), n. An anti- anticytolysin^ (an-ti-sl-tol'i-sin), n. The anti- physiol. chem., an adaptation-product which 
body which will inhibit the coagulating action body to a cytolysin. inhibits the action of the corresponding hemol- 

of chymosin on milk. These cytolytic or, as some prefer to call them, cy- y^™. Its action is dependent upon the simul- 

anticipant a. II. ». One who anticipates or totoxic sera, when introduced into the living bodies of taneous formation of an anti-amboceptor and 
looks forward to something; an anticipator: the species from which the cells inciting their forma- an anticomplement. Also anUhsemolysin. 

\s,"t],esweetanUcipantot%wn," B.Taylor, ^^^f^^rJi^'^^^^^^^yX^^^J^lZT^.^t^^^^^raolytic^^^^ 
Poems of the Orient, p. 396. toxic substances. These are called anticytolysine or i^g hemolysis. Saence, May 27, 1904, p. 831. 

Anticipating intermittent. See*intermittent. anticytotoxlns. Jfed. Uecord, Feb. 14, 1903, p. 247.- Also antiheemolytic. 



antiheterolysin 

antiheterolysin (aTi"ti-het-e-rol'i-sin), n. An 

antibody resulting on immunization with a 

heterolysin. 
antihidrotic (an-ti-M-drot'ik), a. Same as 

anhidrotic. 
antihydrophobic (an«'ti-hi-dro-f 6'bik) , a. [anti- 

+ hydrophobia + -ic] Preventive or curative 

of rabies. 
antihydropic (an"ti-lu-drop'ik), a. and n. [anti- 

+ hydrop{sy) + -ic.} I. a. Curative of dropsy. 
li, n. A medical agent employed in the 

treatment of dropsy. 
anti-immune (an-ti-i-mun'), a. Adverse to an 

immune body — Anti-immune body, the aotibody 

to an amboceptor. Such bodies result on immunization 

with specific immune bodies (amboceptors). 

The " anti-body " prevents the linking of the immune 
body to the cell receptor and hence acts as an anti-im- 
mune body. Med, Record, Feb. U, 1908, p. 247. 

anti-imperialism (an"ti-im-pe'ri-al-izm), n. 
The principles or spirit of the anti-imperialists. 

anti-imperialist (an"ti-im-pe'ri-a,l-ist), a. and 
n. I. a. Pertaining to the idea's of the anti- 
imperiaUsts. 

n. ». One who is opposed to imperialism, 
or to the spirit, principle, or methods of em- 
pire; specitically, in United States polities, one 
who is opposed to the acquisition and govern- 
ment of dependencies beyond the seas by the 
arbitrary will of President or Congress, with- 
out regard to the rights of the people to self- 
government. In use especially since the Span- 
ish-American war of 1898. 

anti-imperialistic (an"ti-im-pe"ri-a-lis'tik), a. 
Same as *anti-impenalist. 

anti-intermediary (an"ti-in-ter-me'di-a-ri), a. 
Used only in the following phrase Anti-Inter- 
mediary body. Same as -kanti-amJbocept&r. 

The next experiment was to determine whether any 
action was exerted by venom upon the complements of 
these sera. For the purpose of obtaining the serum-com- 
plement free from the intermediary body, the rabbit was 
treated with dog's serum heated to 56° C. In this way 
the anti-intet'Tnediary body was obtained, which, when 
heated to 66° C. (to remove rabbit's complement) and 
added to fresh dog's serum, neutralized the action of the 
latter upon rabbit's corpuscles. From this it could be 
concluded that the intermediary body of the dog's serum ' 
was neutralized by the anti-intermediary body contained 
in the immunized rabbit's serum, leaving behind the 
pure dog's complement in the fluid. 

Jour. Exper. Med., VI. 299. 

anti-isolysin (an'''ti-I-sori-sin), n. An anti- 
body which will inhibit the action of the cor- 
responding isolysin. 

antikamnia (an-ti-kam'ni-a), n. [Irreg. < Grr. 
avri, against, -I- Kctfivetv, suffer, be ill.] The 
trade-name of a preparation for medicinal use, 
antipyretic and anodyne in its action. It is 
said to contain acetanilide. 

antikinase (an-ti-Hn'as), n. Inphysiol. chem., 
a substance "which inhibits or prevents the ac- 
tion of a kinase : such bodies occur in blood- 
serum. 

antilactase (an-ti-lak'tas), «. An antiferment 
which will inhibit the cleavage of lactose into 
glucose and galactose by means of lactase. 

antilactoserum (an'''ti-lak-to-se'rum), n.; pi. 
antilactosera (-ra). A serum containing the 
antiprecipitin corresponding to lactoserum, 
which will therefore inhibit the action of the 
latter. 

antileucotozin (an'*'ti-]ii-k6-tok'sin), n. The 
antibody to a leucotoxin. 

Antilopine kangaroo. See *Tcangaroo. 

antilysin (an-ti-li'sin), n. [Also erron. antili- 
«i».] The antibody to a given lysin. 

antilytic, a. 2. Inhibiting the lytic action of 
a substance. 

antimalarial (an''''ti-ma-la'ri-al), a. [anti- + 
malaria + -al.} Preventive or curative of ma- 
laria. ^ 

antimephitic (an'''ti-me-fit'ik), a. lanti- + 
mephitis + -ic] Tending to purify the atmos- 
phere ; destructive of noxious emanations. 

antimeron (an-tim'e-ron), «.; pi. antimera (-ra). 
[NL.: see antimere.^ Same as anUmere. 

antimerous (an-tim'e-rus), a. Antimerie ; per- 
taining to paired organs. 

antimetrically (an-ti-met'ri-kal-i), adv. As 
against the metidc system of weights and mea- 
sures. [Nonce-word.] 

The questions propounded . . . are clearly biassed a»- 
tiTnetricaUi/. 

Electrical World and Engineer, Nov. 28, 1903, p. 867. 

antimetropia (an''''ti-me-tr6'pi-a), «. _ [NL., < 
avri, against, + fierpov, measure, + uf, eye.] 
A condition in which myopia exists in one eye 
and hypermetropia in the other. 



59 

antimetropic (an''''ti-me-trop'ik), a. Relating 
to or of the nature of antimetropia. Optical 
Jour., June 2, 1904, y. 977. 

antimiasmatic (au'"ti-mi-az-mat'ik), a. [anU- 
+ miasma{t-) + -ic] Same as *antvmalarial. 
Amer. Physician, Jan., 1903, p. 14. 

antimicrobic (an'''ti-mi-kr6'bik), a. [anti- + 
microbe + -jc] Destructive to, or inimical to 
the development of micro-organisms : as, anti- 
microhic sera. Encyc. Brit.,AXVl. 69. 

Anttmonial cup, a driuking-cup made of glass of anti- 
mony, claimed to impart the emetic antimony compounds 
to the contained liquid.— Autlmonial nickel, powder. 
See *nickel, powder. 

AUtimonious sulphid, a substance occumng as anatural 
mineral, stibnite, the chief source from which antimony 
and its other compounds are obtained. Artificially pre- 
paredj it was formerly called mineral kermea and golden 
svlphid of anUmony; it ia still occasionally used in medi- 
cine, but the official preparation usually contains a little 
of the oidd of the metal. 

antimonsoon (an'''ti-mon-s8n'), n. [anti- + 
monsoon.'] 1. A current of air moving in a 
direction opposite to that of the monsoon : it 
may lie above the monsoon proper, but is gen- 
erally strongest on the west side of it; the 
northerly wind which opposes the principal 
southwest monsoon of India, and is overcome 
by it. — 3, A northerly wind of the Gulf States 
opposed to the southeasterly winds that draw 
inward from the Gulf toward the dome of the 
western continent in the spring and summer 
seasons and constitute light monsoon winds. 

Antimony glass. See glass of anitimwny, under glass.— 
Antimony OClier, a name sometimes given to oxi- 
dized ores of antimony when of earthy or pulverulent 
texture. — ^Feathered antimony, refined metallic anti- 
mony showing distinct crystalline structure by feather- 
like markings on the surfaceof the ingot. — Plumose an- 
timony. Same as feathered -kantimony. — Taxtatlzed 
antimony. Same as tartar emetic. 

antimonyl (an'ti-mo-nil), n. [antimon{y) + 
-yl, < Gr. v\ii, matter, substance.] In chem., a 
compound radical having the constitution SbO 
and exhibiting the valence of a monad. 

antimony-salt (an'ti-mo-ni-sMt''''), n. A trade- 
name for a double salt of antimony fluoride 
and ammonium sulphate which has the formula 
SbF3(NH4)2S04. It is sold as a substitute for 
tartar emetic, and is used chiefly as a fixing 
agent for tannin in the application of the basic 
colors. 

Antimora (an-tim'o-ra), n. [NL., < (?) Gr. 
avHfiopoi, corresponding, part to part, < dvrl, 
opposite to, -I- ftepog, part {fiApog, lot).] A genus 
of deep-sea Gadidse, allied to the ling. 

antinenralgic (an'''ti-nu-ral'jik), a. and n. 
[anti- + neuralgia + -ic.] I. a. Curative of 
neuralgia. 

II. n. A remedy employed in the treatment 
of neuralgia. 

anting-anting (an'ting-an"ting), rt. [Tagalog 
anting-anting, a charm, amulet : same as Malay 
anting-anting, an ear-ring.] A charm supposed 
to protect th6 owner from injury, especially 
from bullets. [Philippine Is.] 

antiniad (an-tin'i-ad), adv. [Appar. irreg., < L. 
ante, before, + 4%"^ + 4- + -adfi.] Forward ; 
toward the anterior portion of the cranium, 
like the horns of a musk-ox. [Bare.] Sir J. 
Richardson, Zool. of the ' Herald.' 

antinion (an-tin'i-on), n. [Gr. avri, against, 
opposite to, + Iv'ujv, the back of the head.] 
The antinial region. See anUnial. 

autinonnin (an-ti-non'in), n. A trade-name 
for a mixture of orthodinitrocresol, soap, and 
glycerol, used in very dilute solution as a dis- 
infectant and preservative. 

antinosine (an-tin'o-sin), n. [Gr. avri, against, 
-I- voaoc, disease.] The sodium salt of nosophen 
(tetra-iodo-phenolphtalein), a bluish, water- 
soluble powder, used as a substitute for iodo- 
form. 

antiodontalgic (an'^ti-o-flon-tarjik), a. [anti- 
+ odontalgia + -ic] I. a. Relieving tooth- 
ac'he. • 
II. n. A remedy for toothache. 

Antiopa butterfly. See butterfly. 

antiqphidic (an"ti-o-fid'ik), a. A term applied 
by Vital to a serum devised for the treatment 
of snakebite, and supposedly of universal effi- 
cacy. It is a mixture of equal parts of bothropic 
and antierotalic serum. 

antiparallelogram (an'^'ti-par-a-lero-gram), n. 
Same as ^contraparallelogram. 

antiparamoecious (an'^ti-par-a-me'shus), a. 
Applied to a serum resulting on immunization 
with paramoscium, an organism belonging to 
the protozoa. 

antiparasitic (an'ti-par-a-sit'ik), a. and n. 



antipole 

[anti- + parasite + -ic.} I, a. Inimical to 
parasites. 

II. n. A remedy employed for the destruc- 
tion or removal of parasites. 

antipathacean (an'^ti-pa-tha'se-an), a. and n. 
lAntipathaeea -t- -an.] I. a. I'ertaining to or 
having the characters of the Antipathacea. 
II. n. One of the Antipathacea. 

Antipatharia, n. pi. 2. An order or a suborder 
of Zoantharia. They are colonial and tree-like in form, 
with tentacles and mesenteries 6 to 24 in number and a 
skeleton in the form of a branched chitinoid axis, devel- 
oped from the ectoderm, which extends throughout the 
colony. The "black corals" belong in this group, which 
includes the families Savagliidse, Antipathidee, and Den- 
drobrachiidee, 

Antipathldea (an'ti-pa-thid'e-a), n.pl. [NL., 
< Antipathes + -idea.] An order of colonial 
Zoantharia paramera with a spinose, horny, 
usually branching axial skeleton on which the 
zooids are seated. Six tentacles are usually longer 
than the others, and six primary mesenteries are always 
present. It includes the families AnHpathidse, Leio- 
pathidas, and Dendrobrachiidee. 

antipedal (an-tip'f-dal), a. [Gr. avri, against, 
+ Jj.pes (ped-), foot, -t- -al.] Situated opposite 
to the foot : as, the antipedal area of a mollusk. 
Lankester. 

antipepsin (an-ti-pep'sin), n. The antibody 
to pepsin, which inhibits the action of the lat- 
ter. 

antipeptone, n. 2. In immunity, a specific pre- 
cipitin corresponding to peptones Fibrin an- 
tipeptone, antipeptone obtained from fibrin. 

autipericcelous (an''''ti-per-i-se'lus), a. In 
ornith., having ^hesecondintestinal loop open, 
right-handed, and inclosing the third, which 
is left-handed and closed. 

anti-pest (an ''■'ti- pest), a. Same as *anti- 
plague. 

antiphagocytic (an^'ti-fag-o-sifik), a. De- 
structive to phagocytes.— Antiphagocytic serum, 
a serum which causes the destruction of phagocytes. 

An antiphagocytic serum, prepared in this sense, has 
produced its demolishing effect not only upon the mac- 
rophages, but also upon their enemies, the useful micro- 
Med. Record, July 18, 1903, p. 83. 



antiphase (an'ti-faz), n. and a. I. n. Oppo- 
sition of phase, or difference of phase amount- 
ing to one half period or 180 degrees. 
II. a. Of or pertaining to an antiphase. 

antiphonic, a. 2. In anc. Gr. music, of or per- 
taining to the interval of an octave : opposed 
to *paraphonic. 

antiphthisical (an-ti-tiz'i-kal), a. [anti- + 
phthisic + -al.] Same as aniiphthisic. 

anti-plague (an'^ti-plag'), «• Used in the 
treatment or as a preventive of plague : as, 
anti-plague serum. 

antiplanat (an''''ti-pla-nat'), n. [G. antiplanat, 
< Gr. avTi, against, -f L. planatus, made plane : 
see planation.] A combination of lenses, in- 
vented in 1881 by Adolph Steinheil, in which 
there are two members having large opposite 
aberrations which correct each other. 

antiplanatic (an''''ti-pla-nat'ik), a. Used, er- 
roneously, for aplanatic. 

antiplateau (an'''ti-pla-t6'). n. An area in 
the general ocean-floor which sinks to a greater 
depm than the average sea ; a deep. Such areas 
are contrasted with plateaus, and extend downward 
from the ocean-floor in much the same manner in which 
plateaus protrude above the continental surface. Cham- 
berlin and SaM»bury, Geol., I. 8. 

antiplenist (an-ti-ple'nist), n. [anti + plenum 
-I- -ist.] One who does not believe that space 
ii a plenum (wholly occupied with matter) ; a 
vacuist. 

antipneumococcic (an''''ti-nii-mo-kok'sik), a. 
[antt- -t- pnewmococcus + -ic] Tending to 
destroy or prevent the development of pneu- 
mococci : as, an anUpnev/moeoeeie serum.. Mn- 
cyc. Brit., XXXL 526. 

antipodagric (an"ti-po-dag'rik), a. and n. 
[anti- + podagra + -ic.] I. a. Curative of gout. 
II. n. A remedy for gout. 

Antipodal cone, triangle. See *cone and 
■^'triangle. 

antipoint, «. (6) Given any system of coaxal 
circles, another system of coaxal circles may 
be constructed such that every circle of either 
system cuts orthogonally every circle of the 
other system. The limiting points of either 
system are the antipoints of the limiting points 
of the other svstem. 

antipole, «• 3. In cytol, a term applied to 
one of the two poles of the karyokinetic 
spindle of the dividing cell, the term pole be- 
ing reserved for the one under immediate con- 
sideration. 



antipole 

antipolo (an-te-p6'16), n. [Tagalog name.] 
A name in the Philippines of the fertile bread- 
fruit tree (Artocarpus communis), the sterile 
form of which is called (in Bisayan) coW. The 
seeds, sometimes called bread-nuts, are roasted and 



60 

Jews. The name is given especially to those who have 
participated in the agitation against the Jews in Germany, 
Russia, and Austria which began about 1878. 
Anti-Semitic (an'ti-sf-mit'ik), a. Of or per- 
taining to the Anti-Semites 

t _xf o jAi / //4.: ««™.': 



eaten like those of the jackfruit, ank the milky latex is Anti-Semitism (an"ti-sem'it-izm), n. The agi- 
tation conducted by the Anti-Semites or its 
motives ; antagonism to the Jews. 
antisepsine (an-ti-sep'sin), n. A colorless 
crystalline compound, C6H4Br.NH.CH3CO, ob- 
tained by addiiag bromine to a solution of 
acetanilide in glacial acetic acid ; para-brom- 
acetanilid. It is antipyretic. Also called asep- 
sine. 



used for bii'd-lime and as pitch for calking boats.' Canoes 
are made of the logs, but they do not resist exposure to 
the weather and must be painted and kept covered when 
out of the water. The wood is soft and of a yellow color. 
It is used for interior woodwork in construction, but is 
not suitable for posts or sleepers. Also called tipolo, and 
on the island of Guam dugdug. See Artocarpua, bread- 
fruit, -kbread-nut, and -irdugdtig. 

antiprecipitin (an'ti-pre-sip'i-tin), n. The 



^^fl^L'lA^l^':^'"^'^:}^!^,'^^^^ anti^eptol (an-ti-sep'tol), n, lani^epm 



the action of the latter. See ^antibody. 

antipruritic, a. II. «. A remedy which tends 
to relieve itching. 

antipudic (an-ti-pli'dik), a. Used or worn to 
prevent shame ; intended to cover the puden- 
dum, for the sake of decency. 

The men in certain islands [of Melanesia] wear only 
aniipudic garments. Deniker, Eaces of Man, p. 499. 



-oi.] A trade-name for a solution of 25 parts 
of cinchonine sulphate in 2,000 parts of water, 
mixed with a solution of 10 parts of iodine and 
10 parts of potassium iodide in 1,000 parts of 
water. It is used as an antiseptic. 
antiserum (an-ti-se'rum), n. ; pi. antiserums 



antitoxic 

destroy or hinder the development of staphy- 
lococci. Med. Record, March 28, 1903, p. 510. 

antisteapsin (an-ti-ste-ap'sin), n. An anti- 
body which win inhibit the action of steapsin. 

antistrephon (an-tis'tre-fon), n. [Gr. iivn- 
arpiijujv, ppr. of avTiarpiipeiv, turn against: see 
antistroplie.j In logic, an argument in a law- 
suit which is of such a nature that either party 
may urge it against the other with some ap- 
pearance of conclusiveness. Antistrephons belong 
to the general class of crocodiles, the following stock ex- 
ample being from Aulus Gellius. Euathlus agieed to pay 
Protagoras, his teacher in rhetoric, a large sum of money 
should he win his first case in court. Having received the 
instruction, but not having had any case in court, he waa 
sued by Protagoras for the amount, on the ground that 
should Euathlus win the suit he must pay, according to 
the contract (and a second suit would compel him to do 
so), while it the suit went the other way the court would 
compel payment. Euathlus replied that if the court 
decided in his favor that must be final, while if the court 
decided against him a further proceeding would award 
the money to him. 



serum, etc. See *immunity, 

The author has produced a specific antieeruTn by the 
successive inoculation of animals with this toxin. Such 
an antiserum absolutely destroys the action of the toxin 
when the two are mixed in vitro. It also causes the 
symptoms produced by the toxin to rapidly disappear if 
inoculated subcutaiieously or instilled into the eye of a _ 

susceptible individual shortly after such a toxin has been antistTOplliC, U, 
similarly Introduced. ■ • ■ 

Med. Record, March 28, 1903, p. 611. 



antisicular (an-ti-sik'u-lar), a. [NL. amU, op- 
posite to, + sicula, sicula.] Opposite the 
sicula : used to designate the part of the grap- 
toUte rhabdogomevmichis opposite the sicula- 
bearing or sicular end. 

antisilverite (an-ti-sil'v6r-it), ». In recent 



United States politics, one who is opposed to g^^tjg^Vj^j^g-^ (anni-sii-do-rif'ik), a. and 



antiputrid (an-ti-pii'trid), a. and n. I. a. 

Antiputreseent; antiputrefactive; antiseptic. 
U. n. Any substance which has the power 

of inhibiting, preventing, or destroying pu- 
trefaction. Diseases of the Horse, U. S. Dept. 

Ag., 1903, p. 511. 
antipjrresis (an-ti-pir'f-sis), «. [Gr. avTi, 

against, + Trvperdg, fever.] Reduction of 

fever ; treatment for the reduction of fever. 
antit^uarianize (an-ti-kwa'ri-an-iz), V. i. ; pret. 

and pp. anUquarianised, ppr. "antiquarianizing. 

To engage in antiquarian pursuits or research. 

LyeU. 
antiQtuarianly (an-ti-kwa'ri-an-li), adv. As an 

antiquarian ; in the manner of an antiquarian. 

Walpole, Letters, I. 37. [Bare.] N. E. D. 

Antlrabic serum, a serum intended to inhibit the action 
of the specific virus of rabies. Encyc. Brit., XXIX 377. 

antirattler (an-ti-rat'16r), n. A device for 
holding a bolt and eye together to prevent 
rattling without interfering with the move- 
ment. 

antirealism (an-ti-re'al-izm), n. [anii- + real 
+ -ism.'] The doctrine that there is nothing 
whose characters are independent of all actual 
thought about them. 

The " anti-realiwi," which takes the lion's share in ^ 

"transfigured realism," is simply a development of the Antislavery china. See '^chinu, 
phenomenalism of Hume. Emyc. Brit., XXX. 676. antisocial, a. 3. Specifically^ in SOciol., per- 

antirennet (an-ti-ren'et), n. The antibody to 

the action of rennin (ohymosin). See *anti- 

body. 
antirentism (an-ti-ren'tizm), n. [anUrent + 

-ism.] The principles of the Antirent party 

(which see). 
antirevisionist (an"ti-re-vizh'on-ist), n. One 

who is opposed to a particular measure of re 



(-rumz) or antisera (-rS,). A serum contain- antistreptococcal (an'''ti-strep-t6- kok'al), 

ing the antibody to a given immunizing sub- a. Same as antistreptococcic. 

stance, as antidiphtheria serum, antitetanus antistreptococcic (an*ti-strep-to-kok'sik), a. 



\anU- -k- streptococcus + -ic] Tending to de- 
stroy or hinder the development of strepto- 
cocci : as, antistreptococcic serum. Nature, 
July 9, 1903, p. 227. 
antistrofe, n. A simplified spelling of antis- 



2. Enantiomorphous. 

antistrophize (an-tis'tro-fiz), v. i. ; pret. and 
pp. antistrophized, ppr. dntistrophizing. lantis- 
trophe + -ize.] To form an antistrophe ; cor- 
respond, but in inverse order. De Qwincey, 
Blackwood's Mag., LI. 12. [Rare.] N. E. D. 

antisubstance (an'ti-sub-stans), n. Same as 
*antibody. See *adaptatio'n - product. Jour. 
Exper. Med., V. 62. 



the free coinage of silver. 

antisiphonal (an-ti-si'fo-nal), a. [NL., < Gr. 
dvr^ opposite to, + atfuv, pipe: see siphon.] 
Lying opposite to the siphonal (lobe) : in the 



— j-"p "ft- — '"""" — „.^^- — ^„_.^. ._-_„ ^ ^_ A remeay possessing tnis property. 
i'^^'^°EZ''^%^?T^.^'':T^'?^°i^tt antisun (an-ti-sun'-y, »... l,/ThepSinrin>e 



lanU- + sudorific] I. a. Tending to repress 
the secretion of sweat. Buck, Med. Handbook, 
I. 338. 
U. n. A remedy possessing this property. 



noting a lobe of the suture which lies on the 
inner dorsal side of the whorl and opposite to 
that on the ventral surface, called the siphonal 
lobe. Both of these are present in, and are indicative 
of, primitive stages, and become modified in progressed 
conditions. 



lllljisociai, «. o, opeciueaiiy, in souwi., pei-- 

taining to a class of persons devoid of normal 

social instincts and showing criminal tenden- 

Prin. of Sociol., p. 72. 



antisociality (an"ti-s6-shi-al'i-ti), n. A qual- 
ity, act, or habit of an individual, class, or group 
which is antagonistic to social feeling, habit, 
or interest. . Extreme antisociality is criminal- 
ity. Amer. Jour. Psychol., XIII. 586, 



vision, as, in recent French history, one who is antisolar (an- ti-s6'lar), a. Situated at the 



sky diametrically opposite the sun. — 2. A point 
in the sky opposite the sun in azimuth, but; 
having the same altitude as the sun, and there- 
fore not diametrically opposite to it. This 
use of the word is common only in describing 
halos and parhelia. Encyc. Brit., XXX. 705. 

antitegula (an-ti-te^'u-la), n.; pi. anUtegulse 
(-le). [Nil., < Gr. avrj, against, + L. tegula, 
tile.] Same as *antisquama. 

antiteleology (an'''ti-tel-f-oro-ji), n. lanti- + 
teleology.] That attitude of mind which fails 
or refuses to see any proof of tteleology in 
nature ; the doctrine or tendency which dis- 
putes all attempts to show that there are 
actions in nature determined by anything 
which is to be in the future. 



opposed to a revision of the constitution. 
antirheumatic (an"ti-r6-mat'ik), a. and n 

a. In med., tending 

to prevent or cure 

rheumatism. 

II. n. A remedy 

for rheumatism. 
antiricin (an-ti-n'- 

sin), n. The anti- 
body to ricin. See 

*anUbody. 
antirrheoscope 

(an-ti-re'o-sko^), n. 

[Gr. avTt', against, 

-I- jiieiv, flow, + (TKo- 

wclv, view.] Injjs^- 

chol., the artificial 

waterfall ; an ap- 
paratus in which a 

band of horizon- 
tally striped cloth 

moves up or down 

upon a stationary 

background of the 

same material 



I. 



point in the heavens opposite the sun, as the antltetanic (an"ti-tet'a-nik), a. {anU- + teta 




Antirrheoscope. 



center of the rainbow, or the ' gegensehein. 
antispace (an'ti-spas), n. In math., that jjart 

of the complete spatial manifold which is vpith- 

out the absolute : that part which is inclosed 

within the absolute is called space. 
antispectroscopic (an-ti-spek-tro-skop'ik), a. 

Such as to counteract the spectroscopic effect. 

Wall, Diet, of Photography, p. 44. 
antispermotoxin (an-ti-sp6r-m6-tok'sin)j n. 

S!r^^^riKr°»<isr'''"' ^^^^^i^r^^^^^'^. «. 

antispermy (an-ti-sper'mi), n. [Gr. avrl, 

against, + airip/ia, seed.] In spermatophytes, 

the coalescence of the fertile divisions of the 

phyllome into a single fertile body opposed 

to and superposed upon the sterile division. 

Delpino. 
antisporangism (an-ti-sp6-ran'jizm), n. [Gr. 

dvri, against, + sporangium + -ism.] In pten- 

dophytes, the condition corresponding to anti- 
spermy in spermatophytes. Delpino. - 
antisciuama (an-ti-skwa'ma), n. ; pi. antisqua- 

TO« (-me). [NL., < Gr. avrt, against, + L. . . . 

squama, scale.] The middle one of three basal a?ji*^?31?*ic (an-tith-e^^^^^ a. 

lobes of the wing of a dipterous insect, the 

inner one being the squama and the outer one 

the alula. A. S. Packard, Text-book of En- 
tomology, p. 124, 



used for the demonstration of after-images of 
motion. 

antiscion (an-tis'i-on), n. [NIj. anttsmon, < 

Gt. avriaiaov, nevt. ot avrhiaoi : 866 antiscian.] c ^ 

In asirol a sign of the zodiac equidistant with antisquanuc (an-ti-skwam ik), a. and «. lantt- 
another sign on the opposite side. Signs hav- + L. sgMama, scale, + -ic] I. a. In med., ^ 
ing north declination are called commaiMJinff, 
those with south declination obeying. 

Anti-Semite (an"ti-sem'it), n. One who seeks 
bv political or other means to lessen the com- 
mercial, political, or social iniluence of the 



+ -ic] Tending to destroy or prevent 
the development of tetanus bacilli ; preventive 
or curative of tetanus : as, anUtetanic serum. 
Science, June 26, 1903, p. 1006. 
antitetanin (an'ti-tet'a-nin), n. The antitoxin 
to the soluble poison produced by the tetanus 
bacillus. 

antitetanolysin (an-ti-tet-an-ol'i-sin), n. The 
antibody to tetanolysin. 

[Gr. avTi, 
against, + 6ep/i6(, heat, + -ic] Inmed., same 
as antipyretic. Med. Record, March 7, 1903, 
p. 376. 

antithermin (an-ti-ther'min), n. [Gr. avri, 
against, + 6tpiJ.ri, heat, + -in^.] Phenylhy- 
drazinelevulinic acid. It has been used as an 
antipyretic agent in medicine under this trade- 
name. 

antithesism (an-tith'e-sizm), n. [Irreg. < an- 
tithes(is) + -ism.] An antithetic sentence ; an 
example or instance of antithesis. [Rare.] 
N. E. D. 

[frreg. < 
antithes(is) + -istic] Presenting an antithesis; 
contrary: as, anUthesistic ideas. Dr. E. Dar- 
win, Zoonomia, IV. 234. [Rare.] N. E. D. 
antithesize (an-tith'e-az), V. t. ; pret. and pp. 
antithesized, ppr. aniithesizing. To put into 

_ the form of an antithesis. Burns. N. E. D. 

tending'to prevent or cure scaly affections of antithrombin (an-ti-throm'bin), n. A sub- 
the skin. stance which inhibits the action of thrombin. 

II. n. A remedy used for this purpose. antitoxic (an-ti-tok'sik), a. and n. I. a. Serv- 

antistaphylococcic (an'ti-staf-i-lo-kok'sik), a. ing to inhibit or neutralize toxic action; hav- 
\_anti- + staphylococcus + -Jc.] ' Tending to ing the character of antitoxin. 



antitoxic 

Tlie term anUtoxia signifies that the serum has the 
power of neutralizing the action of the toxin. 

ETtcyc. Brit., XXVI 67. 



61 



Tony), dim. of Antonio, Antony.] ACubanname 
of the_ mackerel-scad, Decapterus macarellus. 



apasanca 

to be cut being laid upon the cutting edge and 
struck with a hammer or sledge. 



Antitoxic Immunity. See *t»wn««««.- Antitoxic Z^?}}„ ■' ?'~. J^?'*^ ^H**?' '" *""*•■ ^^^ anvil-paper (an'vil-pa"p6r), m. See *»aoer 
"""" — -"■'"'"■' ' -^■■•^^^tOSC rVaXrV%'?„rss"of*?h\ ri'S''*''' '^'^'^ '"" "'"'"'' ^d.^k.ZP^^'^AA ^^i^. or pew^seflpart 



serum, serum containing antitoxin, as aiitidiphtheritic 
senim and antitetanic serum — Antitoxic unit, the unit 
of antitoxin, of such strength that it will just neutralize 
the hundredfold minimal fatal dose of the corresponding 
toxin. 
II. n. An antitoxic remedy. 
antitoxin (an'ti-toks'in), n. [anti- + toxin.'] 
1. A substance which neutralizes the action 



the maxillary process of the nasal. 

II. ». 1. In»cA<A.,the preorbitalbone.— 2. 
In ornith., a bony plate morphologically the 
equivalent of the prefrontal of reptiles, stand- 
ing at an obtuse angle to the interorbital sep- 
tum and forming the anterior border of the 
orbit of the eye. 



of a poison.-2. Specifically : (a) The antibody ant-orchis (aift'dr"kis), n. An Australian and 

•" rilZf ^?^t«"^l °J f.l'^'e'l origin which Tasmanian terrestrial orchid, Chiloglom Gun- 
is produced as the result of immunization with nii ^yi^fnn ixun 

^nhtS^antZxin^Ind f^^'^'^}^^ ^'^ *?■' antlrice (ant'ris) «. A gr^ss, Aristida oUgan- 
3-^ ?M ?^T., ^\ * ® tetanus anti- tha, growing in the clearings around the nests 

toxm (6) In hot a substance secreted by a of the agricultural ants of Texas, which feed 
plant which protects it agamst destructive upon its seeds. », wmcn leea 

(an-tro'fi-um). 



microbes — Fernbacli's antitoxin flask, a special 
form of culture-flaak used for cultures of diphtheria. — 
Streptococcus antitoxin, an antitoxin obtained by 
repeated inoculations of horses with streptococcus cul- 
tures : employed by hypodermic injection in the treat- 
ment of erysipelas, puerperal fever, septicemia, and 
other conditions in which there Is infection by strepto- 
cocci. Also called aTitistreptococcus serum. 

antitragal (an-tlt'ra-gal), a. Of or pertaining 
to the antitragus, or projection on the inferior 
side of the opening of the ear. -Antitragal notch, 
m Mol., the notch or emargination at the base of and 
behind the antitragus, which marks its posterior boun- 
dary. The phrase is much used in describing the ears of 
bats. Annals and Hag. Nat. BCet., May, 1904, p. 386. 

antitrust (an-ti-trusf), a. Opposed to the 
power or development of trusts, or of large 
combinations of capital. 

antitrypsin (an-ti-trip'sin), ». An antibody 
which inhibits the action of trypsin. Normal 



- . — , „ n. [NL. (Kaul- 

russ, 1824), < Ur. avrpov, cavity, groove, + 
(pveev, grow.] Agenus of polypodiaceous ferns, 
with simple linear-lanceolate to oblong-ellip- 
tical fronds and sori borne in continuous lines 
(either superficial or in shallow grooves, 
whence the name) following the reticulate 



for anxious mquuers,' or those who are concernedafcut 
tneir souls salvation and desire advice or comfort : often 
figurative. BaCilmrton, The Clookmaker. 

anytin (an'i-tin), n. A trade-name for a deriva- 
tive of iohthyol which is usedindermatological 
practice. 

anytol (an'i-tol), re. A solution of such a sub- 
stance as phenol or guaiaeol in water eontain- 

. mg anytin. 

A. 0. In astron., an abbreviation of Argelan- 
der-Oeltzen, referring to a catalogue of south- 
ern stars observed by Argelander in zones and 
reduced to a regular catalogue by Oeltzen. 

aoa (a-6'a), n. [Polynesian name.] A name, 
throughout Polynesia, of the banian-tree {Mcus 
Aoa and other species). These trees were thought 
by the natives to be the luiking-places of spirits, and in 
some islands were planted near temples. Though not 
uccuiTing in Hawaii, the aoa is mentioned in the ancient 
songs of the aboriginal inhabitants. See haniani. 

A. 0. M. An abbreviation of Artium Obstetri- 
carum Magister, Master of Obstetric Arts. 



venation. There are about 25 species, widely aorta, n. 2. In the higher invertebrates, the 
distributed throughout the- humid tropics of large blood-vessel leading from the heart. 



both hemispheres. 

antrorse, a. 2. In ichth., turned forward : said 
of spines. 

antroversion (an-tro-ver'shon), 11. [See *an- 
trovert.} A turning forward : same as ante- 
version. Syd. Soc. Lex. 

antrovert (an-tro-verf), V. t. [antro- for an- 
tero- + L. vertere, turn.] To tip, turn, or bend 
forward. Owen, 



usually anteriorly and posteriorly. —Aorta 
Chlorotica, the small-sized aorta sometimes present in 
one suifering from chlorosis. 
Aortic cartilage, the second costal cartilage on theifeht 
side, behind which is the arch of the aorta.— Aortic in- 
competence, or insufficiency, failure of the aortic 
valve of the heart to close completely, thus allowing of 
regurgitation of blood into the left ventricle at each 
diastole. -Aortic isthmus, a narrow portion of the 
aorta, most marked in the fetus, at the point of attach, 
ment of the dtictus arteriosue. — AorUc murmur a 
cardiac murmm- indicating obstruction or insufiiciency 
at the aortic orifice.— Aortic notch, a point in sphyg- 
mographic tracing indicating the time of closure of the 
Mrtio valve.— Aortic olistruction, a condition in which 
there are adhesions or thickening of the cusps of the 
aortic valve, preventing the free flow of blood from the 
left ventricle into the aorta.- Aortic splndle, a slight 

^ ,, - fusiform dllatationof the aoi-ta just below the isthmus. 

spiders which closely resemble ant's,"forming *>snuc (a-oz'mik), a. [Gr. aoa/ioc, equiv. to 
... . , ^. ^ ,. , - .. notable examples of aggressive mimicry. ovoffiUof, without odor : see anomia.] Same as 

antltussm (an-ti-tus'm), «. [See *am«te««e.] Antwerp (ant'werp), Ji? The name of a city *<'^osmic. 
w P \ f/o^?"- „• °1' "fSrant compound (C^- in Belgium, used to distinguish a breed of do- A" ?• ^: -^P abbreviation of American Pro- 



blood sometimes contains such a body. Science, Antrum femininnm, the small tubular entrance to the 



[anti- -f tryp- 
Mecord, June 



female generative passage in polyclads.— Antrum mas- 
cullnum, the outer tubular opening of the male genera- 
tive organs in polyclads.— Mastoid antrum, the cells 
in the mastoid process of the temporal bone taken col- 
lectively.— Maxillary antrum. Same as antrum High- 



Aug. 19, 1904, p. 243. 
antitryptic (an-ti-trip'tik), a. 
tie.'] Antifermentative. Med, 
27, 1903, p. 1043. 



against, -|- L. tussis, a cough.] I. a. 



[Gr. avTi, 
Prevent- 



H4F2), used m ointments jdifluordiphenyl. it. mesticated pigeons having a large, massive te^t^ve Associ 
IS used as an antispasmodic and hypnotic in head and short, stout beak with a Imall wattle Apache blue 
whooping-cough. atthebase. They are bred in a variety of colors, but *""'" 

antitussive (an-tl-tus'iv), a. and re. [Gr. avri, silver, silver-checkered, "oreamies," and black are 
■ ■ - ■ ■ . - _ 1- those preferred. These birds fly well and have a strong 

homing sense: during the Franco-German war they were 
used for carrying despatches.— Antwerp rose. See 
•krose^. 

agent which possesses this anubing (a-no'bing), n. [Philippine Sp. anu- 

Hng, anubiong, anubin, anubion, < Tagalog ano- 
bing.] A valuable timber-tree, Artocarpus 
Cumingiana. it yields a fine-grained wood of a yel- 
lowish-gray color, which is light and very durable if 
properly seasoned. It also resists dampness, and is used 
for posts in house-building. [Philippine Is.l 



ing or relieving cough. Buck, Med. Handbook, 
Vi. oto. 

II. n. Any 
property. 

anti-twilight (au-ti-twi'Ut), n. The bright 
arc, or twilight arc, when &st seen near the 
eastern horizon opposite the sun just before 
sunset, due to sunlight reflected from the 
illunainated portion of the atmosphere. 



twilight arc rises, as the sun sinks lower, and ^nuclear (a-nukle-ar) a. Non-nucleated ; con 
eventually passes westward over the zenith. cerning or pertaining to the alleged absence of 
antityphoid (an-ti-ti;foid), a. Tending to pre- ^ ''^"^^^^ ^?.J'?T^<'^ 1?.^ organisms, 



vent or cure typhoid fever: as, antityphoid 
serum. Med. Record, June 27, 1903, p. 1043. 

antivaccination (an"ti-vak-si-na'shpn), a. 
Opposed to the practice of vaccination"; con- 
sidering or dealing with the subject of anti- 
vaccination : as, an antivaccination lecture ; 
the anUvaccination movement. 

antivenene (an-'ti-ve-nen'), n. [anti- + *ve- 
!.] The antibody to venene, which inhibits 



anuhe (a-no'ha), n. [Maori anuhe, a large cat 
erpillar, = Hawaiian anuhe, Samoan anufe, 
etc., a worm, a caterpillar.] The New Zealand 
catei-pillar-fungus, a species of Cordyceps, 
which attacks certainlepidopterous larvse, 
*aweto. 

anunu (a-no'no), n. [Hawaiian, < 



Association. 

- grass. See *blue-grass. 

apachicta (ap-a-chek'ta), n. [Also apachita, 
apachecta; Quiehua of Peru and Aymard.] 
In Peru and Bolivia, a heap of stones and 
twigs raised by the Indians at any prominent 
landmark, such as a pass, divide, crest, or 
height. The twigs are symbols of prayers offered on 
the site to spirits supposed to dwell on or about it, and 
the stones symbolize an offering. A quid or cud of chewed 
coca-leaves is invariably deposited there also in sacriflce. 

apachite (a-pach'it), n. [Apache (mountains), 
in Texas, -I- -ite^.] In petrog., a variety of the 
igneous rock phonoUte, first observed in the 
Apache mountains of Texas, characterized by 
sodic amphiboles and senigmatite as associal es 
of the usual sodic pyroxenes, and by micro- 
perthite feldspar. Osann, 1896. 

apagogically (ap-a-goj'i-kal-i), adv. In an 

apagogical manner; by indirect demonstration 

or proof ; by reductio ad absurdum. E. Caird, 

_ . Philos. of Kant, II. 568. N. E. D. 

See apaidtjiJ. a. [ME. apaied, etc., pp. of apay.] 

Satisfied ; pleased ; repaid. Robert c^ Gloucester, 

anunu, ^. e. D. 



of climbing or prostrate herbs belonging to the 

the action of the latter. Buck, Med. Handbook, aMretii>*%if-'ii-ret'ik?°ffl ""ram^il* ( ref\ + .»> i 
VT. 716 Also naiiaH r,r,ti„^i« nmUr^A,i«^ anuTenic tan-u-rot IK;, a. \_anuresis (-ret) + -ic] 

Same as *anunc. 



VI. 716. Also called antiveriin, antivenine, 
antivenenian (an'''ti-vf-ne'ni-an), a. [Gr. avri, 
against, + venenum, poison, -i^'-ian.] Same as 
antidotal. 

antivenin, antivenine (an-ti-ven'in), n. [L. 
anti- + venienum), poison, -I- -in'^.] Same as^ 
*anti/iienene. 
antiyenomous (an-ti-ven'o-mus), a. Antago- 
nistic to the action of siiake-poison. Bu^k, 
Med. Handbook, VI. 715. 
antivivisectionist (an^ti-viv-i-sek'shgn-ist), 
n. [anti- + vivisection + -ist.] One who is 
opposed to the making of physiologic and 
therapeutic experiments on living animals. 

Med. Record, Feb. 14, 1903, p. 264. Anversian ran ver'sian) a 

antlerite (ant'ler-tt), n. [AnUer (see def.) + ^^twe^p^^ i a. ol orjer 
;»te'.] A hydrated copper sulphate occurring — ^- - ..•^. . 

in soft lumps of a light-green color: from the 
Antler mine. Yucca Station, Arizona, 
antodonin (an-to'do-nin), n. A pigment found 
in certain invertebrate animals, notably cri- 
noids. Science, May 31, 1901, p. 847. 
antonino (iin-to-ne'no), re. [Sp. (equiv. to E. 



f*!?l!l;i„?„?fI!?iiL"^™°l'^r®^l!P®°Jf^ apalit (ipa'let), n. [Phil. Sp.] A name in 
» .„ „ „. _ ....i - the Philippines of PferocflJ-^MS ^iorecoj, a tree 

with pinnate leaves, smooth, winged pods, and 
red wood with an aromatic odor. Like other spe- 
cies of Pterocarpus, it is sometimes called narra and 



asana, and is used for furniture; but it is distinguished 
by its fragrance, and is sometimes called Philippine 
sandalwood. 



anuric (a-nii'rik), a. [anuria -t- -ic] Resulting 

from or relating to anuria. 
Anus cerebri, the anterior opening of the aqueduct of 

Sylvius. —Anus vestibularis or vulvovaglnalls, a 

malformation in which the anus is imperforate, the rec- 
tum terminating at the vulva.— Arflflcial anus, an 

opening made into the large intestine for the purpose of 

giving exit to the fecal contents in cases of complete 

obstruction below, 
anusim (a-n8'sem), M. J??. [Heb., 'the forced,' 

< anas, compel, force, constrain.] Jews who apandry (a-pan'dri), n. 

were forced to accept the Catholic religion at av^p (avSp-), man, male.] 

the time of their expulsion from Spain (1492), 

but who secretly observed the principal tenets 

of their faith : same as maranos. 

and n. [F. Anvers, 

pertaining to Antwerp. 

II. re. In geol., a division of the Miocene 

in the vicinity of Antwerp, Belgium. 

anvil, re.— Flattner's anvil, a small polished steel 
block used in blowpipe analysis. 

anvil-cutter (au'vil-kuf'Sr), n. A chisel-like 
cutting instrument whose shank is inserted in 
a square hole in the face of an anvil, the bar 



Apama (a-pa'ma), re. [NL. (Lamarck, 1783), 
from an Indian name of the type species of the 
genus.] A genus of dicotyledonous plants of 
the family Aristolochiaeem, characterized by 
the short, three-Iobed, campanulate corolla. 
See Bragantia. 

[Gr. awd, without, + 

In 6o<., fusion of the 

antheridium with the oBgonium : also extended 

to the corresponding organs in spermato- 

phytes. M'Ndb. 

aparaphysate (a-pa-raf 'i-sat), a. [a-is -l- pa- 
raphysis + -ate^.] In bot., destitute of pa- 
raphyses. 

apasanca (a-pa-san'ka), re. [Sp. in Peru and Bo- 
livia, < Peruv. (Quiehua) apasanca (Tschudi) ; 
also used in Bolivia among the Aymard,.] The 
bush-spider, or great Mygale, of which a 
smaller variety is found as high as 13,000 feet 
and more in the Bolivian Andes. 



apasote 

apasote (a-pa-s6'ta), n. [Also pasote, and in 
Porto Rico hasote; Mex. Sp., < yepateotl, the 
Nahuatl uame of the plant.] A name in Guam 
and the PhUippine Islands of Chenopodium am- 
brosioides, an aromatic plant of Mexican ori- 
gin now widely spread over the warmer re- 
gions of the earth and commonly known as 
Mexican tea (which see, under Mexieau). 

Apate (ap'a-te), «. [NL. (Fabrieius, 1775), < Gr. 
airarij, deceit, fraud.] A gentts of bostrychid 
beetles which has been subdivided into sev- 
veral genera by recent authors. A. terehrans 
Pall, is an inhabitant of Africa. 

apatetic (ap-a-tet'ik), a. [Gr. airarriTiKdg, serv- 
ing to deceive, < amrTi, deceit.] Concerning 
or pertaining to the copying, in an animal, of 
some useful characteristic of another species 
for the sake of obtaining the like advantage. 
— Apatetic colors, those colors which cause au animal 
to resemble some part of its surruundiugs, or cause it to 
be mistaken for another species. PmUtonj Colours of 
Animals, p. 338. 

apathetic, a. 2. In biol., of or pertaining to 
the Apathetica of Lamarck. 

apathetic-active (ap-a-thet"ik-ak'tiv), a. In 
psyehol., noting a composite character or tem- 
perament of the moral or stoical type. Bibot 
(trans.), Psychol, of Emotions, p. 400. 

apathetic-sensitive (ap-a-thet"ik-sen'si-tiv), 
a. In psyehol., noting a composite character 
or temperament which finds its highest ex- 
pression in the martyr, the hero, and the crea- 
tive artist. Bibot (trans.), Psychol, of Emo- 
tions, p. 401. 

apathic (a-path'ik), a. [As apath-y + ■de.'] 
Without f eeUng or sensation. Todd, Cyc. Anat. , 
I. 107. 

Apathus (ap'a-thus), •«. [NL. (Newman, 1834), 
< Gr. anaBriq, without suffering : see apathy.'} 
A genus of true bees, of the family Apidse, al- 
lied to the bumblebees of the genus Bombus, 
which they mimic and in whose nests they lead 
an inquiline life. The word is a synonym of 
Psithyrus (St. Fargeau, 1832), and the genus 
is now generally referred to under that name. 

apathy, >t. 2. in the Stoic philos., a, eertainim- 
perturbabilityproduced in the wise man's soul 
by sincere rejection of the notion that pleasure 
is in itself desirable, or pain in itself undesir- 
able and hy trained watchfulness to exclude all 
unreasonable passions (all passions affecting 
conduct being regarded as unreasonable). 

Apatosaurus (ap-a-to-sa'rus), n. [NL., < Gr. 
airaTt/, deceit, + aaiipoc, lizard.] A genus of 
dinosaurian reptiles of the family Camara- 
sauridse, described by Marsh from the Upper 
Jurassic rocks of Colorado. 

A. P. D. An abbreviation of Army Pay Depart- 
ment. 

ape'^ (a'pa), «. [Hawaiian.] 1, Ghinnera peta- 
undea, a plant of the high mountain slopes of 
Hawaii, bearing large, broad, renif orm leaves 
from two to three feet in width. — 2. A name 
in the Hawaiian and Society islands of Aloca- 




Ape {Alocasia tnacrorhiza). 
At inflorescence with spathe removed : a, female flowers at base 
of spadix ; d, male flowers ; c, neutral zone ; d, terminal appendage. 
(After figure in Engler and Prantl's " Pflanzenfamihen.") 

sia macrorhiza, an aroid plant with large, oval, 
sagittate leaves, it is cultivated in India, China, 
and many of the Polynesian islands, where the leaves of 
the very young plant and the corms are eaten after vola- 
tilizing the acrid principle by drying or the application of 
heat. Also called apii in Hawaii. 

ape-cleft (ap'kleft), n. Same as *ape-fissure. 
^Mcfc, Med. Handbook, IL 278. 

apediOSCOpe (a-ped'i-o-skop), n. [Gr. a- 
priv. + irediov, a plain (taken as 'plane ')> + 
aiameiv, view.] An apparatus for observing ste- 
reoscopic projections. It consists of a wooden box 
having two apertures for the eye» of a spectator, who 



62 

views one picture in a direct line while the other picture 
is superposed on the first by the aid of a couple of mir- 
rors. 

ape-fissure (ap'fish"ur), «. A deep fissure in 
tte occipital lobe of the brain, present in the 
ape and occasionally also in man. Also called 
exoccipital fissure. 

ape-hand (ap'hand), «. Inpathol., a deformity 
of the hand in which it resembles the fore paw 
of the ape in consequence of atrophy of the 
muscles of the thumb. 

apeiiry (a-pi'ri), «. [Gr. aixetpia, the boundless- 
ness of space, < arreipog, boundless.] In geom. 
topics, a number associated with a place of 
three or more dimensions and indicating how 
many places it contains for unbounded solid 
bodies that have no room within it to shrink to 
nothing. The apeiry of real space may be assumed to 
be either or 1. If space, though inlinite, be limited, 
so that there is no geometrical impossibility in the ex- 
pansion of a small homogeneous mass without any union 
of parts that had been separate, so as to fill all space, the 
apeiry is : but if that substrate fluid which the vortex- 
atom theory supposes to fill all space geometrically could 
not, even if it were compressible, be so deformed as to 
leave any part of space empty, then the apeiry is at least 
1 ; aud while it is easy to imagine that even after a first 
rupture of that fluid there would still be a geometrical 
impossibility in its shrinking indefinitely toward occupy- 
ing no solid space, which would make the apeiry of space 
greater than 1, there is nothing in experience to warrant 
or make pertinent such a suggestion. 

Ascites (a-pel'tez), n. [NL., < Gr. a- priv. -I- 
m?iTJi, a shield.] A genus of American stickle- 
backs of the family GasterosteidsB, having the 
pelvic shield divided and the skin naked. 

apena (a-pe'na), n. [NL., < Gr. an^;;.] In Gr. 
antiq., a wagon or chariot, four-wheeled or two- 
wheeled, sometimes used for racing. The ve- 
hicle sometimes had a tilt or cover with win- 
dows at the sides. 

apertometry (ap-6r-tom'e-tri), n. [Irreg. < L. 
aperfus, open, + Gr. -/lerpia, < /lerpav, measure. ] 
In optics, the art of measuring the effective or 
equivalent apertures of a lens or system of 
lenses. Jour. Boy. Micros. Soc, Feb., 1903, 
p. 94. 

aperturate (a-p6r'tu-rat), a. [NL. apertun 
ratus, < L. operfetre, "aperture.] Having aper- 
tures ; specifically, having reference to that di- 
vision of the brachiopod genus Spirifer, termed 
the AperturaU, which is typified by the species 
8. apertwratus and characterized by the plica- 
tions on the fold and sinus of the valves. 

aperture, n — Absolute aperture, the actual or mea- 
sured size of the aperture of a diaphragm, generally stated 
in giving its diameter: used in contradistinction to effective 
aperture.— Pedal aperture, the opening in the mantle 
of moUusks through which the foot is protruded. — Rela- 
tive aperture of a lens, the radius of the actual ap- 
ertiu'e divided by the focal length of the lens. 

Apetala (a-pet'ar-la), n.pl. [Gr. o-priv. + iri- 
TaTiov, a leaf.] In some classifications, a sec- 
tion or division of the eehinoids belonging to 
the family Spatangidse, characterized by apet- 
alous ambulacra crossed by fascioles. 

apetalous, a. 2. In the eehinoids or sea- 
urchins, having one of the five ambulacral rays 
more or less imperfectly developed. 

apex, n. 1. (J) In projective geom., the point 
determined by 3 planes. — 3. pi. The abacus- 
marks. Boethius. The apices of Gerberfs abacus are 
symbols for the digits from 1 to 9, but without the zero. 
See the extract. 

In the tenth and eleventh centuries there appeared a 
large number of authors, belonging chiefly to the clergy, 
who wrote on abacus-reckoning with apices but without 
the zero and without the Hindu- Arab methods. 

Beman atid STnith, Hist, of Math., p. 39. 

aphakial (a-fa'ki-al), a. Same as aphaeic. 

Aphaneura (af-a-iiii'rS,), n. pi. [NL., irreg. < 
Gr. aijiavtiq, unseen, -I- vevpoii, sinew (nerve).] 
A family of OUgochseta, containing the single 
fresh-water genus Mlosoma. it is peculiar in hav- 
ing the central nervous system reduced to the central 
ganglia, which, moreover, retain the embryonic character 
of connection with the epidermis. Tlie worms are small 
and their transparent bodies contain droplets of brightly 
colored oil. 

aphanlsis (a-fan'i-sis), n. [NL., < Gr. atjiavcatg, 
abolition, suppression, < aijiaviCeiv, abolish, sup- 
press, hide, < a^av^q, unseen, invisible.] In 
bat., the suppression or abortion.of parts re- 
quired by morphological analogy. 

aphanophyre (a-fan'o-fir), n. [aphan^iHc) + 
-o- -I- (por)phyr(y).'i ' In petrog., a porphyry 
with aphanitio ground-mass : analogous to 
granophyre, melaphyre, felsophyre, etc. 

aphasia, n — AsBOClatlve aphasia, aphasia due to 
lesion in the association-area of the brain intercepting 
one or more of the pathways of impulses between the 
various centers. — Auditory apbasla, aphasia due to 
lesion in the hearing-center of the brain, the patient hav- 
ing lost the ability to understand spoken words ; word- 
deafness.— Motor apbasla, loss of power to employ 



aphorisming 

words in phrases, although the ability to read, write, 
and understand spoken words is unimpaired. — Optic 
aphasia, a form oi aphasia in which the patient isunable 
to recall the name of an ol>ject when he sees it — Visual 
aphasia, a form of aphasia in which the patient is unable 
to appreciate the signiticance of printed or written words, 
although he sees the words distinctly.— Wernicke's 
aphasia of conduction. Same as word-dea/ness. 

Aphelandra (af-e-lan'dra), «. [NL.] A genus 
containing about 60 species of the family Acan- 
thacese, evergreen, tropical, American shrubs 
grown in hothouses for the fine foliage and 
showy 4-sided terminal spikes of red or yellow 
gaudy-bracted flowers. The species most com- 
mon in trade are A. aurantiaca (Including A. 
Bcezlii), A. sqiiarrosa {ehrysops), and A. Fasci- 
nator. 

Aphelops (af'e-lops), ». [Gr. apeX^c, level, 
smooth, -I- i>tli, eye, face.] In Cope's classi- 
fication of the extinct rhinoceroses, a group, 
represented chiefly by North American species, 
having but three digits on the manus. These are 
considered as belonging to the acerathine or hornless di- 
vision of the genus. They occur in the Tertiary beds. 

aphengoscope (a-feng'go-skop), n. Same as 
aphengescope. 

aphestic (a-fes'tik), a. [Gr. a^^<rr«of, far from 
hearth and home, (av6, from, + karia, hearth, 
family.] Relating to matters outside the home 
circle. A. Sutherland. 

aphidein, aphideine (a-fid'e-in), n. [aphis 
{aphid-) -i- -e+ -in2.] The red coloring matter 
of the Aphididee, a composite substance which 
maybe separated into three constituents called 
by Sorby aphidiluteine, aphidiluteoline, and 
aphidirltodeine. 

Aphidiides (af-i-di'i-dez), n. pi. [NL., prop. 
AphidiidaeoT Aphidiadee, < Aphidius.'] A group 
of hymenopterouB parasites, of the family Bra- 
conidse, typified by the genus Aphidiics. 

Aphidiinse (af-i-di-i'ne), n.pl. [NL., < Aphid- 
ius + -inas/] A subfamily of the hymenop- 
terous family Braconidse. All of its members are 
parasitic upon aphides, and they constitute one of the 
principal checks to the multiplication of these very in- 
jurious insects. 

Aphidius (a-fid'i-us), n. [NL. (Nees, 1818), 
< NL. aphis (aphid-).'] An important genus 
of hymenopterous insects, of the family Bra- 
conidse, typical of the subfamily Aphidiinas or 
Aphidiides, comprising a host of minute spe- 
cies, all of which are parasitic on aphides. 

aphidoid (af'i-doid), a. [NL. aphis (aphid-) + 
-oid.] Belonging to or resembling the family 
AphididsB. 

aphidologist (af-i-dol'o-jist), n. One who is 
learned in the study of the Aphididee. 

aphidophagous (af-i-dof'a-gus), a. Same as 



aphikomon, aphikomen. See *afikomen. 

aphis, n. -(Black or brown a^hls, an aphis, Bhopa- 
Undphum violx, which injures violets, especially those 
in greenhouses.— Corn aphis. See Acora-apAu.- wm- 
root aphis, an American aphidid. Aphis rtwadi^radicis, 
found commonly on the roofs of Indian corn.—Feach 
aphis. See •^peach'aphis. 

aphis-fly (a'fis-fli), ■». Any species of any 
one of numerous genera of flies of the family 
Syrphidse, the larvse of which prey upon 
aphides. 

aphis-wolf (a'fis-wulf), n. The larva of any 
species of Hemero'bius, as distinguished from 
the aphis-lions of the genus Chrysopa. 

Aphlebia (a-fle'bi-a), n. [NL. (Presl, 1838), 

< Gr. a- priv. -I- ^/UV' (f^P-), vein.] A sup- 
posed genus of fossil plants with lobed, flabel- 
lately pinnatifid, or pinnate fronds destitute 
of veins, found attached to or apparently 
climbing over other plants, especially Pecop- 
teris, Neuropteris, and Sphemapteris. There is now 
little doubt that they are stipellar outgrowths or adven- 
titious pinnse of these plants. See BhacophyUum and 
Schizopteris. 

aphodal (af'o-dal), a. [aphodus + -o^i.] Per- 
taining to an aphodus; possessing aphodi: as, 
the aphodal type of canal system in sponges. 

aphodus (af'o-dus), n. ; pi. a^j^hodi (-di). [NL., 

< Gr. iu^6og, a ^oing out, < airi, off, + 666g, a, 
way.] In eertam sponges, a small canal lead- 
ing from a flagellated chamber to the excnr- 
rent canal. 

aphonic (a-fon'ik), o. [Gr. a- priv. + phonic.'] 
1. Having no sound or pronunciation. N.E.D. 
— 2. Having no voiced quality; not voiced. 
Scripture, Elements of Experimental Phonet- 
ics, p. 443. 

aphorisming (af'o-riz-ming), p. a. Affecting 
the use of aphorisms in speaking and writing. 
Milton, Reform, II. 33. N.E.D. 



apnorizer 

aphorizer (af'o-ri-zer), ». One who indulges 
m aphorisms in speaking and writing; an 
aphorist. 

Aphoruridae (af - o rii'ri-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Aphorura (Gr. aipopoi;, not bearing, + oiipi, tail) 
+ -idee.] A family of thysanurous insects, of 
the suborder Collemhola, having no veutral 
spring below the abdomen. It is composed of 
very small soft-bodied insects which are not 
uncommon, although seldom noticed. 

aphotic (a-fo'tik), a. [Gr. d-priv. + ^uf, light, 
+ -jc] luphytogeog., without light: applied 
to the deep level iu a body of water in Tmich 
only non-assimilating organisms can exist. 
Schimper (trans.), Plant Geog., p. 782. 

aphotometric (a-fo-to-met'nk), a. [Gr. d- 
priv. + foe {(JHJT-), ligtt, + iiirpov, measure.] 
Noting zoSspores which not only take up a 
definite position with regard to the direction 
of light-rays (phototaotie), but which invari- 
ably present the same end to the light. 

apbbtotropic (a-fo-to-trop'ik), a. [Gr. d- priv. 
+ 0UC (^uT-), light, A- rp&Koe, a turning.] P,er- 
taining to or e^uiibiting the absence of growth 
with reference to light ; not phototropio. 

The direct tropic effect of liglit is greatest in the green 
rays, absent in the blue, and reversed in the red. The 
effect is mudi&ed by the absorbing or scattering char- 
acter of the bacliground, and by the age of the animal. 
At the moment of hatciiing, Couvolutais aphototropic. 
Nature, July 9, 1903, p. 237. 

aphrasia (a-fra'zi-a), n. [NL., < Gr. d- priv. 
+ ippdaig, speech : see phrase.} In pathol. , loss, 
through disease, of the power of expressing 
one's self in formed sentences. 

aphrodsescin (af-ro-des'in), n. [Gr. afp&Srie, 
foamy, + L. «sc(mZms), horse-chestnut, -I- -i«2.j 
A glucoside, C50H82O23, occurring in the cotj*- 
ledons of the norse-ohestnut. It forms an 
amorphous powder easily soluble in water. 

aphrodisia^ (af-ro-diz'i-a), n. [NL., < Gr. 
'kfpodiaiog: see Aphrodisia^.'} 1, Eroticism. 
— 2. The sexual act. 

Aphroditeum (af'ro-di-te'um), ». [NL., < 
Aphrodite, Aphrodite.] In Gr. antiq., a tem- 
ple, shrine, or precinct sacred to Aphrodite. 
There, was such a temple at Cnidos, which con- 
tained the famous statue of the divinity by 
Praxiteles. 

Aphrothoraca (af'ro-tho-ra'ka), n. pi. [Gr. 
d0pdf, foam, + dapa^, breast.] Same as *Aphro- 
thoraeida. 

Aphrothoracida (af-ro-tho-ras'i-da), n.pl. 
[NL., < Gr. aippdg, foain, ■(■ Biipa^, breast, + 
-ida.'\ An order of Heliozoa having no skele- 
ton, but with the power of amceboid motion 
and with plastic or stiff pseudopodia, the lat- 
ter possessing axial filaments. It includes 
the genera Vampyrella, Nuclearia, Myxastrum, 
AeUnophrys, Actinosphserium, and others. 

aphtha, « — Aphthae troplcse, a digestive disorder, 
accompanied by an aphthous eruption, occurring in tropi- 
cal regions. — Bednar'S aphtbse, an eruption of yellow- 
ish spots on the mucous membrane of the hard palate in 
infants. 

Aphthartodocetic(af-thar'''t6-do-se'tik), a. Of 
or pertaining to the Aphthartodocetse or their 
teachings. See Aphthartodocetse. 

aphthite (af'thit), n. An alloy composed of 
800 parts of copper, 25 of platinum, 10 of tung- 
sten, and 170 of gold. Thorpe, Diet. Applied 
Chem., I. 189. 

aphthongal (af'thong-al), a. laphthong + -ah'] 
Of the nature of an apfithong ; written but not 
pronounced; mute. 

aphthongia (af-thong'gi-a), n. [Gr. a^oyyog, 
voiceless, < d- priv. + ^eyyeiv, speak.] In 
pathol., spasmodic contraction of the muscles 
supplied by the hypoglossal nerve, resulting 
in loss of voice. 

Aphyllltes (a-fi-li'tez), n. [NL., < Gr. 0- priv. 
+ fvlUv, a leaf, -I- -ites.l See *AgoniaUtes. 

aphyric (a-fir'ik), a. [Gr. d- priv. + (por)- 
phyric.'] Non-porphyritie : a term applied to an 
igneous rook which does not possess the por- 
phyritic texture. 

Apiacese (a-pi-a'se-e), n.pl. [NL. (Lmdley, 

■ 1836), < Apium + '-acex.'] A family of dicoty- 
ledonous, choripetalous plants of the order 
Apiales, the parsley, carrot, or celery family, 
based on the genus Apium as the type. See 
XJmhelliferx and * Apium. 

apiaceous (a-pi-a'shius), a. [NL. Apiacese + 
-ous.'] Belonging to the Apiacese; umbellifer- 
ous. 

apiacere (api-a-cha're). [It., 'at pleasure : 
see pleasure.] In music, same as ad libitum. 

Apiales (a-pi-a'lez), n. pi. [NL. (Ward, 1905), 
< Apium -t- -ales.] An order of dicotyledon- 



63 

ous, choripetalous plants embracing the fami- 
lies Apiacese, Araliacese, and Cornacese, and 
characterized chiefly by having flowers in um- 
bels. See Umbellales. 
apicad (ap'i-kad), adv. [L. apex, apex, + ad, 
toward.] Toward the apex: introduced by 
Hyatt in the terminology of the cephalopod 
shell, and used to express the relation of parts 
to the apex. Zittel (trans.), Textbook of Pa- 
leon., I. 574. 
apical, a.— Apical axis, in diatoms, the line through 
the center of the pervalvar axis in the direction of the 
raphe.— Apical body. Same as *acrosome. — Apical 
cone, the growing pomt.— Apical growth, growth from 
the apex which lengthens the axis. — Apical organ. Same 
as -Aapical plate.— A^icalTgllaiie, in dialoms, the plane 
perpendiculai' to the valvar plane passing through the 
pervalvar and apical axis.— Apical plasm, the idioplasm 
to which the growth of a new shoot in a plant is due 
according to Weismann's doctrine of germ-plasm . — Api- 
cal plate^ a thickening in the anterior end of a trocho- 
sphere or larval staere of certain invertebrates which is the 
nerve-center of the larva. — Apical system, in the eclil- 
noids or sea-urchins, the system of plates at the summit 
of the test or corona. Also called the dorsocentraZ system. 
apicasm (ap'i-kazm), n. [Gr. cnreiicaa/j.a, a copy, 
< aireiK&^civ, form from a model, copy, < dTro, 
from, -1- elK&^eiv, make like to, represent, < 
EiKi>v, likeness, image.] A sign whose signifi- 
cance is due to characters which might con- 
ceivably equally belong to it although the 
object it represents had never existed ; a copy 
or analogue ; an icon. C. S. Peirce. 
apicasy (a-pik'a-si), n. [Gr. airnmaia, repre- 
sentation'by a copy or analogue.] Represen- 
tation in an apicasm. See *apicasm. 
apicular (a-pik'u-iar), a. paii. apiculus + -ar.] 
In hot., situated or occurring at the apex : as, 
apicular dehiscence. 
apiculation (a-pik-u-la'shon), n. [NL. 'apio- 
ulatio(nr-), < apiculdtus, < apiculus : see apicu- 
lus.] In bat, a short and abrupt but not stiff 
point at the apex of an organ ; an apiculus. 
apigenin (a-pij'e-nin), n. [api(in) -I- -gen, 
-produced, + -in'^.] A compound, Cis^ioOai 
formed by the hydrolysis of apiin. It erystial- 
lizes in bright-yellow needles. 
apikoros (a-pi-ko'ros), n.; pi. a^ilcorsim (§,- 
pi-kor'sem). [Gr. 'Emicovpog, Epicurus: see 
epicure. The word has been referred to an 
Aram, source, pdkar, be free, break through.] 
In Jewish use, one who is unsound in belief 
or lax in the observance of religion or cere- 
mony; one who is irreverent to rabbis; a 
skeptic or heretic. 

apio (a'pe-o), n. [A colonial use of Sp. apio, 
celery, < L. apium, parsley.] A biennial, um- 
belliferous plant, Arracada Arracacha, a na- 
tive of tie Andes of northern South America. 
Its large, fleshy yellow roots contain from 20 to 22 per 
cent, ct starch, and from the expressed juice of the root 
alcohol is made. See arraeaclm. 
Apiocera (ap-i-os'e-ra), n. [NL. ("Westwood, 
1835), < amog, distant, + Kepaq, horn.] A ge- 
nus of bombylioid Diptera typical of the fam- 
ily Apioeeridse. A. haruspex inhabits the Yo- 
semite valley. 
Apioeeridse (ap-'i-o-se'ri-de), n. pi. [NL., < 
Apiocera + 4dse.] ' A family of brachycerous 
Diptera, of the superfamily Bombylibidea, hav- 
ing the wings provided with five posterior cells. 
They are large and slender flies somewhat resembling 
the robber-flies, and the North American species all in- 
habit the western portions of the continent. 
apioid, n. 2. A solid of revolution shaped 
something like a pear: a form assumed by a 
rotating liquid spheroid when the speed be- 
comes too great for the persistence of the 
ellipsoid which followed the spheroid as the 
speed increased. 

apioidal (ap-i-oi'dal), a. Having an incipient 
dumb-bell form resembling the apioid. Know- 
ledge, Nov., 1903, p. 253. 
apiol, »• 3. In »»«^- and phar., the green li- 
quid alcoholic extract of parsley-seeds used as 
an emmenagogue and antiperiodie. 
aniolic (ap-i-ol'ik), a. \_apiol (?) + -«c.] 
Xting an acid, CH2:02:C6fe(OCH3)2C02H, 
formed by the oxidation of apiol. It consists 
of needles which melt at 175° C. 
apione (ap'i-6n), n. [apiiin) + -one.] Kaom- 
pound, C&2:02:C6H2(OCH3)2, formed by heat- 
ing apiolic acid with dilute sulphune acid. It 
crystallizes in needles which melt at 79° C. 
apionic (ap-i-on'ik), a. iapwne + -^c.] Not- 
ing an acid, CuHiaOe or CuHioOg, formed 
by the oxidation of isapiol. It consists o± 
small needles which melt with decomposition 
at 252° C 

Apionichthys (ap"i-o-nik'this), «. ^ [NL., < (?) 
Gr. airUn>, not fat {< hr pnv. + mow, fat), + 



aplanospore 

Ix^vg, fish.] A genus of small soles or tongue- 
fishes of the family Soleidse, found in South 
America. 

Apiosoma (ap"i-o-s6'ma), n. [NL., < Gr. diriov, 
pear, -I- ci>fia, body.] "A genus of amoeboid 
organisms found in the red corpuscles of the 
blood of cattle affected by Texas fever, the in- 
fection of which is carried by ticks : a syno- 
nym of *Piroplasma. 

Apiosporium (ap"i-o-sp6'ri-um), n. [NL. 
(Kunze, 1817), < Gr. airiov, pear, + awopd, 
spore.] A genus of fungi of the order oiPeri- 
sporiales, having spherical perithecia, and asci 
containing eight brown spores with transverse 
septa. Many of the described species are known only 
in their conldial forms, which grow on leaves and 
branches, where the honeydew of plant-lice is present, 
causing what is called sooty mold. 

apili (a-pe're), n. See *aalii. 

Apis^, ». 2. A small southern constellation 
situated between the Cross and the Chameleon. . 
Same as Musca. 

apism (ap'izm), n. ^ape + -ism.] The prac- 
tice of aping ; mimicry. Carlyle, Past and 
Present. 

apiton (a-pe't6n),M. [Philippine Sp., < Bisayan 
apitong, the resin of the tree ' dragon's-blood. ' ] 
In the Philippine Islands, a large forest-tree, 
Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, which yields a fine- 
grained wood of a grayish or greenish-gray 
color, used in construction and for the planking 
of boats. Like many of its congeners, this tree yields 
an oleoresin, which, however, is inferior to that of the 
panao or malapaho (Dipterocarpus vemicifluus). See Dip- 
terocarpus and -kpa/nao. 

Apium (a'pi-um), n. [NL. (LinnsBus, 1753, 
adopted from Toumefort, 1700), < L. apium, the 
name of parsley and related plants : see ache^.] 
A genus of dicotyledonous plants, type of the 
family Apiacese. They are erect or prostrate glabrous 
herbs with compound leaves and umbels of white flowers. 
They are distinguished by the laterally flattened tniit and 
by the solitary oil-tubes in the intervals between the 
usually prominent ribs of the carpels. The genus in- 
cludes about 20 species, natives of the eastern hemi- 
sphere, with theexception of A. Ammi, which occurs from 
North Carolina to Florida and Mexico and extends into 
South America. Two or three introduced species oc8nr 
locally in the eastern United States and in California. For 
A. graveolens see celery, marsh-parsley, 1, and smallage. 

apjohnite (ap'jon- it), n. [Named after James 
Apjohn, . an English chemist, who first de- 
scribed it.] A manganese alum occurring in 
silky white fibrous masses and also in crusts. 

Aplacophora (ap - la - kof 'o - ra), n. pi. [NL., 
< Gr. d-priv. -t- Gr. Tr/ldf (TrXa/c-), a flat piece or 
part, + -6opog, < fipuv, bear.] A suborder of 
Amphineura, having the body vermiform, foot 
absent or merely a groove, and the cuticle more 
or less covered with spicules. It includes 
the families Neomeniidse and Chsetodermatidse. 
Same as Solenogastres. Compare Polyplaco- 
phora. 

aplauat *(ap'la-nat), n. [G. a^lanat: see 
aplanatic] A' system of lenses invented by 
Adolph Steinheil, in 1866, for use in photog- 
raphy, consisting of a biconvex crown-glass 
lens placed between two concavo-convex 
lenses of flint-glass. The invention of these 
objectives was a great improvement in photog- 
raphy, since before that time no objective gave 
awide view-fleldundistorted and with suflicient 
illumination. — Group aplanat, an aplanat of 

large aperture with the members at a moder- 

ately great distance, effecting high illumination. Aplanat. 

Aplanatic points, in optics, two points, lying 
upon any straight line passing through the center of a 
sphere, which serve to locate the path of a refracted ray 
within the sphere. They are situated at distances n r and 
^ r from the center 
of the sphere, where 
r is the radius of the 
sphere and n is its 
index of refraction. 
Let a ray of light 
meet the surface of 
the sphere at A and 
let B be the point in 
which the continua- 
tion of the ray meeta 
a circle drawn in the 

plane of incidence Aplanatic Points. 

with radius nr and t m. ,- 

having the same center O as the sphere. Let the Ime 
B from the center of the sphere cut a circle drawn 
with radius ir at D. The line AD Is the path of the re- 
fracted ray within the sphere, and the pomts B and D 
are aplanatic points.— Aplanatic avxfaxie, in optics, a 
surface from every point of which the sum of the optical 
paths to two given points, with reference to which the 
surface is defined, is constant.- Aplanatic system, m 
optics, a system of lenses tree from aberration for two 




dering, + aTvopd, spore.] Same as hypnospore. 
See Ookinete. 



aplasmic 64 Aponogetonaceae 

aplasmic (a-plaz'mik), a. [Gr. a- priv. + tinal type.— Uniradlalapocentrioity, in ornifA., com- at random, or without conscious or unconscious 
.Tlaaiw. : see plasma.'i Containing little or no S®an^'™a*'ttv'elMse'™ "^ '*'' "''estmal loops, uot due preference ; pangamy. 

protoplasm, sarcoplasm, or other form of. '"'I_4.^? '*''°^»!.' 4._„„ /„„ ;= „ n. indiscriminate isolation allows free interbreeding of 

plasma. Bucfc, Med. Handbook, III. 269. apocentron, apocentrmn (ap - o - sen tron, aU varieties, or opo^amy. 

aplastic, a. 2. Not molded, formed, or de- -t™™)- «• ; Pl- apoeent,-a (-tra). [NL. : see B„c*. Med. Handbook, IV. sa 

veloped; imperfectly developed: as, Va««c *«^'"'«»*^-^ Same as •opocent^ 1. apogeny (a-poj'e-ni), «. [NL. "opoffenia, < Gr. 

organs. B«cfc, Med. Handbook, I. 140. Apoceras (a-pos e-ras),«. [JVU (Coyille, 1905), r. ^^^^.^ _^_ .yeveia, < -yeviyf, -producing.] 

apUtic (ap-Ut'ik), a. See *haplitic. <^^- <^'"\ away from, + wpof, horn.] A genus Sexualimpotence.bothmale and female organs 

Aplocheilus (ap-lo-ki'lus), n. [NL., prop. «* trees belongmg to the iJjftocea and charac- having lost their functions. 
*aaplochilus, < Gr. airAdog, single, + xs'^e- tended by five horn-like diver^g ovaries, four apoglucic (ap-6-glo'sik), o. lapo- + glvc(ose) 
lip.] A genus of top-minnows of the family of which disappear m tie fruit. Itisimprop- + .jc.] Derived from glucose.-Apoglucic acid, 
Pceciliidse, found mainly in India. ^"y called fentaceras by many authors. See an acid, CisHiqOt, found in cane-juice and formed by 

Anlnomln r■!^n-lo-RS'la^ n ti7 TNT, Tiirm Pentaceros. the action of an alliali on glucose. 

'^i'a°&,WdoT,sf4le,"/Lxo&ra Apocheilichthys (ap'o-ki-lik'this), n [NL apogyny (a-poj'i-ni), «. INI. *apogynia,<Gv 
Sa,me ^s*NemerUni. Blanchard. < Gr. ami, off, -I- ;i:«Ao!:, lip, -I- t;^eif, fish.] A airo, away, -I- r««?, female + -j,3.] Loss of 

Aplodinotinse, AplodinotUS. See*Haplodino- f.«"Hf..ot ^%'y ^^^^l top-mmnows of the family reproductive power m the female organs. 
tinse Haplodinotus Jfoscitofia, found in the nce-ditches of Japan. aponyal.M. 2. In *c/(«i., tUe basihyal tione. 

Aplo'dontidae (ap-lo-don'ti-de), n. pi. The apochromat (ap'o-kro-mat), ».[apocferoma«c.] <StorA;s Synonymy of the Fish Skeleton, p. 517 
first published form "of BaplodonUdd. A lens system, designed by Abbe, consisting of apoid (ap oid), a Of or belonging to bees ot 

Aplysioidea (ap-li-si-oid'e-a), n.pl. [NL., < a combination of ten lenses with homogeneous the typical tamily 4p8cr«. 
Aplysia + -oidea.l Agroupoftectibranehiate immersion. It is achromatic for three colors, Apoidea (a-poi'de-a), «. 2)i. [NL. (Ashmead, 
gastropods of the order Opisthobranchiata, and therefore free from secondary spectra, and \9&9), < Apis + -oidea.'] The true bees, cou- 
consisting of the family Aplysiidie. The other aplanatio for two colors. sidered as a superfamily and including the 

subdivisions of the order are Btdlaidea, Plmrobranchoi- a poco (a po'ko). [It., ' by little' : see pococu- families Apidse, Bonibidse, Anthophoridse, No- 
dea, and Siphonanoidea. TOwie.] Gradually: used to qualify several terms madidee, Ceratinidfs, Xylocopidee, Megachilidse, 

aplysiopmpurm (ap - Ls"i - o - p6r pu - nn), n. f oj, njTisieal style or expression : as, a poco piu Stelidee, Andrmidse, Colletidse, and Frosopidse. 
\Aplysia (see def.) -I- purpunn.\ A. purple Jento, gradually slower ; o poco uii; mosso, grad- apoikogenic (a-poi-ko-jen'ik), a. [Irreg. < Gr. 
pigment tound in the secretion of the dermal uaUy faster. aTO«/cof, absent from' home, + -y™jf, -prod u- 

glainas ot Aplysui. apocodeine(ap-o-ko-de'in), n. [apo- + codeine. 1 cing.] Concerningorpertainingto eggs which 

apnea, «. nee apnma. . „ . j. An alkaloid, CigHigNOo, prepared by heating are abundantly supplied with food-yolk, and 

apneustlC (ap-nus tik), a. [Gr. airvsmrog, not codeine hydroehlorid wiSi a concentrated solu- which at an early stage of development leave 
blown through, < a- pnv. -I- mi^ardQ <, irvuv, tion of zinc ohlorid. Both the base and its salts the foUicle in which they were formed and 
breathe.] In eniom., having a tracheal system are amorphous. pass into the cavity of the ovarian tube to 

which IB closed, that is, without stigmata or apocopation (a-pok-6-pa'shon), m. [See apoc- complete their development: contrasted with 
spiracles: or if these are present they are ^pg] The dropping or omission of a letter or *katoikogenie. Nat. Sci., Oct., 1896, p. 232. 
functionless. The apneu^tic system is found only in gyUable from the end of a word ; abbreviation [Bare.] 

certain aquatic or paraaitic larvBe m which the blood 18 vX . ' «««i«>* /« ^.,: ^\ .-.7,. •-„•* j_ ,- -i T>„i a. 

oxygenated through tracheal gills or through a very by apocope. apOlSG (a-poiz ), adv. l«* f.POiSe-'i Poised; 

delicate general body-integument. 4. 5. PocSard, Text- apOCienate (ap-6-kren'at), ». [apo(yren(ic) + m a poised or balanced position. [Bare.] 
book of Entom., p. 440. -ate^.] Any salt of apocrenic acid, CgiHioOio. apolar, a. 2. In greom., having no determinate 

apo-. In cftem., this prefix is sometimes used to indicate Some of the salts are found in the humus of polar. 
S^f^^^?L,'4Te;fp're?rr^rfJLLT^Sia^^"caic!S |0il, in sinter deposits, and, sometimes, in apolarity (a-po-lar^^ In 

change. lapetrog., it is used with the name of an Igneous f errugmeous waters. Seotn. , the condition of being apolar. 

rock to indicate that the rock has been altered from an ADOClita (a-pok'ri-ta) n vl [NL < Gr apolaUSt (ap o-last), n. [A back-formation 
original glassy state to a more or less completely crystal- i^/„n,-„. RnnaTatpd " < dm'in/iPi'/i. sp^aTufB 1 Oom apolaustic.2 1. A pleasure-seeker. — 2. 
Ute conation: as, apobMian, aparhyolUe, apoandesite, "^OKptTOC, separatea, <, omjKptmv, separate.J a „4.„dfnt of aTiola,iistic or esthfitics 
etc. These devitrifled rocks are commonly of crypto- A suborder of insects of the order Hymenop- „„„, °„+^„.°™?°'*?,3°^ r^„„7„, 

crystalline or microcrystalline texture and exhibit traces iera, having the abdomen connected with the "POiausiilciBm lap-p-ias ii-sizm;, n. lapotaub- 
of perlitic or other textures of the original glass. Bojicom, thorax by a deep constriction. It comprises **<' + -4«m.] The philosophy of taste or enjoy- 

anoatronin ran o-at'ro-Bin) » [avo- + Atrova the vast majority of the hymenopterous in- ment; apolaustics. 
S. S>? A ;-;,I<.„iii"„? „iVoiU;^ r -a wrt sects, ineludmg the three great series Para- He was indeed only fervent in his apolausticigm. 
l^tiLi:7oTTM^l'''^l^^^2^k ^Ucd,TuMWefa.u^A^l^ta. Brauer. . A^JHam^a^u^^im,. Him. 

also prepared by treating atropin with nitric apocryfal, a. A simphfled spelhng of apoc- apolegamic (ap-o-le-gam ik), a. [En-oneously 
acid. It melts at 60° C. ryphal. , , ., f ?rme<i <Gr. otto/I W pick out, + ya^f mar- 

apobiosiS (ap-o-bi'o-sis), n. [Gr. hwoB'mai^, de- apocryph (ap'o-knf), ». An apocryphal writ- nage.] Pertaining to or characterized by the 
parture from •Ufe,<d7ro/3<oi„, depart from life, "^S- . , , . ,, „ ,,,, . . , conscious and intentional selection of mates 

+ dTrd. awav, + 0'mc, Uf e.] Death as a physio- apocytial (ap-o-sish'al), a. [NL. *apocyUum, < rn pairing or mamage.-Apolegamlc mating. See 
Inm,. Lnf •" ^^ "' ■" ^ ^ Gr. OTrd, from, -1- Kirog, a hollow (a cell).] *matmg. 

agalyps.n. A simplified spelling of a.oco- ^.^^ ^T,t -^,:^^'Cf ^^^^^^^^ SeeApo^nar. 

carpels. J«cfc«o«, Glossary ^poda; a c^cihan. M„cye. Bnt.,XXY.ZS3. eheTtSn'fn'enSTnToVby jT'^^U^^^^^^^ 

apocarpy (ap'o-kar-pi), ». In 60*., the charac- LK^e-J ^ ,- , ^ Hesse-Darmstadt, but first Manufactured in 

ter of being _apoca,rpous. apodete (a-pod'e-te), «. [NL apodete < Gr. i828inLondon. itwnsessentiallyapipe-organwhich 

apocatastatlC (ap'o-kat-a-stat ik), a. Of, per- an-<5, off, -I- der)/, fagot, fem. of tferiif, bound, could be played either mechanically bycylinders or, as it 
taining to, or of the nature of apocatastasis Ci. *anthodete Sbjid *syndete.'i Thatregionin had six keyboards, by several players, each taking part of 
or restoration. a bunch of alcyonarian polyps where the a concerted effect 

apocenter (ap'6-sen"ter), n. [Gr. CTud, from, zooids are separate. Compare *syndete.\ ApoUomze (a-pol on-iz), v. i. ; pret. and pp. 

+ K^i^rpov. center.] 1. In the orbit of a heaven- Apodichthys (ap-6-dik'this), «. [NL., < Gr. Apollomzed, ppr. Apollomgmg. [Gr. 'ATrdUuv, 
ly body, the point most distant from the body i^mg (a^oS-), wittout feet (allusion not ap- ^f°^\ + "*^f] ^°. act the Apollo, the god 
or point around which it revolves. Science, parent), + 'lySiic, fish.] A genus of ribbon- °* *l^e fine arts, music, literature, poetry, elo- 
Feb. 7, 1902, p. 221.-2. In Uol., an organism shaped blennies found on the coast of CaU- qiience ; hence, to speak or decide oracularly 
or organ which may be regarded as a special- forma. on these subjects. [Rare.] iV. E. D. 

ized or divergent descendant from a more Apodina (ap-6-di'na), ». pJ. [NL., < Gv.anovg apolog, «. A simplified spelling otopotog-Me. 
primitive or less specialized organism or organ. (InoS-), f ootiess, +"-vm.'\ A suborder or sec- apologete (a-pol o-jet), n. One skilled in that 

apocentric (ap-6-sen'trik), a. [Gr. a.v6, from, tion of Gastrotncha, containing forms having oranch of theology which has to do with the 
^-K^vrpov, center.] 1. Of or pertaining to no pedal appendages, as Dewj^detes and Gos«ea. grounds and defense of the Christian faith, 
an apocenter, in either sense. Encyc. Brit., S,ee*Emchthydina. apolysin (a-pol i-sin)«,. A yellowish-white 

XXVUI. 343.-2. Departing more or less from apogmbryony (ap-6-em'bri-on-i), «. Tapo- + pryftaUine powder, differing from phenacetin 
the primitive or average type; specifically, in ''^^ZT-^s}] ^Suppression of tiie embryo- 'J! *^illrall-f *Tt^^,*^«n^i•^'^'7^ '"" 
ornith., departing from the primitive type of gtagJ, in which tiie o6sphere gives rise im- f"""^ °* *^^ *"«*•«• " '^ antipyretic and ano- 
intestine. mediately to the vascular members. A^motis (ap-o-mo'tis), «. [NL.] A genus of 

Markedly<^o»««<™though they mayhem ae matter apOgalacteum(ap''o-ga-lak-te'um), ».; pi. apo- ffesh-water lukfishes abounding inthe Missis- 
of their intestinal coils. jFatere, July 3, 1902, p. Z3B. galactea (-&). [Nh. *apogalactseum, < Gv. oTrd, gippi valley 

apocentrically (ap-6-sen'tri-kal-i), adv. In *fr°™' + ?«^f'°f(J'«^°'''"-)' *''«-,^l'?y ^^y- + aponeurosis, ^ 3ee*giw 

an apocentric manner, or the ianner that is -««'?. ^s mapogamm, apogee^] The point of gaj.-PaJniar'apoiieiirosifl. «ee •^^i^ar 
^Wa^tflri«tiV of anocentricitv Trans Uri- maximum distance fifom the Milky Way m the Aponogeton (ap^o-np-je'ton), m. [NL. (Lin- 
^f w^««*,« ^etmii 204 O'-I'it of a star supposed to be revolving in an n»us fflius, 1781), < Gr. dWf without trouble 

aPOcefeitrS''o^-ren-&&), n^^ l^apo- ^J^t within the galactic ring. Amer. Jour. (?),-hGr.ya/™v, neighbor (as in Potomp^eton).] 
SS + 4^.] Thepropertyofbeingapocen- Sa., Aug., 1903, pp. 185 136 A genus of ornanaental monocotyledonous 

trie or of pertaining to anapoeenter. apogalactic (ap"o-ga-lak'tik), a. At a max,- plants, the type and only genus of the family 

"' "1 "J- F"* & I- mum distance from the Galaxy. See *apoga- Aponogetonacese. The species most frequent 

It is obvious that the mere opoMjrfrfcity of a character lacteum. in cultivation is J. (fjstocfewon. See Ouviran- 

canbenoguidetotheafflmtie^^its^^sejm-^^^^^ apOgamOUS, a. 2. In Wo?., illustrative of, per- dra. 

,. , ., ,,. taining to, or due to apogamy, or the substi- Aponogetonacese (ap'o-no-je-to-na'se-e), n. 
Multlradial apocentrlcitor.moraitt., adaptive n^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ vegetative for sexual reproduction. pi. [NL. (Engler, 1886),^4poMOflre«om -t-" -acea'.'\ 
aty%^Sk,'^htdtpl^^^t^V^^^^ apogamy, «. 2. Mating, pairing, or marriage X famUy ot monocotyledonous plants of the 



Aponogetonaceae 

order Naiadales, the lattice-leaf family, con- 
taining the genus Aponogeton only. See *Apo- 
nogeton and Ouvirandra. 

aponogetonaceous (ap"9-no;ge-t6-na,'shius), a. 
[AponogetonacesB + -o«s.] ' In hot., belonging 
to the family Aponogetonaceee. 

apophantic, a. II. n. The logical theory of 
the proposition. Sir W. HamUton. 

apopnony (a-pof'o-ni), n. [F. apophonie, < NL. 
'apophonia, < Gr. dird, off, + <l>ov^, sound.] 
Vowel-gradation ; the vowel-differentiation of 
words known as ablaut (-which see). JV^ and Q., 
8th ser., IX. 222. 

apopliysal (a-pof'i-sal), a. Pertaining to or 
having the characters of an apophysis. Amer. 
Jour. Sci., 4th ser., XV. 280. 

apopliysary, a — Trousseau's apophysary points, 

various points on the spine, pressure upon which causes 
pain in certain cases of neuralgia. 

jipophysls ma.millarlB, the olfactory bulb.— Cerebral 
apopuvsls, the pineal body.— Genial apophysis. See 
•kgenial^. 

apoplectoid (ap-o-plek'toid), a. Resembling 
or of the nature of apoplexy ; apoplectiform. 

apoplexy, ».— Bulhar apoplexy, hemorrhage into 
the substance of the pons Varolii. — (uioroid apoplexy, 
hemorrhage between the choroid and the retina.— Heat 
apoplexy, sunstroke.— Hepatic apoplexy, hemor- 
rhage into the substance of the liver.— Nervous apo- 
plexy, the occurrence of symptoms of apoplexy without 
hemorrhage or other injury of the brain. — Placental 
apoplexy, hemorrhage into the substance of the pla- 
centa — Pulmonary apoplexy, an effusion of blood 
from the capillary vessels into the aii'-vesicles and inter- 
vening lung substance.— Serous apoplexy, a condi- 
tion in which symptoms of apoplexy are due to an effu- 
sion of serum into the ventricles of the brain.— Ver- 
minous apoplexy, coma occurring as a reflex symptom 
of the presence of parasitic worms in the intestine. 

apopyle (ap'o-pil), n. [Gr. air6, off, + iriiXr/, 
gate.] In the rhagon type of sponge, the open- 



fr/£. 






A: 

/y oac. i\ 

\ 

oc '^ 










Diagrams of the rhagon type of canal system. A, simple type, 
with separate radial tubes. B, more complex type, with radial 
tubes fused and thickened distally to form cortex and incurrent 
canals; a portion only of the wall is represented. (7j^., ostia; I'ff.c 
incurrent canals; pr.p,, prosopylej JI.C., flagellated chamber; 
ap.p,, apopyle ; osc, osculum : G.C., gastral cavity. The arrows 
show the direction of the currents. The thick black line repre- 
sents the gastral layer, and the dotted portion represents the 
dermal layer. (From Lankester's " Zoology.") 

ing by which a flagellated chamber communi- 
cates with the cloacal cavity. 

aporetin (ap-o-re'tin), n. [Gr. djr<i, from, -t- 
PITtv?!, resin.] One of the resinous substances 
remaining after the crystalline substances 
have been removed from rhubarb extract. 

aporrhaoid (ap-o-ra'oid), a. [Aporrhais + 
-oid.'i Resembling the Aporrhaidse. < 

aporrhysa (ap-o-ri'za), n. pi. [NL., irreg. pi. 
based on Gr. dirdppvhig, otherwise dwdppevaig, a 
flowing off, < inzoppelv, flow off, < and, off, + 
pelv, flow. Cf. epirrhysa.'] In Rauff's ter- 
minology of sponge morpiiology, the exhalant 
canals terminating on the cloacal surface. 

aposematic (ap^o-se-mafik), a. [Gr. and, 
away, -I- ay/ia, inark : see sematic.'] Of a 
nature to warn or alarm ; serving to warn or 
alarm enemies : noting characteristics of or- 
ganisms which, when displayed, effect this. 

We often see the combination of cryptic and sematic 
methods, the animal being concealed until disturbed, 
when it instantly assumes an aposematic attitude. 

i;neyc. Brit, XXVII. 147. 

Aposematic character, any characteristic of a danger- 
ous, poisonous, or unpalatable organism which, when 
displayed, serns to warn or alarm an enemy ; a warning 
character. The hood of the cobra, the rattle of the 
rattlesnake, and the large white tail of the skunk are 
familiar examples. — Aposematic coloring, in danger- 
ous, poisonous, or unpalatable organisms, conspicuous 
colors which warn or alarm enemies ; warning colors. 

apositic (ap-0-sit'ik), a. laposit{ia) + -ic] 
Causing aposltia or loathing of food ; tending 
to diminish appetite. 

aposorbic (ap-6-sdr'bik), a. [Gr. an6, from, 
+ (?) sorh(J,n6se) + -ic] Noting an acid, 
CgHg07, prepared by oxidizing sorbinose with 
nitric acid. It crystallizes in leaflets, is bi- 
basic, and melts at 110° C. 
S.— 5 



65 

apostatic (ap-o-stat'ik), a. [apostate + -ic] 
Characterized ' by apostasy ; apostate ; back- 
sliding. Golding. [Rare.] N. E. D. 

apostatism (a-pos'ta-tizm), n. [apostate + 
-ism.l Departure from or relinquishment of 
the faith: as, "political apostatism." Sir E. 
Wilson, Diary, 11. 308. iV. E. D. 

Apostolic delegate, an ambassador or diplomatic agent 
of second rank commissioned by the pope to a national 
church or to a government. — Apostoll method. See 
*meJAori. — Apostolic party. See apo«eoJic«, in Cyclo- 
pedia of Nameg. —Vzefect apostolic. See *prefect. 

apostroflze, v. A simplified spelling of apos- 
trophise. 

apostrpphifnn (a-pos'tro-fi8:m), n. Apostrophic 
mode of address. Morning Star (London), Dee. 
18, 1866. [Rare.] N. E. D. 

apotactical (ap-o-tak'ti-kal), a. [Gr. aitorann- 
Koi, also airdraKTol, certain heretics, < arr&raKTo;, 
set apart, < anoriaaew, set apart, arrange, < inrd, 
from, -f- TdaasLv, arrange.] Recreant. Bp. Hall, 
No Peace with Rome, p. 661. 

apothecal (ap-o-the'kal), a. [L. apotheea, a 
shop : see apothecary. J Of or pertaining to a 
shopman ; shopkeeper's : as, " bueoUc menace 
and apothecal Ubel," Mortimer Collins. [Rare. 1 
N.E.D. 

Apothecaries' measure. See measure. 

apothegmatically (^ap-o-theg-mat'i-kal-i), adv. 
In an apothegmatic manner^; senteiitiously ; 
pithily. 

apotheose (a-poth'e-6z), v. t. ; pret. and pp. 
apotheosed, ppr. apbtheosmg. [apotheosis.] To 
place or rank among the gods ; apotheosize ; 
exalt; glorify. [Rare.] 

He must be apotheosed, or more than mortality or man- 
kind will permit, and so omnipresent. 

F. Philippe, Beg. Necess., p. 269. 

a poiiori (a p6-shi-6'ri or a p6-ti-6're). [L.] 
Literally, from the stronger or more impor- 
tant ; hence, in logic, from the prevailing trend, 
or principal contents, of an argument or ex- 
position. 

apotype (ap'o-tip), ». One of a series of speci- 
mens upon which are based supplementary 
descriptions, giving additional details about 
some previously described species: proposed 
to take the place of *hypotype, which is used 
in another sense. Science, N. S., XXI, 900. 

Appalachia (ap-a-lach'i-a), n. [NL.] A con- 
tinental area of Paleozoic time which occupied 
in part the geijeral position of the present Ap- 
palachian region. 

Appalachian, a. 2. In geol., specially noting 
an anticlinal fold, slightly overthrown so as to 
have one flank dipping more steeply than the 
other. See the extract. 

The folding in the rocks of the ai'ea is of three types : 
minute crinkling, small unsymmetrical wavy folds, and 
broad Appalachian ones in which tlie.~fj^3u&tment ap- 
pears to have taken place along the bedding. - 

Amer. Jour. Sci., Teb., 1904, Ij). 150. 

apparatus, n — Arsenic apparatus' of l^'^^nius 
and Babo, an apparatus for the reduction of arsenious 
sulphid by means of potassium cyauld in a current of 
carbon-dioxid gas, which excludes air. Arsenic appears 
as a mirror at the narrow exit-tube.— Buck's extension 
apparatus, an apparatus for making extension of the 
leg, in order to counteract muscular action and prevent 
displacement of the fragments in cases of fracture of the 
thigh-bone.- Carbonlc-acld apparatus, an apparatus 
for the gravimetric estimation of carbonic dioxid in al- 
kali. See cUkalvmetry. Various forms have been devised 
by Fresenius, Geissler, Mohr, Kipp, Schroetter, and 
others.— Clayton's apparatus, an apparatus for the 
generation of anhydrous sulphurous and sulphuric acids 
in the hold of a ship, for the purpose of disinfection and 
to kill the rats.— Elliott's-apparatus, an apparatus for 
the rapid analysis of gaseous mixtures, such as illumi- 
nating gas. The sample is collected in the giaduated eu- 
diometer. It is then transferred to the laboratory-tube, 
where it is subjected to the action of a solvent. The 
residual gas is then returned to the graduated tube and 
the loss in volume measured.— Fell-0'Dwyer appara- 
tus, an appliance for forcing air into the lungs through 
an intubation-tube by means of a bellows.— Finsen's 
apparatus, a system of lenses for concentrating the 






Kipp's Apparatus. 



Finsen's Apparatus. 
Drawn from Buck's " Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences. 



• apparatus 

violet rays of light, used in the lighttreatment of lupus 
andotherUiseases.-Fresenius's drying apparatus a 
form of drying-oven. The temperature of the interior is 
controlled by a thermostat attachment. — Hempel's gaa- 
analysis apparatus, an apparatus for the rapid and 
exact analysis of a mixtiu-e of gases, whereby a sample mea- 
sured volume contained in a graduated bu- 
rette is successively transferred to absorp- 
tiou pipettes, or other vessels containing re- 
agents, the effect of which is determined by 
remeasuring the gaseous volume after sub- 
jecting it to each test. The gas is collected 
over mercury, though in some cases water 
may serve.— Hofmann's apparatus, an 
apparatus designed to demonstrate the 
combination of gases by volume. The one 
shown in the illustration is for the synthe- 
sis of water from its elements, hydrogen and 
'oxygen. — Hiiflier's apparatus, an appa^ 
ratus designed for the quantitative estima- 
tion of lu-ea.- Ja4erln apparatus, a base- 
line measuring apparatus comprising two 
wires of different thermal expansion placed 
side by side, whose relative lengths are ob- 
served and used to determine the tempera- 
ture of the wires and from this the tem- 
perature-conections to the lengths of the 
wiles and of the line measured.— Zlpp's 
apparatus, an apparatus for the evolution 
of gases at a uniform rate. It consists of 
three globular communicating glass vessels. 
Hofmann's A Solid put into the central one is subjected 
Apparatus, to the action of some liquid, as water or an 
acid. The gas generated is pei'mitted to 
escape through a lateral stop- 
cock which regulates the flow. 
When an excess of gas is set free 
it causes a pressure within the 
globe and pushes the liquid 
away from the solid into the 
lower globe, and thence by the 
long central tube into the upper 
reservoir. The mutual action 
of the chemicals is also thus sus- 
pended when the gas is not 
needed. — Kjeldahl's appara- 
tus, an apparatus for the deter- 
mination of nitrogen in organic 
compouuds by its conversion to 
ammonia, the weight of which 
is ascertained from its neutral- 
izing a standard acid. — Lan- 
gen's apparatus, an appara- 
tus for collecting the waste ^ 
gases in a blast-furnace byclos- 
ing the mouth of the furnace. It 
has the form of a bell-shaped 
tube resting in an inverted coni- 
cal ring. It is raised and low- 
ered by means of a lever, and is 
provided at the extremity with a lip which dips into a 
water-trough in the gas-main, forming a perfectly air- 
tight joint. At the time of charging, the bell is lifted 
and, sliding in the water-joint on the ^as-tube, allows the 
charge in the cup-shaped ring to fall into the furnace. — 
Idndeman's oxygen apparatus, an apparatus for the 
determination of oxygen in gaseous mixtures, based on 
its removal by union with phosphorus. The gas is col- 
lected in a measuring-eudiometer and transfeiTed to a 
vessel containing small sticks of phosphorus. On being 
brought again to the graduated tube, the loss in volume 
indicates the amount of oxygen absorbed.— Marsh's 
arsenic apparatus, the form of apparatus origiually 
proposed by Marsh for the application of his method of 
detecting minute quantities of arsenic. It consisted of a 
U-shaped tube of glass, with a bulb on each limb, and 
a stop-cock ending in a small jet from which the ar- 
seniureted hydrogen gas was allowed to escape and be 
ignited. It is now superseded by a simpler but more ef- 
flfient arrangement.— Memory apparatus. See -kmem,- 
ory.— Oettel's apparatus, an apparatus for the volu- 
metric determination of fluorin. Silicon tetrafluorid is 
evolved by heating the fluorid, under analysis, with 
quartz and sulphuric acid. The fluorin is calculated 
from the volume of the gas set free. — Orsat's appara- 
tus, a portable apparatus for the rapid analysis of gases. 
It consists of a graduated burette, surrounded by a water- 
jacket, connected with a movable two-necked bottle by 
a rubber hose, and capable of being filled with gas from 
a stack, flue, etc., through the capillary tube and stop- 
cock attached thereto. The measured volume can then 
be transferred to any one of the absoi-ption pipettes by 
opening the stop-cock connecting the pipette with the 
capillary. The gaseous volume is then returned to the 
burette and the loss due to absorption determined. Thus 
several constituents may rapidly be removed in succes- 
sion. These are usually carbon dioxid, carbon monoxid, 
and oxygen. The reagents used are aqueous potassinm 
hydrate, ammoniaoal cuprous chlorid, and a solution 
of pyrogallol in potassium hydrate, respectively. Hydro- 
gen is determined by means of palladium warmed by a 
spirit-flame and contahied in a capillary tube connected 
with a pipette filled with water, which is displaced by 
the gases not acted on by any of the reagents.— PuddUng 
apparatus (of Godfrey and Howson), an arrangement 
for the conversion of castriron into malleable iron or mild 
steel by means of a blast of previously heated gas and 
air directed into a rotating vessel liued with infusi- 
ble material.— Reaction apparatus. See •reaction.- 
Koese-Stutzer apparatus, an apparatus for ttie de- 
termination of fusel-oil. The spirit to be tested is shaken 
with chloroform and dilute sulphuric acid. The increase 
in the volume of the chloroform indicates the proportion 
of fusel-oil present.— Root's calibrating apparatus. 
See *caii6rate.-Sclieibler'S apparatus, an apparatus 
for the estimation of calcium carbonate in bone-WacK. 
The carbon dioxid, liberated by the action of hydrochlonc 
acid on a given weight of bone-black, displaces air, the 
volume so displaced being measured with accmacy by 
means of the graduated eudiometer. The volume of gas 
being ascertained, the weight of the calcium carbonate 
maybe calculated. -Schelllne's apparatus, an appa- 
ratus for the determination of the specific gravity of gases 



apparaxus 

according to the Bunsen metbod, by ascertaining tlie 
rate of effusion.— Schilling's blast apparatus a sim- 
ple device for combining an aapirator and an air-blast, 
operated by water-pressure.— Sozhlet'S extraction ap- 
paratus, an apparatus tor the extraction of soluble con- 
stituents, as fat, with a minimum quantity of solvent, as 
ether. The solvent is boiled in the lower flask (see the 
illustration), the vapor is condensed in the 
water-cooled spiral, and the liquid drops upon 
the substance contained in the central vessel, 
where it accumulates until it reaches the top of 
the siphon, when it runs into the lower flask. 
This operation is repeated until the extraction 
is complete. The extract is obtained by boiling 
off the solvent. — S^uibbs's urea apparatus. 
See *urea. — Telesmatic apparatus. -See 
^telesmatic. — Time-sense apparatus. See 
Mime-iense.— Triple-effect apparatus, an 
important modification of the vacuum-pan used 
in sugar-refining and other branches of indus- 
try. Involving the use of latent heat from the 
vapor of a first pan to boil the liquid contained 
in a second pan in which a higher vacuum is 
maintained, and in like manner applying the 
vapor from the second to a 
third pan. Sometimes even a 
larger number of vessels than 
three is employed.— Wlborgh'S 
apparatus, an apparatus for 
the rapid estimation of sulphur 
:ioxniet s in iron and steel. About .5 
^^: gram of drillings are heated in 
JJipa^. a flask with water. Sulphuric 
tus. acid is then run in from the 
side-funnel and hydrogen sul- 
phid is evolved. This reacts with the 
cadmium acetate with which a cloth fas- 
tened over the mouth of the upper fun- 
nel-like vessel has been saturated. The 
shade of yellow developed is compared 
with a set of standards.— WinMer's 
apparatus for gas analysis, a con- 
venient form of gas burette. It consists 
of an accurately graduated eudiometer 
with a simple stop-cock at its upper and 
'a three-way stop-cock at its lower end. 
The lower end is connected by means of 
rubber hose to the leveling tube. The 
gas may be collected over mercury or 
water.— Taxyan ajpparatus or evap- 
orator, an Ingenious and successful 
arrangement for evaporation by mul- 
tiple effect, introduced in 1886 : applicable to the evap- 
oration of solutions of sugar and the concentration of 
liquids for many other purposes. 
appareling (a-par'el-ing), n. Clothes; cloth- 
ing. 

Fishing and hunting the abundant waterfowl, as well 
as other game, contribute to the tribal subsistence, and 
during recent years part of the com, beans, and peas is 
carried on horseback to Yuma, where it is bartered 
chiefly for appareling. Smithgimian Rep., 1901, p. 72. 

Apparent celestial latitude. See *2aeitu(ie.— Appa- 
rent danger. See Aditnfrer.— Apparent efficiency. 
See ireffit^ncy.—AVVaxent energy. Same as apparent 
•power.- Apparent power. See *|xnoerl.— Apparent 
resistance. See imjjedaTue.- Apparent solar day. 
See -kdayK 

apparition (ap-a-rlsh'on), V. t. To cause to 
to appear in ptantom form. Mrs. .Whittiey, 
Sights and Insights, II. 468. [Bare.] N. E. D. 

appassionato (ar-pa-si-o-na'to), a. [It., < ML. 
aa- + passionatus, passionate.] Impassioned ; 
emotional : in music, noting passages to be so 
rendered. 

appatriation (a-pa-tri-a'shon), n. [L. ad, to, 
^- patria, country, -I- -ation.'] The assignment, 
a^ of a song or a saying, to the country or place 
where it originated. Athenseum, July 7, 1883. 
[Rare.] 

appeal, t;. i.—To appeal from the chair, to take 
exception to a decision of the chairman or presiding officer 
of a deliberative body, and ask the sense of th^^eeting 
or assembly in regard to it ; to appeal to the house from 

' a decision of the chair. 

appeal, n — circuit court of appeals, a federal court 
of appellate jurisdiction established for the hearing of ap- 
peals from judgments, orders, or decrees of the various 
federal district and circuit courts throughout the United 

appel, »». (6) A stroke on the opponent's foil 
or svyord designed to notify him that the bout 
is to begin, (c) The stamping of the foot 

, during ceremonial salutes prior to the bout. 




appellatived (a-pel'a-tivd), p. a. Called; 
named. Bulwer, Disowned, i. [Rare.] 

Appendages of the eye, the lacrymal apparatus, ocular 
muscles, eyelids, eyelashes, and eyebrows. — Appen- 
dages of the fetus, the umbilical cord, placenta, and 
membranes.— Appendages of the skin, the sweat and 
sebaceous glands, nails, and hair.— Appendages of the 
uterus. Same as ■kadnexa. — Auricular appendage. 
Same ?is appendix aurvyulse (which see, under appendix). 
— Cffical appendage, vermicular appendage, the 
vermiform appendix. 

appendant, « — Appendant powers, those powers 
which the donee is authorized to exercise out of the estate 
limited to him, and which depend for theu- validity upon 
the estate which is in him. A life-estate limited to a man, 
with a power to grant leases in possession, is an example. 
Boumer, Law Diet , , „- .^ » v _i. 

appendectomy (ap-en-dek to-mi), n. A short- 
ened form of *appen(liceeU>my. Med. Be^ord, 
July 11, 1903, p. 46. 



66 

appendical, a- 2. Relating to an appendix, 
specifically to the vermiform appendix. 

appendicectomy (a-pen-di-sek'to-mi), n. 
[NLi. appendix {vermiformis) + Gr. eKTO/i^, ex- 
cision.] Excision of the vermiform appendix. 
Med. Becord, March 28, 1903, p. 484. 

appendicitis (a-pen-di-si'tis), n. [L. appendix 
(-die-) + -itis.2, 'In pathol., inflammation of 
the vermiform' appendix (which see, under 
appendix). The ditease occurs at all ages, but most 
commonly in young adults, especially young men. The 
apparently increased prevalence of the affection .in late 
years is to be accounted for chiefly by greater skill in 
diagnosis. The exciting causes of inflammation of the 
appendix are digestive disturbances (especially intestinal 
indigestion attended with much flatulenceX influenza, 
rheumatism, and blows on the abdomen ; the presence of 
seeds in the appendix is not, contrary to the popular 
belief, a frequent cause of the disease. The inflammation 
may be acute or chronic. The most prominent symptoms 
of the acute form are pain of a colicky nature, usually 
beginning in the neighborhood of the umbilicus and later 
becoming localized in the light lower abdominal region ; 
rigidity of the abdominal muscles on the right side ; and 
tenderness to pressure. The last, at the beginning, is 
nearly always most acute at "McBui-ney's point," which 
is situated about two inches from the anterior spinous 
process of the ilium on a line joining this process with 
the umbilicus. Nauseaand vomiting, prostration, fever, 
rapid pulse, constipation or more rarely diarrhea, and 
chills are other symptoms usually present in varying 
degrees. In chronic appendicitis, the most prominent 
manifestation is constant pain in the right iliac region, 
which is aggravated by exertion or fatigue ; but the condi- 
tion may be seriously prejudicial to health in many other 
ways, while there is also the ever present danger of an 
acute exacerbation with all its perils. In the treatment 
of acute appendicitis surgeons usually advise operation as 
soon as the diagnosis is made. " Interval operations " are 
those in which the appendix is removed after the subsi- 
dence of an acute attack, so as to prevent a recurrence of 
the disease.— Chronic, recurrent, or relapsing ap- 
pendicitis, alow grade of inflammation of the vermiform 
appendix, conthming without marked symptoms, but in- 
terrupted from time to time by acute exacerbations. — 
Perforative appendicitis, inflammation of the vermi- 
foim appendixin which perforation of this part occurs. 

appendicula (ap-en-dik'u-la), n. ; pi. appen- 
dicidee (-le). [L., dim. of appendix; see appen- 
dix."] A fine hair-like growth borne at the 
apex of hymenomycetons fungi. 

appendicular, a. Z. Relating to an appendi- 
cle, specifically to the appendix vermiformis: 
as, appendicular colic. Buck, Med. Handbook, 
I. 39. 

appendiculocsecal (ap-en-dik"u-lo-se'kal), a. 
Relating to both the esecum and the vermiform 
appendix. Lancet, Aug. 29, 1903, p. 600. 

appending"(a-pen'ding), p. a. Attached; ap- 
pend*nt„ 

appending (a-pen'ding), n. Addition ; an ad- 
dition. Mlieneeum, April 27, 1895, p. 532. 

Appendix cerebri, the pituitary body. 

appendix (a-pen'diks), v. t. To add as an 
appendix. "[Bare.] N. E. D. 

apperception, »• 5. In Wundt's psychology, 
me process whereby a perception or idea at- 
tains to clearness in consciousness; also, the 
introspective contents of this process, that is, 
the clear idea itself and the changes resulting 
in consciousness from the induction of the 
attentive state. 

Here we understand by aj)perception a psychological 
process in which, on the objective side, a certain con- 
tents becomes clear in consciousness and, on the subjec- 
tive, certain feelings arise which, as referred to any given 
contents, we ordinarily term the state of 'attention.* 
W. Wvndt (trans.), Physiol. Psychol., 1; 316. 
Apperception center. See -kcenter. 

apperceptionism (ap-6r-sep'shgn-izm), n. In 
psychol., the explanation and systematization 
of mental phenomena in terms not only of the 
mental elements and their physiological con- 
ditions but also of the process of apperception. 
The word is usually applied, in current controversy, to 
the psychological attitude represented by Wundt's sys- 
tem , that is, to a specific form of voluntarism : contrasted 
with assoeiatitmiivi. 

But without returning to apperceptionism we can over- 
come the one-sidedness of associatlonism. 

H. Miinsterberg, Harvard Psychol. Btud., 1. 644. 

apperceptionist (ap-6r-sep'shon-ist), n. An 
epistemologist who embraces apperceptionism. 
The idealist's view is that of the ' apperceptionists .' 
Jour. PhUoB., Psychol, and Sci. Methods, Aug. 18, 1904, 

[p. 466. 

apperceptionistic (ap-fer-sep^shon-is'tik), a. 
In psychol., pertaining to or characterized by 
apperceptionism. H. Miinsterberg, Harvard 
Psychol. Stud., I. 653. 

apperceptive, a. 2. In current psychol. '. (a) 
characterized by clearness, or by the state of 
attention; (6) resulting from or pertaining to 
the psychological process of apperception. 

In almost every moment of the waking life an apper- 
ceptire process is taking place. Whenever an object is 
attended to, the presentation of it is apperceived. 

G. F. Stout, Anal. Psychol., II. 113. 



apple, n. 

wide rang 



apple 

We may distinguish intellectual processes from asso- 
ciations, on the purely psychological basis, as appercep- 
tive connections of ideas. 

W. Wundt (trans.). Human and Animal Psychol., p. 312. 
Apperceptive signal, in psuchophys., a premonitory 
signal to the observer to concentrate his attention on the 
coming impression. 

apperceptively (ap * 6r - sep ' tiv - li), od«. In 
psychol., in an apperceptive manner ; by way 
of the process of apperception : as, appercep- 
tively'ksioyra ; apperceptively constituted. 

appercipient (ap-6r-sip'i-ent), a. [NL. apper- 
cipiens, ppr. of apperdper'e, apperceive.] Ap- 
perceiving; capable of apperception. G. F. 
Stout, Anal. Psychol., II. 128. 

Appert glass. See *glass. 

appetizement (ap-f-tiz'ment), n. [appetize + 

. -menf] Appetite;' era viiig for food ; hunger. 
Scott, Woodstock. [Rare.] 

appetizingly (ap'e-ti-zing-li), adv. In an ap- 
petizing manner ; in a way to whet appetite : 
as, food cooked appetizingly. 

applanation (ap-la-na'shpn), n. [NL. ^appla- 
naUo{n^), < *appldnare, < L. op- for ad-, to, + 
LL. planare, make plane : see plane^, v.] Flat- 
tening : said of the crystalline lens. 

In some cases the eye becomes myopic, which fact can 
be explained only by the assumption that the crystalline 
lens in toto is pressed forward toward the cornea, and 
that, in spito of the fact that in this manner the zonule 
of Zinn is stretched, and that an applanation of the lens 
is tsJdng place. Buck, Med. Handbook, IV. 361. 

1 and 2. The apple thrives under a very 
)e range of conditions, and in practically all temperate 
regions. In North America the chief regions in whicli it is 
produced commercially are the Eastern Canadian region, 
comprising parte of Ontario, Qnebec, and the maritime 
provinces ; the New England and New York region ; the 
Piedmont region of Virginia; the Michigan-Ohio re^on ; 
the prairie-plains region, from Indiana and Illinois to 
Missouri and Kansas, in which the Ben Davis variety is 
the leading factor ; the Ozark region, comprising part of 
Missouri and Arkansas, often known as "the land of the 
big red apple " ; and the rapidly developing regions of 
theBocky Mountain States and the Coast States. In all 
these sections there are certain dominant varieties, which 
are usually less successful in other localities. As a country 
grows older, it usually happens that the list of desirable 
apples Increases in length, because of the choosing of va- 
rieties to suit special locaUties and special needs. It is 
impossible to' give lists of varieties for planting in all 
parts of the country, either for market or home use. The 
number of varieties of apples runs into the thousands. 
A generation and more ago, the great emphasis in apple- 
growing was placed on varieties, and the old fruit-books 
testify to tlie great development of systematic pomology. 
The choice of varieties is not less important now ; but 
other subjecte have greatly increased in importance with 
the rise of commercial fruit-growing, such as the neces- 
sity and means of tilling the soil, fertilization and cover- 
cropping, the combating of insects and diseases (espe- 
cially by means of spraying), and revised methods of 
handling, storing, and marketing. The result is the trans- 
fer of the emphasis to scientific and commercial questions. 
The apple has been generally referred to the rosaceous 
genus Pyrus, although some recent authors reinstate the 
old genus JXalus. Under the former genus it is known 
as Pyrus Malus ; under the latter as JUalus Maius. The 
nearest generic allies are the pears, comprising the typi- 
cal genus Pyrus. The pears are distinguished, among 
other things, by having the styles free to the base ; the 
apples by having the styles more or less united below. 
The species Xtuus Malus has run into almost numberless 
forms under the influence of long domestication. These 
forms are distinguished not only by differences in fruit, 
but by habit of tree and marked botanical characteristics. 
Thus the bloomless apple (see seedless dapple) has more 
or less diclinous flowers, and it was early described as a 
distinct species under the name of Pyrus dii^ica. There 
are many forms of dwarf apple-trees, the beat-known of 
which is the paradise or garden-apple. On this and similar 
stocks any variety of apple may be grafted or budded 
if very small or dwarf trees are desired. Tliere are ap- 
ple-trees with variegated foliage, others with double 
flowers, and others with a weeping or drooping habit 
In China and Japan there is a double-fiowered and showy- 
fiowered apple of a very closely allied but apparently dis- 
tinct species, Malus spectabilis. See also ^crah-apple. — 
Apple bark-beetle, apple-blight, apple bud-worm, 
apple case-bearer, see -khark-heme, -kUight, *bud- 
worm, -kcase-hearer. — Apple cajlker. See kcanker. — 
Apple family, the Maiacea, often treated as a subfamily 
of Jtosaceee.—kpple flrult-beetle. See kfruit-beetle.— 
Apple leaf-miner, apple Lyonetla, apple saw-fly. 
ai>ple twig-borer, apple-wood stainer. See -kleaf- 
Tniner, kLyonetia, -ksauhfiy, ktioiff-borer, •kstainer. — 
Argyll apple. Eucalyptus dnerea, a gregarious species 
of New South Wales, yielding, with others, eucalyptus- 
oil.— Bitter-rot Of apple. See*Mtter-rot— Black ap- 
ple, the native or wild plum, so callefl, of Australia, 
Sideroxylon australe, bearing edible frtnt of an insipid 
flavor. Also called &iuA-a^e. SeemMpiMm,(«), under 
plunO-, and Suieroxi/ion.— Black-rot Of apple. See 
Atincir-ro;.- Bush-apple. Same as Uack-kappie, above. 
— Cannibal apple, the fruit of Sotanum Uporo. It is 
red like a tomato and is 5 or 6 cm. in diameter. It was 
formerly eaten by the Fijians at their cannibal feasts. 
In their vernacular it was called 6oro dina, or 'true 
boro.' In Samoa it is called polo. See Solanum and 
cannibal's tomato, under tomato.— Greeo. apple leaf- 
tier. See*«ea/-tier.— Lesser apple leaf-folder. See 
*Jeffl/-/oMer.— Mooley apple. See •em«-aj)pfe.— Os- 
age apple, the Osage orange, Toxylon pomiferttm. 
[Tennessee.] — FoBBum-POCket apple, the papaw, Asi- 
mina triloba. [Dismal Swamp region.]— Seedless ap- 
ple, a variety of apple which normally has no seeds. 



apple 

Such apples are not new, lieiiig mentioned In ancient 
times ; nor has any seedless apple yet received general 
commendation. 'Seedless' apples are of two kinds — 
apples of normal form and structure in which the core 
is reduced to a minimum, and apples with nearly or quite 
apetalous and more or less imperfect flowers. The 



latter group comprises the so-called 'bloomless' ap- 
ples, which have heen known for centuries. The mere 
fact of comparative seedlessness has no significance in 



the choice of a variety, for the apple-grower must have 
a variety of certain quality, color, and form, with a high 
degree of productivity and other desirable qualities.— 
Seven-year a^ple, a West Indian tree, Qenipa cltma- 

/otia, nr its fruit. See Chtdpa, — Sooty blotch Of apple. 
See irUotch, 

apple-aphis (ap'l-a"fis), n. The common leaf- 
louse, Aphis mali, of the apple, especially 
abundant in the late spring and early summer. 
Also apple-leaf aphis and apple-louse. See cut 
junder Aphis. 

apple-borer (ap'l-bor'er), n. An insect which 
bores into apple-trees, as the round-headed 
apple-borer (larva of Saperda Candida), or the 
flat-headed apple-tree borer (larva of Chryso- 
hothris femorata). See cuts under iSopercJa and 
Chrysobothris. 

apple-coal (ap'l-kol), n. Free or soft coal; 
coal which mines easily. [Scotch.] 

Applecross group. See *group^. 

apple-dowdy (ap-1-dou'di), n. Same as *ap- 
ple-slump. 

apple-essence(ap'l-es"ens), n. Sameas*ap;pJe- 
oil. 

apple-faced (ap'1-fast), a. Having a face 
round like an apple. Dickens, Dombey and 
Son. . [Rare.] 

apple-fly (ap'l-fli), n. 1. A little fruit-fly, Dro- 
sopMla ampelophila, of the family Drosophil- 
idse, which lays its eggs in overripe apples 
and other fruit, and especially swarms around 
eider-mills. See cut under fruit-fly. — 2. A 
trypetid &y {Trypeta pomonella) -whose larva, 
known as the apple-maggot or railroad-worm, in- 
fests apples in the northeastern United States. 
See cut under Trypeta. 

apple-gall (ap'l-gftl), n. A gall resembling an 

apple. — Grape-Tine apple-gall, a gall, globular, 
fleshy, greenish in color, and nearly an inch in diameter, 
attaclied to the stems of grape-vines : produced by the 
larva of a fly, Cecidofnvyia mtifs-pomum. 

apple-grinder (ap'l-grin"der), ». Agrinding- 
niill for pulping apples, grapes, peaches, etc.,- 
or for grinding roots as food for cattle ; a 
grinding-mill. 

apple-gum (ap'l-gum), n. A medium-sized 
tree. Eucalyptus Stuariiana, resembling the 
common apple. It yields a useful hard, brown 
timber, and a kino. Also called turpentine-tree, 
peppermint-tree, and apple-scented gum. [Vic- 
toria.] 

apple-leaf (ap'l-lef), n. A leaf of the apple- 
tree Apple-leaf BucculatrlX, a tineid moth, ZJmccm- 




Apple-leaf Bucculatrix i^Bucculatrix pomifolietta^. 
*. apple twig covered with cocoons: b, cocoon, enlarged; 
c, moth, much enlarged (Riley). 

* 

latrix pomifoKdla, whose larva feeds abundantly on the 
leaves of the apple in the eastern United States and hiber- 
Hates within a whitish elongate, longitudinally ribbed 
cocoon attached to the twigs or trunk of the tree. Apple- 
leaf flea-weevil. See -irjlea-weeml. 

apple-leather (ap'UetpH"6r), ». A sort of tough 
paste of a leathery consistency, made of apples 
partly cooked and dried in a hot sun. 

apple-louse (ap'l-lous), n. Same as *apple- 

aphis Woolly apple-louse, ScMzonenra Americana. 

See American -kblight. 

apple-maggot (ap'l-mag"ot), n. The larva of 
Trypeta pomonella, a dipterous insect which 
damages apples in the New England States. 

apple-midge (ap'l-mij), n. A small chironomid 
fly, Molohrus mali. whose larva feeds on the 
flesh of ripe and stored apples, hastening their 
decay. 

apple-nuts (ap'l-nuts), n. pi. A commercial 
name for the apple-shaped fruits of the ivory- 



67 

nut palms, Coelococeus Amicarum and C. Solomo- 
nensis, of the Caroline and Solomon Islands. 
See ivory-nut. 

apple-oil (ap'l-oil), n. Ethyl or amyl valeri- 
anate diluted with alcohol : used to imitate the 
odor oi apples in confectionery and soda-water 
syrups. Also apple-essence. 

apple-scab (ap'1-skab), n. A disease of the 
apple-tree wmch attacks both the leaves and 
fruit, caused by the fungus Fusicladium den^ 
driticum. See Fusicladium and scab, 5. 

apple-scale (ap'1-skal), n. Any one of several 
species of scale-insects or bark-Uee that infest 
the apple, notably, the oyster-shell bark-louse 
of the apple (Lepidosaphes ulmi. formerly My- 
tilaspis pomorum) and the scurfy scale (CMo- 
naspis furfiirus) . 

apple-slicer (ap'^sir'sfer), n. An instrument 
for cutting apples into slices for culinary use. 

apple-slump (ap'1-slump), «. Hot apple-sauce 
covered with a rich dough and cooked. [U.S.] 

apple-sphinx (ap'l-sfingks), ». A sphingid 
moth, Sphinx gordius. Its apple-green larva 
feeds on the foliage of the apple in Canada and 
the United States, from the Mssissippi valley 
eastward. 

apple-thrips (ap'l-thrips), n. A minute thy- 
sanopterous insect, Phloeothrips mali, which is 
often found on young withered apples. 

apple-toddy (ap'l-tod"i), «. A toddy into 
which the pulp of baked or roasted apples is 
stirred ; also, a toddy made of apple-jack. • 

Apple-tree borer. See *6orer.— Apple-tree canker. 
See -kcanker. — ^Apple-tree pninei. See *pruner. — 
Apple-tree shot-hole borer. See *borer and irthoU 
borer. — iUiple-tree tent-caterpillar. See •kterit-aiiter- 
pUlar. — Bronze apple-tree weevlL See -^weevil. — 
Red-humped apple-tree caterpillar. See -kcater- 
in22ar.— Yellow-necked apple-tree caterpillar. See 
*caterpUlar. 

apple-worm (ap'l-werm), n. The larva of 
tke codling-moth, Carpocapsa pomonella, a 
cosmopolitan tortrieid moth. See codling- 
moth.— nany-Aotteii apple-worm, the larva of a 
noctuid moth, Boiea malana, two generations or broods 
of whicli appear during the summer, often feeding in 
numbers ou the foliage of the apple. It is an inch or 
more in length and light green in color, with longitudi- 
nal white lines and many whitish dots. 

apply, i>. «. 5. In,as«?-o!., of a heavenly jbody, 
to approach to the conjunction or aspect of 
another. 

appointment, n — Bureau of appointments. See 
■fmtrcciu.— Illusory appointment, such an appoint- 
ment or disposition of property under a power as is 
merely nominal and not substantia]. Boumer, Law Diet. 

Appplt coke-oven. See *coke-oven. 

apport (a-p6rt' or, as F., a-p6r'), n. [F., < ap- 
porter,<'L. apportare, bring to, introduce.] The 
introduction, professedly by occult or super- 
normal means, of flowers, musical instru- 
ments, etc.: used with reference to perform- 
ances of spiritualistic mediums. 

Some of the physical phenomena which I have adduced 
as among those proclaimed to have occurred, such as 
amarts, scent, movement of objects, passage of matter 
through matter, bear a perilous resemblance to conjuring 
tricks, of a kind fairly well known ; which tricks if well 
done can be very deceptive. „,..,„ 

Sir Oliver Lodge, in Proc. Soc. Psychical Research, 
XVII. 48. 

apportionable (a-p6r'shon-a-bl), a. lappor- 
tion + -able.'] Liable to be apportioned. Sir 
E. Coke. 

apposal (a-p6'zal), n. The act of apposing. 
Apposal of BherlA, in Mnglieh law, the charging them 
mth money received upon account of the Exchequer. 
Boumer, hnv/ Diet. ,.„ , „. . 

apposit, a. A simplified spelling of apposite. 

a;ppositlon2 (ap-o-zish'gn), [OF. apposition, 
var. of opposition. See appose^.] A public 
disputation or examination : now used only as 
a name of Speech Day in St. Paul's School, 
London. ,.^ , ^ 

appositively (a-poz'i-tiv-h), adv. In apposi- 
tion or so as to stand in apposition ; apposi- 
tionaUy: as, substantive expressions put ap- 



positwem. ,, ,. . , 

appraisable (a-praz'a-bl), a. [appraise + 

-able.] Capable of being appraised or of 

having the value fixed. 
appreciation, n. -The world of appreciation, the 

WOTld as it appears to spiritual insight, to the broadest 
and wisest conception of the most human good sense. 
Opposed to the worM af description, or world of facts, 
under a materialistic and, as far as possible, scientiflcally 
theoretical aspect. The word apprematwn in this phrase 
is to be understood in sense 2, as "sympathetic undei- 
standing" which "estimates the qualities of things and 
gives them their due value." The world of appreciation 
Is a world of real, living, and purposmg beings, m some 
sense the childreA of God. The term was mtroduced m 
1892 by J. Eoyce. See the extract. 

We shall be led to make a provisional sundering of the 
two points of view, viz. (1) that of our appreciative or 



apron 

most explicitly volitional consciousness, and <2) that of 
our descriptive or more theoretical consciousness. . . . 
We shall express theopposition of the two points of view 
by calling the realm of Being, as more abstractly theo- 
retical consciousness defines it, tlie World of Description; 
while the world as otherwise interpreted is the world of 
life,— the World of Appreciation. . . . The only justifica- 
tion for the more abstractly theoretical conception of 
the World of Description is its value as a means of organ- 
izing our conduct and our conception of what the will 
seeks. 

Bttyce, The World and the Individual, 2d ser., p. 26. 

appreciativeneSs (a-pre'shi-a-tiv-nes), n. 
[appreciative -t- -mess.] The character of being 
appreciative; disposition to recognize excel- 
lence. 

apprehension, n — ImpUclt apprehension, in pey- 
chol., the understanding of a whole in its unity and dis- 
tinctness, without discernment of all or even any of its 
component details. 

This circumstance suggests a name for that apprehen- 
sion of a whole which takes place without discernment-of 
its parts. We may call it implicit apprehension. 

G. F. Stout, Anal. Psychol., I. 95. 

apprenticement (a-pren'tis-ment), n. [ap- 
prentice +' -ment.] The act of "apprenticing ; 
apprenticeship. [Rare.] 

The premature apprenticements of these tender victims. 
Lamb, Essays of Elia, Praise of the Chimney Sweeper. 

appressor (a-pres'or), n. Same as *appreaso- 
rium. 

appressorium (a-pre-s6'ri-um), n. ; pi. ap- 
pressoria (-a). [NL., < L. apprimere, pp. ap- 
pressus, press to: see oppressed.] The organ 
by which parasitic fungi attach themselves to 
their hosts, consisting usually of the flattened 
or swollen end of a hypha. 

Appressoria are also formed by some parasitic Fungi, 
as a minute flattening of the tip of a very shoit branch 
(Erysiphe), or the swollen end of any hypha which comes 
in contact with the surface of the host (Piptocephalis, 
Syncephalis), haustoria piercing in each case the cell-wall 
below. In Botrytis the appressoria assume the form of 
dense tassels of short branches. 

mege. Brit., XXVIII. 655. 

approach, n. 6. In golf, the play by which a 
player endeavors to get his ball on to the put- 
ting-green. 

approbatory, a — Articles approbatory. See *ar- 

ticle. , 

Approver in the marches. See *march'^. 
Approximate numbers. See *number. 
approximator (arprok'si-ma-tgr), n. One who 
approximates or comes near. 
Appunn's lamella or reed. See *lamella. 

apricot, n — Essence of apricot, amyl butyrate mixed 
with ayml alcohol and diluted with ordinary alcohol: 
used 1^ imitate the odor of apricots in confectionery and 
soda-water syrups. 

apricot-oil (a"pri-kot-oil'), n. A fat oil ex- 
pressed from the kernels of apricots : now of- 
ten substituted for almond-oil. 

a prima vista (apre'ma vis'ta). [It.: see 
prime and vista.] At first sight : as, to read a 
piece of music a prima vista. 

Aprion (a-pri'on), n. [NL., < Gr. a- priv. + 
Trpioyp, saw.] A genus of snappers of the 
family Lutianidse, found in the tropical seas : 
distinguishedby the scaleless fins. A. vvrescens 
of the Pacific is an excellent food-fish. 

apriorist, «. II. a. Of or pertaining to a priori 
cognition, or to apriomsm. 

The a/pri&riM notion that among free competitors wealth 
must go to the industrious. 

G. B. Shaw, Fabian Essays in Socialism, p. 177. 

aproctia (a-prok'ti-a), n. [NL., < Gr. o- priv. 
-1- ■KpQK.rdg, anus.] The condition of having an 
imperforate anus. 

apron, ». 2. O) in mining, a block of timber forming 
an ofl-set to a pump-rod. (*) In gold-milling, the 
amalgamated copper plates outside of a stamp-batteiy, 
used to collect the gold from the pulp which flows over 
these plates in a thin stream from the mortar. Also 
apriM^^l^te. 

4. (6) The vertical portion of the slide-rest of an engine- 
lathe which cairies the clasp-nut and tlie gearing for the 
feed, (c) The slide or grate of a punching- or shearing- 
machine. 

5. (d) A platform built of timbers at the foot of a 
slide which guides in the desired direction logs leaving 
the slide, (e) The shield in front of the face of an 
imdershot water-wheel, intended to keep the water in 
action upon the buckets. , . j 

6. An overwashed deposit of gravel and sand 
such as is commonly spread southward from 
the greater moraines of the northeastern 
United States. Also frontal apron and mo- 
rainic apron. 

Where the topography was not nigged, numerous ice- 
derived streams built sloping plains resembling low al- 
luvial fans. These are well seen on long Island and 
Martha's Vineyard, and to those o£ the latter place 
Professor Shaler has given the very desci]|>tive name of 
frontal aprons. Bulletin Amer. Geog. Soc. AAA. im. 



apron 68 arabesquely 

7. A trough or channel, or a shallow vat, of In pathol, diminution or suppression of the made by evaporating a watery solution of tlie diug.- 

considerable width as compared with its depth, salivary secretion. Aqueouslava. Same^rmya 

over which water or other liquid flows in a AptychUB beds, rock strata in the Alps of Upper Jurassic AciUia Creefe group. aee'^graup . 

thin wide sheet, or in which it stands; spe- *^^ characterized by the abundance of aptychi. See aqilicolOUS(a-kwik'o-lus), a. [h. aqua, water, 

cifieally the wide shallow channel through apykJioinorphous (a-pik-n6-m6r'fus), a. [Gr. + f"''' <^''^" ''^^ '"« """"^ Inhabiting the 

which the water flows to the periphery of a ^^ not dense« d- priV. + nvJl, dense), ^^*^^- 

Dreast-wheel or overshot wheel.— 8. In salt- + „„ ^^ form.! Noting the character of a cell The larvae possess a proboscis armed with hooks and 

nX^onofttris^Tpo^dtothe'su'^l: which! in consequence of the fact that its chro- rjl^ToZ^:^i:^:lViZt''^ '"'''''''"'''■''' 

?-„ „„„ „ \ ^ J ^ ! 4. i^ matic or staining element IS not compactly ar- ' £»«•*, Med. Handbook, VI. 224. 

«Srnn'■Pt^^*®'^*^"^,■''°°''^°*^**^'*•-°°"*''^* '■anged, takes the ordinary dyes less readily .,,,,.,,, ' ■ . a. ^ 

apron. Same as *ta!iii«r. than i« iiwial or irrPOTilai-lv ^ aouifer (ak'wi-f6r), ». [L. ngwa, water, + -/ej", 

apron-conveyor (a'prun-kon-va-'Sr), n. See t^^^" '« i^^^^^' ""^ '"egularly. T^Tre, bear.] In^eoZ., a water-bearing bed or 

*conveyer, i. in others, the chromatic elements are more loosely dis- stratum, necessarilv of some open-textured 

apron-fall (a' prun-f41), «. A piece of leather tributed, and these cells staining less intensely, aie said , ' 

cSe • wls'^CotXtht'r wt^ '" TT^TnT„ri?per. Med., V. .3. "l" ^^sian system shows four or five «,...., or 

?hTlXr iTfoldeV '^"" ""'"^ apyonime (a-pi'o-nim), n. [Formation not iZ^^^l^^' ^^^ Zi^!,Tor^'l^f^1^. . 

apronful (a'prun-ful), n. lapron + -ful.2 As clear.] Same as auramme. 

much as can be held in an apron: as, "an apyrene (ap'i-ren), n. [Gr. d-priv., without, Aquifoliacese (ak*wi-f6-li-a'se-e), «. i>i. [LL. 

apronful of flowers," Miss Braddon. + Trvpi/v, the stone of a fruit (nucleus).] De- (A. P. de Candolle, 1813), < Aquifolium, Tourne- 

apron-hook (a'pruu-huk), n. A short hook ficient in nuclear substance: noting certain fort's name for the genus Ilex (< L. aqua, 

with an eye by which it is secured to the dash abnormal or unusual forms of spermatozoa. water, +/oZiMTO, leaf). ] A family of dicoty- 

of a carriage. Together with a ring, it holds apyrite (a-pi'rit), n. [Gr. d-priv. -I- nvp, &re, ledonous, ohorlpetalons plants of th